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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 2 — Jan. 23, 2006
  • pp: 901–913
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The role of artificial defects for engineering large effective mode area, flat chromatic dispersion, and low leakage losses in photonic crystal fibers: Towards high speed reconfigurable transmission platforms

Nikolaos Florous, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 901-913 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.14.000901


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Abstract

The present paper describes a novel systematic solution to the challenging task of realizing photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with flat chromatic dispersion, low leakage losses, and large mode area, mainly for applications as information carriers in wide-band high speed optical transmission systems. The proposed design strategy is based on the existence of an artificially-defected air-hole ring in the cladding and on the modulation of the refractive index of the core by assembling additional defected air-holes in the central core region of the fiber. The validation of the proposed design is carried out by adopting an efficient full-vectorial finite element method with perfectly matched layers for accurate characterization of PCFs. The remarkable flat chromatic dispersion as well as the large mode area and the low leakage losses are the main advantages of the proposed PCF structure, making it an ideal candidate for performing wavelength division multiplexing operation in reconfigurable optical transmission systems or as an information delivering platform in high speed optical communication systems. Typical characteristics of the newly proposed PCF are: flattened chromatic dispersion of 6.3±0.5 ps/km/nm in the S+C+L telecommunication band, and effective mode area as large as 100 μm2 in the same wavelength range. We additionally provide numerical data about the performance of the proposed PCF in splicing mode as well as during macrobending operation and we give qualitative information regarding the sensitivity of the proposed transmission platform to structural disorders of the design parameters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical fibers which can transmit the information in the form of short optical pulses over long distances have revolutionized telecommunication industry in the last two decades [1

01. J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2004).

]. In particular the propagation of light-waves in periodic and disordered dielectric systems has attracted considerably attention in recent years and as a result of extensive studies performed by many researchers all around the world, a new class of optical fibers that enables light to be controlled in ways not previously possible or even imaginable has emerged, known as photonic crystal fiber (PCF) [2

02. J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As a result of their extra ordinary properties, PCFs have become a pre-eminent method for transmitting information and realizing optical devices [3

03. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 484–485 (1996). [CrossRef]

].

Index-guiding PCFs, also known as holey fibers have particularly attracted considerably attention from the optical scientific community. One of the appealing properties of PCFs is the fact that they can possess dispersion properties significantly different than those of the conventional optical fibers, because their artificially-periodic cladding consisting of micrometer-sized air-holes, allows the flexible tailoring of the dispersion curves. The task of controlling the chromatic dispersion is a very important problem in designing practical optical communication systems [4

04. M. D. Nielsen, C. Jacobsen, N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, and H. R. Simonsen, “Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission system and their dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 12, 1372–1376 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-1372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as well as dispersion controllers [5

05. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11, 843–852 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-08-843. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

As the attenuation of index-guiding PCFs has been constantly reduced up to a level of 0.28 dB/km at 1.55 μm wavelength [6

06. J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 101–106 (2005). [CrossRef]

], a great vision regarding the use of PCFs has emerged, that is apart of realizing optical components, as platforms for transmitting information [4

04. M. D. Nielsen, C. Jacobsen, N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, and H. R. Simonsen, “Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission system and their dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 12, 1372–1376 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-1372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

07. K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 7–10 (2004). [CrossRef]

,8

08. K. Nakajima, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, and I. Sankawa, “Ultrawide-band single-mode transmission performance in a low-loss photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 7–12 (2005). [CrossRef]

] especially in wide-band high speed transmission systems. In such a case, both the controllability of the chromatic dispersion, and the enlargement of the effective mode area are very crucial factors in terms of the quality of information transmission.

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the proposed PCF structure. The air-holes in the cladding are arranged in a triangular configuration with lattice constant Λ and air-hole diameters-d. The central core is perturbed with three extra air-holes (red colored circles) with reduced in size diameters-d 1 positioned in the core-region. An artificially defected air-hole ring with reduced air-hole diameters-d 2 (blue colored circles) is assembled in the cladding. By a judicious choice of the geometrical parameters, this PCF structure can exhibit flat chromatic dispersion with large mode area and low confinement losses.

So far various types of PCFs with remarkable chromatic dispersion characteristics have been reported in the international literature [9–12

09. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, J. J. Miret, and M. V. Andres, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 687–697 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To the best of our knowledge however, the task to engineer dispersion flattened PCFs with large mode area and low leakage losses at the same time, particularly useful in designing high speed communication systems based on wavelength division multiplexing [13

13. A. Belahlou, S. Bickham, D. Chowdhury, P. D. A. Evans, J. M. Grochocinski, P. Han, A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, G. Lutter, J. C. Mauro, Y. Mauro, M. Mlejnek, M. S. K. Muktoyuk, M. T. Murtagh, S. Raghavan, V. R. A. Sevian, N. Taylor, S. Tsuda, M. Vasilyev, and L. Wang, “Fiber design considerations for 40 Gb/s systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2290–2305 (2002). [CrossRef]

] has not been reported so far. Since such a class of PCFs will be an important break-through in realizing modern reconfigurable optical communication systems, we therefore devote the present paper to describe an intriguing design approach for realizing a novel type of PCF having all the above mentioned characteristics, that is ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion, large mode area as well as low leakage losses. The basic idea for achieving all the above mentioned propagation characteristics of the newly proposed PCF is based on the presence of an artificially-defected air-hole ring in the cladding of the PCF for enlarging the effective mode area and on the modulation of the core’s effective index with the inclusion of additional defected air-holes in the center of the fiber for the dynamic controllability of the chromatic dispersion. To validate the design we perform extensive numerical simulations using a full-vectorial finite element method (FEM) [14

14. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

], with hybrid edge/nodal elements and anisotropic perfectly matched layers for accurate modeling of PCFs. Our proposed design shows better performance in comparison to conventional large mode area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber with low dispersion slope [15

15. K. Mukasa, F. Poletti, K. Imamura, N. Kumano, T. Yagi, and D. J. Richardson, “A high performance GeO2/SiO2 NZ-DSF and the prospects for future improvements using Holey Fiber technology,” in proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC2005), paper Tu1.4.6, Glasgow, Scotland, (2005).

]. The composition of the present study will be as follows: In Section 2 we introduce the proposed PCF topology and we give a priori detailed design guidelines for achieving the desired performance. Then in Section 3 we present quantitative numerical results for validating our design. To justify the use of the proposed topology in transmission systems in Section 4 we study the single mode operation and the confinement loss properties and we address possible issues regarding additional loss mechanisms in this new type of PCF. Then in Section 5 we briefly discuss the feasibility and the compatibility of the proposed PCF with other conventional optical fibers by presenting results on macro-bending as well as splice losses. In order to identify possible flaws during the fabrication process of the proposed PCF structure in Section 6 we present qualitative numerical data regarding sensitivity analysis of various quantities to structural disorders of the design parameters. Finally in Section 7 we conclude our work and we give some possible directions for further investigations.

2. Schematic cross section and design guidelines of the proposed PCF

The following observations will define the design strategy for achieving the flat dispersion characteristics for this type of PCF. It is well known fact that a PCF possesses great controllability of the chromatic dispersion in comparison with the conventional optical cables. In conventional PCFs, the chromatic dispersion profile can be easily altered by varying the size of the air-hole diameters and the lattice constant. When the air-hole diameters are relatively large and the lattice constant is small, the influence of the waveguide dispersion in the fiber becomes stronger, and unusual dispersion characteristics can be achieved. On the other hand, as the air-hole diameters are decreasing and the lattice constant increases, the total chromatic dispersion curve comes closer to the material dispersion of pure-silica, because the core region in typical PCFs is a solid composition of silica. Therefore by using a conventional type of PCF topology it is difficult to engineer the ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion and the large mode area at the same time. As a consequence we need to incorporate a much more sophisticated structure with more degrees of freedom regarding the total number of design parameters in order to achieve having flat dispersion and large mode area, while keeping the confinement losses as low as possible. The proposed PCF in Fig. 1 is an ideal candidate for our design purpose, since the absence of a totally solid core-region will automatically generate a remarkable wavelength-dependence of the effective refractive index of the core. This strong wavelength-dependence is the key factor which will lead to the controllability of the chromatic dispersion of the fiber, by adjusting the size of the defected air-hole diameters-d 1, while the incorporation of a defected air-hole ring at the cladding will enlarge the effective mode area with a result of improving the quality of the signal transmittivity through this PCF structure.

3. Numerical results and performance verification of the proposed PCF topology

To succeed obtaining nearly-zero total chromatic dispersion, we can see that if we are able to design the proposed PCF in such a way that can exhibit waveguide dispersion Dw(λ) nearly opposite to that of the material dispersion Dm(λ), namely Dw(λ)≅-Dm(λ) over a continuous spectral range [9

09. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, J. J. Miret, and M. V. Andres, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 687–697 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. D. Davidson, Optical-Fiber TransmissionE. E. Bert Basch, ed., (H. W. Sams & Co, Indianapolis, Ind. 1987).

], we can partially fulfill the nearly-zero dispersion requirement. To show the impact of the variation of the design parameter-d 1 to the chromatic dispersion curve, in Fig. 2 we plot the normalized waveguide dispersion (colored curves) of the proposed PCF as a function of the normalized wavelength λ/Λ, for various incremental values of the normalized design parameter d 1/Λ, for (a) uniformly fixed parameters d/Λ=d 2/Λ=0.35, (b) uniformly fixed parameters d/Λ=d 2/Λ=0.4, and (c) uniformly fixed parameters d/Λ=d 2/Λ=0.45, while the silica index is assumed equal to 1.45 for calculating the waveguide dispersion. The black curve represents the material dispersion in all graphs, which has been calculated using the Sellmeier’s equation, assuming the lattice constant fixed to the value of Λ= 2.8 μm. From the results in Fig. 2 we can observe that by increasing the value of the design parameter-d 1 the waveguide dispersion decreases. Eventually there will be a value of d 1 such that the waveguide dispersion curve in all cases will become nearly anti-symmetric to that of the material dispersion, namely Dw(λ)≅-Dm(λ) and thus we can fulfill the requirement for flat dispersion. The approximate value in such a case is d 1/Λ=0.28 at fixed lattice constant of Λ= 2.8 μm and d/Λ=0.35, while for d/Λ=0.4 the approximate value has been determined to be d 1/Λ=0.29 and for d/Λ=0.45 it has been determined to be d 1/Λ=0.30.

Fig. 2. Normalized waveguide dispersion curves DwΛ as a function of the normalized wavelength λ/Λ, for various incremental values of the design parameter d 1/Λ, specifically d 1/Λ=0 (red curve), d 1/Λ = 0.1 (green curve), d 1/Λ = 0.2 (blue curve), d 1/Λ = 0.25 (purple curve), and dc/Λ = 0.3 (orange curve), for (a) fixed air-hole diameters in the cladding d/Λ = d 2/Λ= 0.35, (b) fixed air-hole diameters in the cladding d/Λ = d 2/Λ= 0.4, and (c) fixed air-hole diameters in the cladding d/Λ = d 2/Λ= 0.45. The black curve in all cases represents the normalized material dispersion of silica DmΛ at a fixed lattice constant of Λ = 2.8 μm.

Fig. 3. (a). Total chromatic dispersion curves as a function of the wavelength-λ, for different values of the design parameter-d 2/Λ, for fixed air-hole diameters in the cladding d/Λ=0.35 and fixed defected air-holes in the core d 1/Λ=0.28, (b) the corresponding effective mode areas, (c) total chromatic dispersion curves as a function of the wavelength-λ, for different values of the design parameter-d 2/Λ, for fixed air-hole diameters in the cladding d/Λ=0.4 and fixed defected air-holes in the core d 1/Λ=0.29, (d) the corresponding effective mode areas, (e) total chromatic dispersion curves as a function of the wavelength-λ, for different values of the design parameter-d 2/Λ, for fixed air-hole diameters in the cladding d/Λ=0.45 and fixed defected airholes in the core d 1/Λ=0.3, (f) the corresponding effective mode areas. It is evident that for the three different groups of design parameters the continuous decrement of the design parameter-d 2 will result in the continuous increment of the effective mode area while the chromatic dispersion will continuously decrease, while keeping its flatness.

4. Leakage loss properties of the proposed PCF

Fig. 4. Calculated leakage loss of the fundamental (circles) as well as of the higher order mode (triangles) in the proposed PCF, at wavelengths of λ = 1.45 μm (red color), λ = 1.55 μm (blue color), and λ = 1.65 μm (green color), as a function of the total number of air-hole rings for (a) the following set of design parameters, Λ = 2.8 μm, d/Λ = 0.35, d 1/Λ = 0.28, and d 2/Λ = 0.32, (b) the optimized set of design parameters Λ = 2.8 μm, d/Λ = 0.4, d 1/Λ = 0.29, and d 2/Λ = 0.31, and (c) Λ = 2.8 μm, d/Λ = 0.45, d 1/Λ = 0.3, and d 2/Λ = 0.305. It is clear that the choice of the set of design parameters in (b) results in a leakage loss of the fundamental mode of three orders of magnitude lower than that of the higher order mode for a total number of eleven air-hole rings.
Fig. 5. Normalized electric field distribution of the x-polarized mode in (dB) at a wavelength of λ = 1.55 μm, for (a) d 2/Λ = 0.4 (effective mode area of 35 μm2), (b) d 2/Λ = 0.34 (effective mode area of 55 μm2), (c) d 2/Λ = 0.31 (effective mode area of 100 μm2), while the other parameters were fixed at values of d/Λ = 0.4, and d 1/Λ = 0.29. Notice that once the effective mode area increases the light confinement is strongly enhanced into the cladding.

5. Feasibility and compatibility of the proposed PCF with conventional fibers

Once we proposed a new device concept it is very important to examine the feasibility and the compatibility of the proposed PCF structure with other conventional optical fiber components. This study is very important in justifying weather our proposed PCF is compatible with other optical cables and can characterize the robustness and/or identify possible flaws during bending operation or during splicing mode. Therefore we concentrate our investigation to characterize the proposed fiber in splicing as well as under bending operation. For this purpose in Fig. 6(a) we plot the calculated bending loss (dB/km) of our PCF structure as a function of the bending radius (cm) at a fixed operational wavelength of λ=1.55 μm. For calculation of the macro-bending induced loss we employ the tilted index model described recently in [17

17. Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses,” Opt. Express 13, 4770–4779 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4770. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. From the results in Fig. 6(a) we can see that even under a drastic bending operation (for bending radii around 3 cm), the corresponding bending losses remain less than 0.1 dB/km, a result which shows that the proposed PCF structure doesn’t suffer much from macro-bending losses. This observation was actually expected, since the difference between the effective cladding index and the effective index of the fundamental core mode of our proposed PCF, is larger than that of the conventional single mode fibers (SMFs), and this results in the reduction of the bending losses. To justify the compatibility with standard SMFs in Fig. 6(b) we plot the calculated splice loss between the proposed PCF structure and a standard SMF having core radius of 4.8 μm and index difference of 0.3% by adapting the method proposed in [18

18. M. Koshiba, H. Saitoh, M. Eguchi, and K. Hirayama, “A simple scalar finite element approach to optical rib waveguide,” IEE Proc. Part J: Optoelectron. 139, 166–171 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. From this analysis we can see that the splice losses remain in a relative low level of about 0.6 dB. As a conclusion we can fairly say that the proposed PCF does not have serious integration issues when splicing to standard SMFs.

Fig. 6. (a). Calculated bending loss of the proposed PCF with eleven air-hole rings, as a function of the bending radius at fixed operational wavelength of λ = 1.55 μm for the optimized design parameters, Λ = 2.8 μm, d/Λ = 0.4, d 1/Λ = 0.29, d 2/Λ = 0.31, (b) splice losses between the proposed PCF and a standard single mode fiber (SMF) with core radius 4.8 μm and index difference 0.3%. It is evident from these results that the bending losses remain in a lower level compared to standard SMFs, while the splice losses also remain in a relatively low level of about 0.6 dB.

6. Sensitivity analysis of structural disorders to the PCF performance

Fig. 7. Sensitivity performance of the chromatic dispersion at a wavelength of 1.55 μm as a function of the design parameter space formed by the variables d 1/Λ and d 2/Λ, (a) a three-dimensional plot and (b) a contour map of constant dispersion curves. It is evident from these graphs that the variation to both structural imperfections is linear. In addition we can see that the dynamic rate of change of the chromatic dispersion remains within a ±0.5 ps/km/nm of its nominal optimized value and therefore we can fairly say that the chromatic dispersion is insensitive to both structural fluctuations.
Fig. 8. Sensitivity performance of the effective mode area at a wavelength of 1.55 μm as a function of the design parameter space formed by the variables d 1/Λ and d 2/Λ, for (a) a three-dimensional plot and (b) a contour map of constant effective mode area curves. It is evident from these graphs that the variation to both structural imperfections is linear. In addition we can see that the dynamic rate of change of the effective mode area is more sensitive to the variations of the structural parameter d 2/Λ and less sensitive to the fluctuations of the parameter d 1/Λ.

As a general conclusion of this section, we have estimated the impact of the structural tolerances to important parameters of the PCF’s performance, such as the effective mode area and the chromatic dispersion. We showed that the chromatic dispersion flatness of the proposed PCF architecture seems insensitive to possible variations for both design parameters d 1/Λ and d 2/Λ, while on the other hand the effective mode area of the proposed PCF seems to be sensitive only to the structural tolerances of the air-hole diameters in defected ring in the cladding.

7. Conclusions

To summarize this paper we have demonstrated an outstanding approach for realizing PCFs with flat chromatic dispersion, large effective mode area, and low leakage losses. The design principle is based on a novel idea of incorporating various types of artificial defects such as a defected air-hole ring in the cladding, and additional defected air-holes in the core of the fiber. Extensive numerical simulations have been performed from which we conclude that this novel type of PCF is suitable for applications in reconfigurable optical transmission systems or as an information platform in wide-band high speed data transmission systems. Fabrication of the proposed PCF topology and experimental verification of our numerical results is a technological challenge, and the realization of our PCF structure remains an open task. Sensitivity analysis showed that our proposed structure results in a robust design and possible structural disorders may affect the overall response of the PCF, but in an acceptable way for most practical applications. The continues improvement of the fabrication technology of PCFs is expected to reduce further the total attenuation to the level of the conventional optical fiber, and further regulate additional loss mechanisms such as scattering losses from the defected air-holes in the core of the fiber, thus making our proposed PCF an ideal candidate as a platform for transmitting information in high speed transmission systems. We believe that the inclusion of artificially-defected air-hole rings in the cladding as well as in the core of PCFs can bring considerably freedom in designing various types of PCFs having exceptional propagation characteristics. To this end, the inclusion of artificially defected air-holes in various types of PCFs is currently an active research topic in our group.

References and links

01.

J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2004).

02.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Nature 424, 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

03.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 484–485 (1996). [CrossRef]

04.

M. D. Nielsen, C. Jacobsen, N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, and H. R. Simonsen, “Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission system and their dispersion properties,” Opt. Express 12, 1372–1376 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-1372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

05.

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11, 843–852 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-08-843. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

06.

J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Nakajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, T. Matsui, and I. Sankawa, “Progress on low loss photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 101–106 (2005). [CrossRef]

07.

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 7–10 (2004). [CrossRef]

08.

K. Nakajima, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Kurokawa, C. Fukai, and I. Sankawa, “Ultrawide-band single-mode transmission performance in a low-loss photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 7–12 (2005). [CrossRef]

09.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, J. J. Miret, and M. V. Andres, “Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 9, 687–697 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. Yamamoto, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Supercontinuum generation at 1.55 μm in a dispersion-flattened polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 11, 1537–1540 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-13-1537. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers for supercontinuum generation in a telecommunication window,” Opt. Express 12, 2027–2032 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2027. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

K. Saitoh, N. Florous, and M. Koshiba, “Ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion controllability using a defected-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement losses,” Opt. Express 13, 8365–8371 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Belahlou, S. Bickham, D. Chowdhury, P. D. A. Evans, J. M. Grochocinski, P. Han, A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, G. Lutter, J. C. Mauro, Y. Mauro, M. Mlejnek, M. S. K. Muktoyuk, M. T. Murtagh, S. Raghavan, V. R. A. Sevian, N. Taylor, S. Tsuda, M. Vasilyev, and L. Wang, “Fiber design considerations for 40 Gb/s systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2290–2305 (2002). [CrossRef]

14.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Mukasa, F. Poletti, K. Imamura, N. Kumano, T. Yagi, and D. J. Richardson, “A high performance GeO2/SiO2 NZ-DSF and the prospects for future improvements using Holey Fiber technology,” in proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC2005), paper Tu1.4.6, Glasgow, Scotland, (2005).

16.

D. Davidson, Optical-Fiber TransmissionE. E. Bert Basch, ed., (H. W. Sams & Co, Indianapolis, Ind. 1987).

17.

Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses,” Opt. Express 13, 4770–4779 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4770. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. Koshiba, H. Saitoh, M. Eguchi, and K. Hirayama, “A simple scalar finite element approach to optical rib waveguide,” IEE Proc. Part J: Optoelectron. 139, 166–171 (1992). [CrossRef]

19.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model,” Opt. Lett. 15, 748–752 (1998).

20.

F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 3728–3736 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3728. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2430) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, single-mode

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystal Fibers

Citation
Nikolaos Florous, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba, "The role of artificial defects for engineering large effective mode area, flat chromatic dispersion, and low leakage losses in photonic crystal fibers: Towards high speed reconfigurable transmission platforms," Opt. Express 14, 901-913 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-901


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References

  1. J. A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2004).
  2. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 484-485 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Nielsen, C. Jacobsen, N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, and H. R. Simonsen, "Low-loss photonic crystal fibers for transmission system and their dispersion properties," Opt. Express 12, 1372-1376 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-1372">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-1372</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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