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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 2 — Jan. 23, 2006
  • pp: 593–602
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Light-induced phase and amplitude gratings in centrosymmetric Gadolinium Gallium garnet doped with Calcium

Mostafa A. Ellabban, Martin Fally, Romano A. Rupp, and László Kovács  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 593-602 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.14.000593


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Abstract

The photosensitive properties of a centrosymmetric gadolinium gallium garnet crystal doped with calcium are investigated at room temperature. Elementary holograms can be recorded over a wide range of wavelengths in the visible spectral range. The photosensitive properties are studied experimentally using beam coupling and angular response experiments. Mixed absorption and refractive-index gratings are observed and their amplitudes and relative phases determined. Moreover, the candidate centers that are responsible for the photorefractive effect are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd3Ga5O12, GGG) belongs to the most perfect materials that are grown in large quantities with a dislocation density of less than 3/cm3 [1

1. L. Antos, M. Pardavi-Horvath, A. Cziraki, J. Fidler, and P. Skalicky, “Microstructure of Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films and of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 94, 197–02 (1989). [CrossRef]

]. Owing to that it is one of the most appropriate substrate materials for magnetic bubble memory [2

2. A. S. Yurov, A. N. Karpov, V. K. Raev, G. E. Khodenkov, and M. P. Shorygin, “Displacement of a magnetic bubble by a Rayleigh surface wave in an iron garnet film containing bismuth,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 83–4 (1986).

], magneto-optic [3

3. R. Wolfe, “Thin films for non-reciprocal magneto-optic devices,” Thin Solid Films 216, 184–8 (1992). [CrossRef]

], integrated optical and microwave devices [4

4. C. S. Tsai, “Wideband tunable microwave devices using ferromagnetic film-gallium arsenide material structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 209, 10–14 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. S. Yamamoto and T. Makimoto, “Design considerations for nonreciprocal integrated optical devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4056–60 (1976). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, GGG is applied as a host material in highly efficient solid-state lasers [6

6. E. Zharikov, N. Il’ichev, V. Laptev, A. Malyutin, V. Ostroumov, P. Pashinin, and I. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12 crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–41 (1982). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. J. Marion, “Strengthened solid-state laser materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 694–6 (1985). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. A. A. Danilov, E. Y. Nikirui, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Polushkin, S. N. Sorokin, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Efficient laser with a rectangular active element,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 264–6 (1991). [CrossRef]

].

The photorefractive effect in most of the standard photorefractive materials is due to the linear electro-optic effect [15

15. G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Theory of Photorefractive Effects in Electro-Optic Crystals, vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics, chap. 3, pp. 75–98 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

]. However, light-induced refractive-index changes were also found in centrosymmetric crystals[16

16. R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, and A. Agranat, “New Photorefractive Mechanism in Centrosymmetric Crystals: A Strain-Coordinated Jahn-Teller Relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459–62 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. B. Sugg, H. Nürge, B. Faust, E. Ruza, R. Niehüser, H. J. Reyher, R. A. Rupp, and L. Ackermann, “The Photorefractive Effect in Terbium Gallium Garnet,” Opt. Mat. 4, 343–7 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. I. Redmond, R. Linke, E. Chuang, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic Data Storage in a DX-Center Material,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1189–91 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. M. Imlau, S. Haussühl, T. Woike, R. Schieder, V. Angelov, R. A. Rupp, and K. Schwarz, “Holographic Recording by Excitation of Metastable Electronic States in Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]∙2H2O: a new photorefractive effect,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 877–85 (1999). [CrossRef]

], although all odd-rank tensor elements vanish by symmetry consideration. The origin of the photorefractive effect in centrosymmetric crystals therefore is far from being understood. Usually, the effect is explained on the basis of particular properties of the involved material: it can be attributed to the quadratic electro-optic effect [20

20. B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di-Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear Optical Diffraction Effects and Solitons Due to Anisotropic Charge-Diffusion-Based Self-Interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664–7 (1999). [CrossRef]

], optical excitation of infinitely long-lived metastable electronic states [18

18. I. Redmond, R. Linke, E. Chuang, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic Data Storage in a DX-Center Material,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1189–91 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. M. Imlau, S. Haussühl, T. Woike, R. Schieder, V. Angelov, R. A. Rupp, and K. Schwarz, “Holographic Recording by Excitation of Metastable Electronic States in Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]∙2H2O: a new photorefractive effect,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 877–85 (1999). [CrossRef]

], and always by photochromic behavior via Kramers-Kronig relations [17

17. B. Sugg, H. Nürge, B. Faust, E. Ruza, R. Niehüser, H. J. Reyher, R. A. Rupp, and L. Ackermann, “The Photorefractive Effect in Terbium Gallium Garnet,” Opt. Mat. 4, 343–7 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. The photorefractive effect in centrosymmetric materials may require application of an external electric field [21

21. A. E. Krumins, R. A. Rupp, and J. A. Seglins, “Hologram Recording in PLZT Ceramics in the Vicinity of its Diffused Phase Transition,” Ferroelectrics 107, 53–8 (1990). [CrossRef]

] or cooling of the material to temperatures lower than 200 K [22

22. R. MacDonald, R. Linke, J. Chadi, T. Thio, G. Devlin, and P. Becla, “Thick Plasma Gratings Using a Local Photorefractive Effect in CdZnTe:In,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2131–3 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. M. Imlau, T. Woike, R. Schieder, and R. A. Rupp, “Holographic Scattering in Centrosymmetric Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]∙2H2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2860–3 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

The aim of this Letter is to demonstrate, to investigate, and to characterize the photochromic and the photorefractive properties of GGG:Ca at room temperature by means of holographic techniques.

2. Experiment

GGG single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The samples are plane-parallel plates with dimensions (10 × 10 × 5 mm3). The large faces are perpendicular to the [111] direction. Absorption spectra of the samples were collected using a Cary 500 spectrometer. The samples were irradiated using various UV (λ = 351,364 nm) and visible lines (λ = 458… 514 nm) of an argon-ion laser or a diode-pumped solid state laser (λ = 405 nm).

Prior to any holographic measurement, the sample was heated up to 400° Celsius for two hours and then cooled down to room temperature again. This procedure will be simply called ‘heat treatment’ in what follows. After that, the sample was irradiated with UV (λ = 364 nm) light until the transmitted intensity did not change any more. Holographic gratings were recorded by a standard two-wave mixing setup, using one of the visible lines of an argon-ion laser. Two plane waves with a beam diameter of 4 mm and equal intensities, i.e., modulation depth m = 1, between 10 – 30 mW/cm2 and parallel polarization states were employed as recording beams under a crossing angle of 2Θ = 27° (outside the medium). The resulting grating spacing thus was either 981 nm (λw=458 nm) or 1.1 μm (λw=514 nm). During recording, the diffraction efficiency η = Id/(Id + If) is measured as a function of time by blocking one of the beams for a short time. Here, Id,f denote the diffracted and forward diffracted intensities, respectively. Note, that we use the definition of a relative diffraction efficiency, i.e., correcting for the mean absorption. The angular dependence of the diffraction efficiency is measured at the end of recording, typically after an exposure of 10–12 Ws/cm2, using a read-out intensity that is two orders of magnitude lower than that for recording. For this type of experiment the crystal was mounted on a computer-controlled rotation stage with an angular accuracy of 10 -3∘.

In addition beam-coupling experiments were performed (at the recording angle) to obtain the complete information on the physical parameters: the amplitudes of the refractive index (n 1) and the absorption (α 1) grating, the phase shift Δφ between those gratings, and the phase Φ between the interference pattern and the refractive-index pattern. Forthis experiment the crystal was mounted on a piezoelectric translation-stage and moved in parallel to the grating vector. The intensities I C1,C2 of the coupled beams were monitored by Si-photodiodes. A schematic of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. All holographic and spectroscopic measurements were performed at room temperature.

Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental setups for recording gratings, performing rocking curves and beam-coupling experiments.

3. Experimental results

As a first step in holographic measurements, we recorded an elementary holographic grating. In Fig. 4 the dependence of the diffraction efficiency on exposure Q = I 0 t with λw = λr = 458 or 514 nm, I 0=11.1 and 20.3 mW/cm2, respectively, is depicted. The subscripts w and r refer to writing and read-out, respectively. As shown in Fig. 4 the diffraction efficiency increases, passes a maximum and slightly decreases for all recording wavelengths. This resembles the behavior of recently described similar systems[25

25. M. Fally, M. Imlau, R. A. Rupp, M. A. Ellabban, and T. Woike, “Specific recording kinetics as a general property of unconventional photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243,903 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Gratings could be recorded at all available wavelengths in the visible range obtained from Ar-ion laser.

Fig. 2. Absorption spectra of as-grown pure and calcium doped single crystals of GGG at room temperature. Inset: difference δαd = αdoped - αpure of the absorption coefficient between the doped and the pure GGG sample as a function of wavelength.
Fig. 3. Spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient of a GGG:Ca crystal illuminated with UV, visible light and after a heat treatment (a). The inset shows photographs of the sample in the bleached and the colored state, respectively. The absorption difference spectra (b) are obtained by subtraction of the spectrum for the heat-treated reference sample.

After recording of an elementary grating for an exposure of about 12 Ws/cm 2, the angular dependence of the diffraction efficiency was measured. Read-out was performed at the recording wavelength and polarization state, but the intensity was decreased to typically 10 -2 of the recording intensity. Figure 5 shows the diffraction efficiency as a function of the deviation from the recording angle for each of the recording beams (S- or R-beam), where alternately the R- or S-beam is blocked. Figure 5 shows at least three distinct interesting features: (1) The width of the rocking curves is extremely small and therefore the angular sensitivity high; (2) The maximum diffraction efficiencies for the R- and S-beam differ considerably. Their ratio η RS at the recording angle (ΔΘ = 0) is about 0.78; (3) The position of the maximum occurs slightly outside the recording angle, i.e., the Bragg angle, for the R-beam. The second observation can be explained by mixed phase and amplitude gratings as will be discussed below.

Fig. 4. Kinetics of the diffraction efficiency ηR of the R-beam during recording an elementary grating at room temperature for two different wavelengths λw=458 and 514 nm (left scale). The light-induced change of the mean absorption coefficient α 0 is also shown (right scale).
Fig. 5. Angular dependence of the ±1st order diffraction efficiency ηR,S around the Bragg incidence. The grating was recorded and read out at λw = λr = 458 nm.

In order to further explore the basis for the photorefractive and photochromic effect in GGG, we conducted beam coupling experiments. This type of experiments allows to evaluate the contributions of the refractive-index and absorption modulation (n 1, α 1) to the grating, a possible phase-difference Δφ between them, and the phase-shift Ζ between the incoming interference pattern and the grating. In our setup we simply translated the grating along its grating vector with a speed that is faster than the holographic response. The intensities I C1 = |ARf + ASd|2 and I C2 = |ARd + ASf|2 of the coupled beams were monitored as a function of the translation. Here, A (R,S)(d,f) denote the amplitudes of the diffracted and forward-diffracted R- and S-beams. The sinusoidal variation of the intensities is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Beam coupling analysis with an external displacement of the recorded elementary hologram along its grating vector. λw = λr = 458 nm. The grating spacing Λ is indicated. Note, that the intensities of the coupled beams are dephased.

4. Discussion

4.1. Spectroscopic results

Let us start the discussion with the obtained spectroscopic results and possible candidates for photorefractive centers. The well separated sharp absorption lines observed in both spectra as shown in Fig. 2 correspond to intra-center transitions of f-electrons in the Gd3+ ion [26

26. D. L. Wood and K. Nassau, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3704–7 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The defects we are particularly interested in are those, that are capable of capturing the generated charge carriers due to illumination such as VO, VGa and VGd [13

13. A. O. Matkovskii, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, U. A. Ulmanis, and A. P. Shakhov, “Radiation-Stimulated Processes in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 128, 21–29 (1991). [CrossRef]

]. In a highly doped GGG the CCC play a dominant role in the radiation recharging processes [14

14. A. Matkovskii, P. Potera, D. Sugak, L. Grigorjeva, D. Millers, V. Pankratov, and A. Suchocki, “Stable and transient color centers in Gd3Ga5O12 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 39, 788–795 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. CCC are ionized by UV and this leads to a decrease of the absorption band B2. Some of the released electrons from excited CCC can be trapped by VO defects giving rise to F-centers that absorb in the spectral region around 430 nm (B3)[12

12. R. Metselaar, J. P. M. Damen, P. K. Larsen, and M. A. H. Huyberts, “Investigation of Colour Centres in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, 665–70 (1976). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. A. Matkovskii, P. Potera, D. Sugak, L. Grigorjeva, D. Millers, V. Pankratov, and A. Suchocki, “Stable and transient color centers in Gd3Ga5O12 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 39, 788–795 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The ionized CCC, [Ca2+VO]+, has an absorption band around 270 nm (B1) [28

28. A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, S. Ubizskii, and I. Kityk, “Spectroscopy and radiation defects of the Gd3Ga5O12 single crystals,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 3, 41–53 (1995).

]. This is revealed from the induced absorption bands that are due to UV illumination and is depicted in Fig. 3(b).

If the crystal is heated or illuminated with visible light, electrons are released from F-centers to the conduction band that are subsequently trapped by ionized CCC, giving the original charge states of defects which lead to the bleached state[28

28. A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, S. Ubizskii, and I. Kityk, “Spectroscopy and radiation defects of the Gd3Ga5O12 single crystals,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 3, 41–53 (1995).

], cf Fig. 3(b). Thus the above mentioned generated charge transfer processes between CCC and F-centers are responsible for the pho-tochromic phenomena in GGG.

Now we would expect that the local change of charge carriers between color centers is also responsible for a modulation of the refractive index via the Kramers-Kronig relationships. However, this implies that absorption and refractive-index gratings are in phase (Δφ = 0). Moreover, as the charge transfer processes occur at a certain site, the photosensitive effects must be strictly local, i.e., that the light-interference pattern is in phase with the grating (Ζ = 0). However, these expectations are in contradiction to our experimental results obtained by holography as discussed below.

4.2. Holographic results

The grating has rise times of about 53 and 42 sec for λw =514 and 458 nm, respectively, at the used low recording intensities. A fit according to the kinetics of a two-states model did not yield satisfactory results[25

25. M. Fally, M. Imlau, R. A. Rupp, M. A. Ellabban, and T. Woike, “Specific recording kinetics as a general property of unconventional photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243,903 (2004). [CrossRef]

], a hint that unlike terbium gallium garnet GGG:Ca is not an optical two-states system. Next, the peculiarities of the rocking-curve (Fig. 5) will be discussed. The high angular sensitivity is due to the large thickness of the GGG crystal. Estimating the grating thickness from the position of two neighbouring minima of the rocking curve far outside the Bragg maximum, we find a value of 5 mm, i.e., the grating extends over the whole thickness of the sample.

The difference between the diffraction efficiencies ηR and ηS measured near opposite Bragg-angles can be attributed to the Borrmann-effect. In common photosensitive materials either the contribution of the phase or the amplitude grating is negligible. Even if they are of the same order of magnitude but in phase, the diffraction efficiency simply is made up of two separate terms. One is due to the phase grating and the other to the absorption grating. A Borrmann-effect only occurs, if a phase-grating and an amplitude-grating co-exist that are dephased. Then the angular dependence of the diffraction efficiencies is not a simple superposition of two contributions any more. This case was analytically treated for the first time by Guibelalde[29

29. E. Guibelalde, “Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. We adopt a different notation here, that emphasizes the basic structure

ηR,S=(n1πλ)2+(α12)2±n1πα1λsin(Δφ)X2+Y2[sin2(Xd)+sinh2(Yd)].
(1)

Here,X = X(n 1,α 1,Δφ,Δθ),Y ∈ ℂ are functions of the corresponding parameters, including the angular deviation Δθ from the Bragg-angle. The ±-signs are valid for the R- and S-beam, respectively. From Eq. 1 the ratio ηRS at the Bragg angle amounts to

ηRηS=(n1πλ)2+(α12)2+n1πα1λsin(Δφ)(n1πλ)2+(α12)2n1πα1λsin(Δφ).
(2)

Therefore, a Borrmann effect cannot occur in the case of Δφ = 0 and hence, our experimental results prove that in GGG mixed phase and absorption-gratings were generated, that are out of phase. Fitting Eq. 1 to the rocking-curves is possible, but the determination of the parameters is not unique. Only the thickness d can be extracted. We note, that from the rocking-curve we obtain for the ratio at the recording geometry ηRS = 0.526.

A puzzling feature of the rocking-curves shown in Fig. 5 is, that the maximum diffraction efficiency does not occur at the recording angle for the R-beam, but at ΔθR = -0.06 mrad. Though this shift is very small, it is distinctive and reproducible. It would be straightforward to attribute this shift to transient effects, that originate from a dissimilarity in the intensities of the recording beams in local response media[30

30. V. L. Vinetskii, N. V. Kukhtarev, S. G. Odulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Dynamic self-diffraction of coherent light beams,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 22, 742–756 (1979). [CrossRef]

]. In this case, the recording itself breaks the symmetry and in the steady state the gratings are slanted. On one hand, this is supported by two measurements where IRIS or IRIS. Here, we found that the sign of the shift depends on the sign of 1 - IR/IS for the recording beams. However, in the case of a slanted grating we would expect that ηS shows a similar behavior, i.e., its maximum is shifted to the same angular deviation, which is not the case. Next, we assumed that it might simply originate from the fact, that the angular sensitivity of the crystal is too high for the accuracy of the rotation stage (10-3∘). Experiments with a thinner sample (d = 1.6 mm) were conducted that yielded the same result: A shift of the diffraction efficiency from its recording angle, which is different for the R- and S-beam. Therefore, the reason for the shift of the maximum diffraction efficiency in its angular position remains unclear.

Beam coupling experiments in the recording geometry were conducted, that enable us to determine the characteristic parameters n 1,α 1,Δφ and in addition the relative phase Φ between the light interference pattern and the (refractive-index) grating. The intensities of the coupled beams I C1 and I C2 , i.e., the transmitted R-beam and the diffracted S-beam and vice versa, are monitored as a function of the externally applied phase-shift. Then the parameters can be evaluated by a Fourier analysis of the experimental data [31

31. F. Kahmann, “Separate and Simultaneous Investigation of Absorption Gratings and Refractive-Index Gratings by Beam-Coupling Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1562–9 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. However, due to the angular deviation from the recording geometry, we have to redefine the parameters aR,S, bR,S, cR,S from Ref [31

31. F. Kahmann, “Separate and Simultaneous Investigation of Absorption Gratings and Refractive-Index Gratings by Beam-Coupling Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1562–9 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. This is necessary to correctly account for an additional phase-shift originating from the Off-Bragg geometry. Hence, in the notation of Ref. [31

31. F. Kahmann, “Separate and Simultaneous Investigation of Absorption Gratings and Refractive-Index Gratings by Beam-Coupling Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1562–9 (1993). [CrossRef]

] with Φ instead of ϕ p,0, and assuming AR,S ∈ ℝ without loss of generality

aR:=AR2R̂+R̂+*+AS2ŜŜ*aS:=AS2R̂+R̂+*+AR2ŜŜ*
(3)
bR:=2ARAS{R̂+*ŜeiΦ}bS:=2ARAS{R̂*Ŝ+*eiΦ}
(4)
cR:=2ARAS{R̂+*ŜieiΦ}cS:=2ARAS{R̂-Ŝ+*ieiΦ}.
(5)

Note, that R̂±,Ŝ± are functions of n 1,α 1,±Δφ,±Δθ with the abbreviation R̂± = R̂(n 1,α 1,±Δφ,±Δθ). Taking the grating thickness (d = 5 mm) as a fixed parameter in fitting the beam coupling measurements, we obtained the following values: n 1 = 1.4 × 10-7, α 1 = 8.8/m, Δφ = - 48°, Φ = 68°. In addition the amplitudes of the beams inside the medium are evaluated as AS = 0.9, AR = 0.894, so that the modulation depth is nearly unity. The ratio of the diffraction efficiencies at the recording geometry is 0.526, which is exactly the same as obtained from the rocking-curve.

Two strange peculiarities are obvious: Δφ ≠ 0. Usually it is argued, that Kramers-Kronig relations provide a refractive-index change in photochromic materials. However, in this case their must not be any phase-shift between the amplitude grating and the phase grating. This is similar to recently obtained results in bleached silver halide materials[32

32. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Experimental evidence of mixed gratings with a phase difference between the phase and amplitude grating in volume holograms,” Opt. Express 10, 1374–83 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1374. [PubMed]

]. In addition also a dephasing between the interference pattern and the refractive-index grating occurs. Therefore, non-locality of the photorefractive effect is demonstrated. This enables the process of holographic amplification via two-wave mixing.

Even if we assume a certain error in evaluating our data, these results indicate, that the phase-shifts Φ and Δφ are definitely different from 0 or π/2 as usually expected. Moreover, the shift of the angular position of the maximum in the diffraction efficiency violates the assumption, that GGG has a center of inversion. This is equivalent to saying that by illumination with a sinusoidal interference pattern the centrosymmetric structure is broken in our crystal. To reveal the origin for this phenomenon needs further investigations.

In summary, in this work we report the presence of a photorefractive and photochromic effect a GGG crystal doped with calcium. By employing a holographic two-wave mixing setup we recorded mixed phase-amplitude gratings at room temperature. The presence of the Borrmann effect, an angular shift of the maximum diffraction efficiency in rocking curves and a beam-coupling analysis revealed, that the gratings are out of phase and thus a light-induced symmetry break has occurred. We agree, that the facts presented here are counter-intuitive for a centrosymmetric crystal. The physical origin for this symmetry break is not yet known.

Although the diffraction efficiency of GGG:Ca is low, it is interesting to further investigate the light-induced properties for the following reasons: the photorefractive effect even persists at room temperature, the crystal is available in an excellent optical quality and large size, and the tempting perspective to realize any optical element for optical data storage and processing with a single material class (garnets).

Acknowledgment

We acknowledge continuous support by E. Tillmanns. This work was financially supported by the Austrian Science Fund (P-15642), the Research and Technology Innovation Fund and the Bundesministerium für Auswärtige Angelegenheiten in the frame of the Hungarian-Austrian scientific and technological cooperation ö AD- WTZ A-8/2003.

References and links

1.

L. Antos, M. Pardavi-Horvath, A. Cziraki, J. Fidler, and P. Skalicky, “Microstructure of Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films and of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 94, 197–02 (1989). [CrossRef]

2.

A. S. Yurov, A. N. Karpov, V. K. Raev, G. E. Khodenkov, and M. P. Shorygin, “Displacement of a magnetic bubble by a Rayleigh surface wave in an iron garnet film containing bismuth,” Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 83–4 (1986).

3.

R. Wolfe, “Thin films for non-reciprocal magneto-optic devices,” Thin Solid Films 216, 184–8 (1992). [CrossRef]

4.

C. S. Tsai, “Wideband tunable microwave devices using ferromagnetic film-gallium arsenide material structures,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 209, 10–14 (2000). [CrossRef]

5.

S. Yamamoto and T. Makimoto, “Design considerations for nonreciprocal integrated optical devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4056–60 (1976). [CrossRef]

6.

E. Zharikov, N. Il’ichev, V. Laptev, A. Malyutin, V. Ostroumov, P. Pashinin, and I. Shcherbakov, “Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd3Ga5O12 crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 338–41 (1982). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Marion, “Strengthened solid-state laser materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 694–6 (1985). [CrossRef]

8.

A. A. Danilov, E. Y. Nikirui, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Polushkin, S. N. Sorokin, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Efficient laser with a rectangular active element,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 264–6 (1991). [CrossRef]

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H. Brusset, H. Giller-Prandraud, and J. L. Bordot, “Investigations on Gallates of Rare Earth Metals and of Yttrium,” B. Soc. Chim. Fr. 4, 1206 (1967).

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J. Dong and K. Lu, “Noncubic symmetry in garnet structures studied using extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8808 (1991). [CrossRef]

11.

G. J. Pogatshnik, L. S. Cain, Y. Chen, and B. D. Evans, “Optical Properties of Color Centers in Calcium-Stabilized Gadolinium Gallium Garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 1787–94 (1991). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Metselaar, J. P. M. Damen, P. K. Larsen, and M. A. H. Huyberts, “Investigation of Colour Centres in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, 665–70 (1976). [CrossRef]

13.

A. O. Matkovskii, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, U. A. Ulmanis, and A. P. Shakhov, “Radiation-Stimulated Processes in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 128, 21–29 (1991). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Matkovskii, P. Potera, D. Sugak, L. Grigorjeva, D. Millers, V. Pankratov, and A. Suchocki, “Stable and transient color centers in Gd3Ga5O12 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 39, 788–795 (2004). [CrossRef]

15.

G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Theory of Photorefractive Effects in Electro-Optic Crystals, vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics, chap. 3, pp. 75–98 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

16.

R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, and A. Agranat, “New Photorefractive Mechanism in Centrosymmetric Crystals: A Strain-Coordinated Jahn-Teller Relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459–62 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

B. Sugg, H. Nürge, B. Faust, E. Ruza, R. Niehüser, H. J. Reyher, R. A. Rupp, and L. Ackermann, “The Photorefractive Effect in Terbium Gallium Garnet,” Opt. Mat. 4, 343–7 (1995). [CrossRef]

18.

I. Redmond, R. Linke, E. Chuang, and D. Psaltis, “Holographic Data Storage in a DX-Center Material,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1189–91 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. Imlau, S. Haussühl, T. Woike, R. Schieder, V. Angelov, R. A. Rupp, and K. Schwarz, “Holographic Recording by Excitation of Metastable Electronic States in Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]∙2H2O: a new photorefractive effect,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 877–85 (1999). [CrossRef]

20.

B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di-Porto, and A. J. Agranat, “Nonlinear Optical Diffraction Effects and Solitons Due to Anisotropic Charge-Diffusion-Based Self-Interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664–7 (1999). [CrossRef]

21.

A. E. Krumins, R. A. Rupp, and J. A. Seglins, “Hologram Recording in PLZT Ceramics in the Vicinity of its Diffused Phase Transition,” Ferroelectrics 107, 53–8 (1990). [CrossRef]

22.

R. MacDonald, R. Linke, J. Chadi, T. Thio, G. Devlin, and P. Becla, “Thick Plasma Gratings Using a Local Photorefractive Effect in CdZnTe:In,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2131–3 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. Imlau, T. Woike, R. Schieder, and R. A. Rupp, “Holographic Scattering in Centrosymmetric Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]∙2H2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2860–3 (1999). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Pardavi-Horvath, J. Paitz, I. Földvari, I. Fellegvari, and L. Gosztonyi, “Spectroscopic Properties of Ca2+ -doped GGG,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 84, 540–2 (1984). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Fally, M. Imlau, R. A. Rupp, M. A. Ellabban, and T. Woike, “Specific recording kinetics as a general property of unconventional photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243,903 (2004). [CrossRef]

26.

D. L. Wood and K. Nassau, “Optical Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3704–7 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

M. Pardavi-Horvath and M. Osvay, “Thermoluminescent Properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Crystals Containing Ca2+ Impurity,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 80, K183–5 (1983). [CrossRef]

28.

A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, S. Ubizskii, and I. Kityk, “Spectroscopy and radiation defects of the Gd3Ga5O12 single crystals,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 3, 41–53 (1995).

29.

E. Guibelalde, “Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173 (1984). [CrossRef]

30.

V. L. Vinetskii, N. V. Kukhtarev, S. G. Odulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Dynamic self-diffraction of coherent light beams,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 22, 742–756 (1979). [CrossRef]

31.

F. Kahmann, “Separate and Simultaneous Investigation of Absorption Gratings and Refractive-Index Gratings by Beam-Coupling Analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1562–9 (1993). [CrossRef]

32.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Experimental evidence of mixed gratings with a phase difference between the phase and amplitude grating in volume holograms,” Opt. Express 10, 1374–83 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1374. [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(050.7330) Diffraction and gratings : Volume gratings
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(090.2900) Holography : Optical storage materials
(090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings

ToC Category:
Holography

Citation
Mostafa A. Ellabban, Martin Fally, Romano A. Rupp, and László Kovács, "Light-induced phase and amplitude gratings in centrosymmetric Gadolinium Gallium garnet doped with calcium," Opt. Express 14, 593-602 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-593


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References

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  2. A. S. Yurov, A. N. Karpov, V. K. Raev, G. E. Khodenkov, and M. P. Shorygin, "Displacement of a magnetic bubble by a Rayleigh surface wave in an iron garnet film containing bismuth," Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 83-4 (1986).
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  8. A. A. Danilov, E. Y. Nikirui, V. V. Osiko, V. G. Polushkin, S. N. Sorokin, and M. I. Timoshechkin, "Efficient laser with a rectangular active element," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 264-6 (1991). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Brusset, H. Giller-Prandraud, and J. L. Bordot, "Investigations on Gallates of rare earth metals and of Yttrium," B. Soc. Chim. Fr. 4, 1206 (1967).
  10. J. Dong and K. Lu, "Noncubic symmetry in garnet structures studied using extended x-ray-absorption finestructure spectra," Phys. Rev. B 43, 8808 (1991). [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Pogatshnik, L. S. Cain, Y. Chen, and B. D. Evans, "Optical properties of color centers in calcium-stabilized Gadolinium Gallium Garnets," Phys. Rev. B 43, 1787-94 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Metselaar, J. P.M. Damen, P. K. Larsen, and M. A. H. Huyberts, "Investigation of colour centres in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Crystals," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 34, 665-70 (1976). [CrossRef]
  13. A. O. Matkovskii, D. Y. Sugak, S. B. Ubizskii, U. A. Ulmanis, and A. P. Shakhov, "Radiation-stimulated processes in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet single crystals," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 128, 21-29 (1991). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Matkovskii, P. Potera, D. Sugak, L. Grigorjeva, D. Millers, V. Pankratov, and A. Suchocki, "Stable and transient color centers in Gd3Ga5O12 crystals," Cryst. Res. Technol. 39, 788-795 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Theory of photorefractive effects in Electro-optic Crystals, Topics in Applied Physics, 61 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), chap. 3, 75-98.
  16. R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, S. Yagi, and A. Agranat, "New photorefractive mechanism in Centrosymmetric Crystals:a strain-coordinated Jahn-Teller relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1459-62 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Sugg, H. Nürge, B. Faust, E. Ruza, R. Niehüser, H. J. Reyher, R. A. Rupp, and L. Ackermann, "The photorefractive effect in Terbium Gallium Garnet," Opt. Mat. 4, 343-7 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. I. Redmond, R. Linke, E. Chuang, and D. Psaltis, "Holographic data storage in a DX-center material," Opt. Lett. 22, 1189-91 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Imlau, S. Haussühl, T.Woike, R. Schieder, V. Angelov, R. A. Rupp, and K. Schwarz, "Holographic recording by excitation of metastable electronic states in Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] •2H2O: a new photorefractive effect," Appl Phys. B 68, 877-85 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. B. Crosignani, A. Degasperis, E. DelRe, P. Di-Porto, and A. J. Agranat, "Nonlinear optical diffraction effects and solitons due to anisotropic charge-diffusion-based self-interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1664-7 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. A. E. Krumins, R. A. Rupp, and J. A. Seglins, "Hologram recording in PLZT ceramics in the vicinity of its diffused phase transition," Ferroelectrics 107, 53-8 (1990). [CrossRef]
  22. R. MacDonald, R. Linke, J. Chadi, T. Thio, G. Devlin, and P. Becla, "Thick plasma gratings using a local photorefractive effect in CdZnTe:In," Opt. Lett. 19, 2131-3 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Imlau, T. Woike, R. Schieder, and R. A. Rupp, "Holographic scattering in Centrosymmetric Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] •2H2O," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2860-3 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Pardavi-Horvath, J. Paitz, I. Földvari, I. Fellegvari, and L. Gosztonyi, "Spectroscopic properties of Ca2+ doped GGG," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 84, 540-2 (1984). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Fally, M. Imlau, R. A. Rupp, M. A. Ellabban, and T.Woike, "Specific recording kinetics as a general property of unconventional photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(24), 243903 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. D. L. Wood and K. Nassau, "Optical properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet," Appl. Opt. 29, 3704-7 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Pardavi-Horvath and M. Osvay, "Thermoluminescent properties of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Crystals containing Ca2+ impurity," Phys. Status Solidi (a) 80, K183-5 (1983). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Matkovskii, D. Sugak, S. Ubizskii, and I. Kityk, "Spectroscopy and radiation defects of the Gd3Ga5O12 single crystals," Opto-Electron. Rev. 3, 41-53 (1995).
  29. E. Guibelalde, "Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings," Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173 (1984). [CrossRef]
  30. V. L. Vinetskiĭ, N. V. Kukhtarev, S. G. Odulov, and M. S. Soskin, "Dynamic self-diffraction of coherent light beams," Sov. Phys. Usp. 22, 742-756 (1979). [CrossRef]
  31. F. Kahmann, "Separate and simultaneous investigation of absorption gratings and refractive-index gratings by beam-coupling analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1562-9 (1993). [CrossRef]
  32. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, "Experimental evidence of mixed gratings with a phase difference between the phase and amplitude grating in volume holograms," Opt. Express 10, 1374-83 (2002), <a href= http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1374> http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1374</a>. [PubMed]

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