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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 19 — Sep. 18, 2006
  • pp: 8506–8515
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Formation of long and thin polymer fiber using nondiffracting beam

Jan Ježek, Tomáš Čižmár, Vilém Nedĕla, and Pavel Zemánek  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 19, pp. 8506-8515 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.008506


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Abstract

We present a unique method that utilizes high intensity core of the zero-order nondiffracting beam (NDB) to fabricate a homogeneous polymer fiber as narrow as 2 µm and as long as centimeters. The constant diameter of the fiber along all its length is done by the propagation invariant properties of the NDB. The length of the fiber is determined by the maximum propagation distance of the NDB which is much longer than the classical Gaussian beam of comparable width. Moreover, we also proved that the self-writing waveguide mechanism prolongs the length of the developed fibers. Circular movement of the NDB creates hollow fiber, several co-axial, or overlapping fibers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Photopolymerization induced by a single focused laser beam or by an interference of several beams forming an optical lattice found recently extremely interesting applications in the field of microfabrication [1

1. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 132–134 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and nanofabrication [4

4. F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional fabrication of metallic nanostructures over large areas by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14, 800–809 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], light driven micromachines [5

5. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001). [CrossRef]

7

7. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korugi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and fabrication of photonic crystals [8

8. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfeld, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. R. C. Rumpf and E. G. Johnson, “Comprehensive modeling of near-field nanopatterning,” Opt. Express 13, 7198–7208 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Special type of applications represents fabrication of polymer fibers or microstructured polymer fibers [13

13. C. Jensen-McMullin, H. P. Lee, and E. R. Lyons, “Demonstration of trapping, motion control, sensing and fluorescence detection of polystyrene beads in a multi-fiber optical trap,” Opt. Express 13, 2634–2642 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. T. Yamashita and M. Kagami, “Fabrication of Light-Induced Self-Written Waveguides with a W-Shaped Refractive Index Profile,” J. Light. Tech. 23, 2542–2548 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. When a polymer fiber grew at the end of an optical fiber an interesting phenomena of self-writing has been described [18

18. S. J. Frisken, “Light-induced optical waveguide uptapers,” Opt. Letters 19, 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef]

,19

19. A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, “Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization,” Opt. Letters 21, 24–26 (1996). [CrossRef]

] and extensively studied theoretically and experimentally [20

20. T. M. Monroi, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Catching light in its own trap,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 191–238 (2001).

,21

21. K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Crégut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, “Control of the Refractive Index in Photopolymerizable Materials for (2+1)D SolitaryWave Guide Formation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Combination of the above mentioned methods led to fiber tip modifications [22

22. R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer, and D.-J. Lougnot, “Integration of micrometer-sized polymer elements at the end of optical fibers by free-radical photopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5860–5871 (2001). [CrossRef]

], coupling of diode lasers to optical fibers [23

23. R. Bachelot, A. Fares, R. Fikri, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Coupling semiconductor lasers into single-mode optical fibers by use of tips grown by photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1971–1973 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or even fabrication of artificial insects’ compound eyes [24

24. J. Kim, K.-H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Artificial ommatidia by self-aligned microlenses and waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 5–7 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

A group of nondiffracting beams (NDBs) represents one of many possible propagation invariant solutions of wave equation [25

25. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Difraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The unique property of these beams is that they keep their radial intensity profile unchanged while they propagate. The simplest example of these beams is so called Bessel beam because its lateral intensity profile is described by the first class Bessel function of the zero order. This beam is formed as a result of interference of plane waves with wavevectors covering the surface of the cone. Due to this type of generation the beam has another useful property – self reconstruction. If an obstacle is placed to the narrow nondiffracting beam, it reconstructs itself on a short distance [26

26. Z. Bouchal, J. Wagner, and M. Chlup, “Self-reconstruction of a distorted nondiffracting beam,” Opt. Com. 251, 207–211 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Unfortunately these beams are only a theoretical solution and in reality only approximations to them can be generated. Such beams are generally called pseudo-nondiffraction beams and can be obtained by several ways [27

27. M. R. Lapointe“Review of non-diffracting Bessel beam experiments,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 315–321 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. For simplicity let us call in the rest of the paper this pseudo-nondiffractiong beam formed behind an axicon illuminated by a Gaussiam beam (GB) as the Bessel beam (BB). BBs have been used in many unique applications [28

28. D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, “Bessel beam: diffraction in a new light,” Contemp. Phys. 46, 15–28 (2005). [CrossRef]

] like microparticle guiding and delivery [29

29. T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005). [CrossRef]

,30

30. T. Čižmár, V. Kollárová, Z. Bouchal, and P. Zemánek, “Sub-micron particle organization by self-imaging of non-diffracting beams,” New J. Phys. 8, 43 (2006). [CrossRef]

], microparticle and living cells sorting [31

31. L. Patersona, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and atom guiding [32

32. K. Okamoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Use of Bessel J (1) laser beam to focus an atomic beam into a nano-scale dot,” Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 4544–4548 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

2. Properties of a Bessel beam

In real circumstances it is not possible to obtain a beam that does not change its lateral properties over infinity range of propagation. In the case of the GB incident on an axicon the following scalar form of the spatial light intensity distribution in the BB can be used [33

33. V. Jarutis, R. Paskauskas, and A. Stabinis, “Focusing of Laguerre±Gaussian beams by axicon,” Opt. Commun. 184, 105–112 (2000). [CrossRef]

]:

I(r,z)=4PksinθwzzmaxJ02(krsinθ)exp{2z2zmax2},
(1)

where θ is the polar angle between propagation axis of the BB and the plane waves wave-vectors forming the BB behind the axicon (see Fig. 1):

θ(π2α2)(nanm1),
(2)

where Č is the apex angle of the axicon, na is the refractive index of the axicon and nm is the refractive index of the surroundings medium, k is the wavenumber of the beam in the medium, P is the power of the GB incident on the axicon, w is the half-width of the GB at the axicon, and zmax is the maximum propagation distance expressing the axial range where the BB exists:

zmax=wcosθsinθ.
(3)

In the lateral plane the highest light intensity is at the centre of the BB. Let us define the radius of the BB core (RBBC) as the radial distance from the beam centre to the first intensity minimum done by:

rB=2.4048ksinθ.
(4)

Therefore, narrower BB is generated for bigger θ but at the same time the maximum BB propagation distance zmax will be shorter using the same width of the incident GB.

Using the commercially available axicons the resulting RBBC is too wide for our purposes and therefore a telescope made from lenses L1 and L2 (see Fig. 1) is used to decrease it. The intensity of the BB passing through the telescope can be rewritten in the new coordinate system z′, r′ (see Fig. 1):

I(r',z')=4PTksinθ'w'z'z'maxJ02(kr'sinθ')exp{2z'2z'max2},
(5)

where the parameters of the new BB are transformed as:

sinθ'=sinθM,w'=Mw,z'max=w'cosθ'sinθ',r'B=MrB,
(6)

where M=f2/f1 is the magnification of the telescope and f1 or f2 is the focal length of the lens L1 or L2, respectively, T is the transmissivity of the telescope. In the majority of our experiments the angle θ’ satisfies cos θ’≅1and consequently 2max≅M2zmax . Therefore Eq. (5) can be approximated by:

I(r',z')4PTksinθM4wz'zmaxJ02(kr'sinθM)exp{2z'2M2zmax2}.
(7)

Hence we see that the telescope scales the RBBC rB by a factor M and the distance of BB existence zmax by a factor M2 . The wider the incident GB is used, the longer BB is obtained but the lower BB intensity is on the optical axis.

z'maxp=w'cosθp'sinθp'npz'max.
(8)

The experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 1. In all experiments we used a GB coming from the CW laser (Verdi V5, Coherent, wavelength 532 nm, maximal power 5.5 W, w=1.125 mm). This beam was transformed by an axicon into a BB and further decreased by a telescope formed from lenses L1 and L2. The apex angle α of the axicon and the focal lengths f1, f2 of the lenses were chosen according to the actual experimental demands and their values are specified below for each experiment. The transformed BB propagated vertically up through a cuvette filled with a solution of UV light indurate optical glue (Norland NOA 63, np =1.52). The created polymer structures were observed by the long-working-distance microscope objective (Mitutoyo M Plan Apo SL 80X) and a CCD camera (Kampro KC-381CG or IDT X-StreamVISION XS-3).

Fig. 1. Parameters of the experimental set-up. The incident Gaussian beam of half-width w passes through an axicon with apex angle α and is transformed to the Bessel beam existing over a distance zmax. Telescope made of lenses L1 and L2 scales down the original Bessel beam radius and the maximal BB propagation distance zmax to new values z’max in the air and z’maxp inside the cuvette filled with liquid optical glue.

3. Formation of polymer fibers

We developed a technique how to extract the fibers out from the solution and carry them to a different medium or place. The fiber was attached by one its end to an optical fiber and mechanically pulled out of the solution, washed by acetone and transferred. This procedure was used to observe the fibers and to measure the fiber diameter dfiber by the environmental scanning electron microscope Aquasem-Vega (ESEM) under the high pressure conditions and without metallic coating (bottom row in Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Top row: Lateral intensity profiles of three types of generated BBs with different diameters of the BB cores (2r’B ). Corresponding parameters of the set-up and the created fiber diameter (dfiber ) and its length (Lfiber ). Bottom row: ESEM image of the polymer fibers. In all three cases we used the same output laser power 3 W giving laser power 1.5 W in the cuvette.

Fig. 3. ESEM images of the left (a), middle (b) and right (c) part of one fiber long 15 mm (see the column B in Fig. 2). Each of the image rows keeps the same scale but uses different magnifications to demonstrate the fiber homogeneity.

4. Dynamics of the fiber formation

Fig. 4. Formation of the fiber in the short BB. The BB core radius was 0.8 µm and the maximum propagation distance of the BB was about 100 µm. The laser power in the cuvette was 90 mW. The top plot shows the calculated on-axis intensity profile of the BB for the parameters used in the experiment.

Figure 5 summarizes how the length of the fiber develops in time for different illumination powers of the same BB as above. The formation has two regimes. In the first the fiber grows fast and almost linearly in time. Afterwards the growth is much slower till it is almost stopped. The higher the laser power was, the longer fiber was created. However, the growth stopped almost at the same time of 3.2 s of the BB illumination. These observations indicate that the fiber growth stopped when the power losses in the self-writing mechanism are so high that the laser power is not sufficient to initiate photopolymerization.

Fig. 5. Time evolution of the length of the fiber formed by different laser powers in the cuvette. The BB has the same parameters as in the previous case in Fig. 4.

5. Self-written waveguide mechanism

Fig. 6. Top plots show the calculated on-axis intensity distribution for the used experimental parameters. The first image shows on the right a short fiber segment created after 2 s of illumination. The beam was blocked and the cuvette was shifted along the beam propagation. Unblocked beam created on the left side the second segment after 2 s of illumination (2nd row). This segment gradually grew till it reached the first segment on the right (3rd row). Both segments interconnected (4th row) and immediately the first fiber segment continued in its growth on the right (4th–6th rows). Laser power in the cuvette equaled to 130 mW.

Figure 7 demonstrates chaotic formation of polymer fibers if high laser power was used. This phenomenon resembles creation of more fibers or chaotic fiber growth described in Refs. [34

34. S. Shoji, S. Kawata, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-written waveguides in photopolymerizable resins,” Opt. Lett. 27, 185–187 (2002). [CrossRef]

,35

35. K. Dorkenoo, O. Crégut, L. Mager, F. Gillot, C. Carre, and A. Fort, “Quasi-solitonic behavior of self-written waveguides created by photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1782–1784 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, here we observed also a reversed growth of the fibers as a result of combination of the light backscattered from the fiber structures and self-writing waveguide mechanism.

Fig. 7. Chaotic growth of the polymer fibers. Single fiber is formed if the illumination is shorter than 2 s. Later on more fibers started to grow especially at the ripples of the older fiber where the leakage of the light from the fiber is probably higher. The light is backscattered in the formed structures and via the self-written waveguide mechanism initiated a reverse growth. Laser power in the cuvette equaled 400 mW.

6. Fabrication of hollow fibers

We created hollow fibers by revolving the single BB around an axis parallel to the BB propagation. In this case the BB passed through rotating slightly tilted plan-parallel plate. The width of the polymer fiber wall was determined by the diameter of the BB core and the inner diameter of the hollow fiber was defined by the tilt of the plan-parallel plate. The BB parameters correspond to those in Fig. 2(A). Instead of a cuvette a pair of coverglasses separated by 150 µm was used and filled with the optical glue. Figure 8 shows an example of a single hollow fiber that was not attached to the coverglasses. Figure 9 visualizes more complicated structures attached by both ends to the coverglasses and so they are easily observable by an optical microscope.

Fig. 8. Images of the front end (A), middle part (B) and rear end (C) of a free the hollow fiber taken by an optical microscope at different image planes. The diameter and length of this cylinder (dashed contours) was 10 µm and 90 µm, respectively.

This method provides easy manufacturing of symmetric hollow structures. Moreover, if two monomers sensitive to different wavelength were used, a narrow fiber core can be created by one narrow BB and wider cladding of manufacturing optical fiber would be cured by the revolving second BB at different wavelength [17

17. T. Yamashita and M. Kagami, “Fabrication of Light-Induced Self-Written Waveguides with a W-Shaped Refractive Index Profile,” J. Light. Tech. 23, 2542–2548 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and proper width.

Fig. 9. The front (A) and rear (B) side of the hollow fiber structures. Top row: two intersected hollow fibers long 150 µm and wide 40 µm. Bottom row: two hollow concentric fibers. The diameter of the inner and outer hollow fiber is 10 µm and 35 µm, respectively.

6. Conclusions

We demonstrate a new method how to employ the nondiffracting laser beam to form photopolymerized fibers, hollow fibers or rotationally symmetric structures. We manufactured polymer fibers of diameter close to 2 µm and of length exceeding 1.5 cm. Visualization of the fibers by environmental scanning electron microscope reveals that their surface is smooth and width is uniform along the fiber length. We proved that the manufactured fiber exceed the length of the illuminating region of the nondiffracting beam due to the self-writing mechanism. We concluded from fiber growth analyses that higher illumination laser power creates longer fibers but fiber growth stopped about after the same illumination time regardless of the illumination power. At high illumination powers we observed chaotic fiber growth not only in the direction of the light propagation but also against it. We also demonstrated formation of hollow fibers, intersected or concentric hollow fibers by circular movement of the illuminating nondiffracting beam. Our results could lead to manufacturing of cheap optical fibers, interconnecting elements in opto-fluidic lab-on-a-chip systems.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the GA AS CR (project No. KJB2065404), ISI IRP (AV0Z20650511), and MEYS CR (LC06007). The authors are obliged to Dr. V. Garcés-Chávez, Dr. Francisco Renero, and Taller de Óptica INAOE for manufacturing and providing the axicon.

References and links

1.

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 132–134 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughtona, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 064105 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional fabrication of metallic nanostructures over large areas by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14, 800–809 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light,” Opt. Express 11, 446–451 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korugi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfeld, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. J. Escuti, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Tunable-face-centered-cubic photonic crystal formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28, 522–524 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Submicron diamond-lattice photonic crystals produced by two-photon laser nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2091–2093 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

L. Wu, Y. Zhong, C. T. Chan, K. S. Wong, and G. P. Wang, “Fabrication of large area two- and threedimensional polymer photonic crystals using single refracting prism holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241102 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

R. C. Rumpf and E. G. Johnson, “Comprehensive modeling of near-field nanopatterning,” Opt. Express 13, 7198–7208 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. Jensen-McMullin, H. P. Lee, and E. R. Lyons, “Demonstration of trapping, motion control, sensing and fluorescence detection of polystyrene beads in a multi-fiber optical trap,” Opt. Express 13, 2634–2642 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. van Eijkelenborg, “Imaging with microstructured polymer fibre,” Opt. Express 12, 342–346 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Zagari, A. Argyros, N. A. Issa, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fiber with large external diameter,” Opt. Letters 29, 1560–1560 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, “Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Letters 31, 172–174 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

T. Yamashita and M. Kagami, “Fabrication of Light-Induced Self-Written Waveguides with a W-Shaped Refractive Index Profile,” J. Light. Tech. 23, 2542–2548 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

S. J. Frisken, “Light-induced optical waveguide uptapers,” Opt. Letters 19, 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef]

19.

A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, “Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization,” Opt. Letters 21, 24–26 (1996). [CrossRef]

20.

T. M. Monroi, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Catching light in its own trap,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 191–238 (2001).

21.

K. D. Dorkenoo, F. Gillot, O. Crégut, Y. Sonnefraud, A. Fort, and H. Leblond, “Control of the Refractive Index in Photopolymerizable Materials for (2+1)D SolitaryWave Guide Formation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 143905 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

R. Bachelot, C. Ecoffet, D. Deloeil, P. Royer, and D.-J. Lougnot, “Integration of micrometer-sized polymer elements at the end of optical fibers by free-radical photopolymerization,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5860–5871 (2001). [CrossRef]

23.

R. Bachelot, A. Fares, R. Fikri, D. Barchiesi, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Coupling semiconductor lasers into single-mode optical fibers by use of tips grown by photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1971–1973 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J. Kim, K.-H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Artificial ommatidia by self-aligned microlenses and waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 5–7 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, “Difraction-free beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499–1501 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Z. Bouchal, J. Wagner, and M. Chlup, “Self-reconstruction of a distorted nondiffracting beam,” Opt. Com. 251, 207–211 (1998). [CrossRef]

27.

M. R. Lapointe“Review of non-diffracting Bessel beam experiments,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 315–321 (1992). [CrossRef]

28.

D. McGloin and K. Dholakia, “Bessel beam: diffraction in a new light,” Contemp. Phys. 46, 15–28 (2005). [CrossRef]

29.

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174101 (2005). [CrossRef]

30.

T. Čižmár, V. Kollárová, Z. Bouchal, and P. Zemánek, “Sub-micron particle organization by self-imaging of non-diffracting beams,” New J. Phys. 8, 43 (2006). [CrossRef]

31.

L. Patersona, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 123901 (2005). [CrossRef]

32.

K. Okamoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Use of Bessel J (1) laser beam to focus an atomic beam into a nano-scale dot,” Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 4544–4548 (2001). [CrossRef]

33.

V. Jarutis, R. Paskauskas, and A. Stabinis, “Focusing of Laguerre±Gaussian beams by axicon,” Opt. Commun. 184, 105–112 (2000). [CrossRef]

34.

S. Shoji, S. Kawata, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Self-written waveguides in photopolymerizable resins,” Opt. Lett. 27, 185–187 (2002). [CrossRef]

35.

K. Dorkenoo, O. Crégut, L. Mager, F. Gillot, C. Carre, and A. Fort, “Quasi-solitonic behavior of self-written waveguides created by photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1782–1784 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 3, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: August 31, 2006
Published: September 18, 2006

Citation
Jan Ježek, Tomáš Cižmár, Vilém Nedela, and Pavel Zemánek, "Formation of long and thin polymer fiber using nondiffracting beam," Opt. Express 14, 8506-8515 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8506


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References

  1. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughtona, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 064105 (2005). [CrossRef]
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