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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 21 — Oct. 16, 2006
  • pp: 10109–10116
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High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 21, pp. 10109-10116 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.010109


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Abstract

We report on a source of ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized near-IR pulses by difference-frequency generation of a hollow-fiber broadened supercontinuum followed by two-stage optical parametric amplification. We demonstrate energies up to 200 µJ with 15 fs pulse width, making this source suited as a driver for attosecond pulse generation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The recent years have witnessed the birth of attosecond science, in which isolated bursts of XUV radiation of attosecond duration are used to probe dynamics on a previously unexplored timescale [1

1. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Wester-walbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder”, Nature 427, 817–821 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813855 (2004).

]. Such pulses are produced by high-harmonic generation (HHG) in noble gases starting from a high intensity short driver pulse [3

3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 9598 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Applications of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 9198 (2003).

]. Three main characteristics of the driver pulses are important: (i) short duration, which must comprise only a few optical cycles; (ii) stability of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), required for the generation of isolated and reproducible attosecond pulses [5

5. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light field,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006). [CrossRef]

]; (iii) carrier wavelength optimized to enhance the HHG process. Currently, the driver pulses for HHG are at 0.8 µm, produced by Ti:sapphire lasers with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA), compressed by a hollow fiber and with active CEP stabilization; this wavelength is however not the optimum for HHG. From the three-step model for HHG [7

7. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspectives on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], one can in fact derive that the ponderomotive energy of the wiggling electron scales as the square of the carrier wavelength [8

8. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], so that longer wavelengths are expected to generate higher-order harmonics. On the other hand, the quantum-mechanic diffusion of the electron wavepacket due to the longer transit time in the continuum leads to a reduction of HHG efficiency for increasing carrier wavelengths; the IR wavelength interval from 1.5 to 3 µm seems to be a good compromise between these two conflicting requirements.

In this paper we describe a system for the generation of high-energy, few-optical-cycle, CEPstabilized pulses in the IR. The system, driven by a CPA Ti:sapphire laser, starts from a passively CEP-stabilized seed generated by difference frequency generation (DFG) of a broadband continuum, which is then boosted in energy by a two stage optical parametric amplifier (OPA). It produces CEP-stabilized pulses with tunable central wavelength around 1.5 µm, up to 200-µJ energy and 15-fs duration, which make them ideally suited to be used as drivers for attosecond pulse generation through HHG. The paper first compares active and passive techniques for CEP stabilization and presents the method used in this work. Then, it describes the experimental setup for the generation of high-energy self-phase-stabilized pulses. Finally, it presents the pulse characterization measurements and discusses future developments.

2. Active vs. passive CEP stabilization

CEP stabilization methods can be divided into active and passive ones. Active methods [9

9. S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. , 35, 43–59 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, R. S. Windeler, J. Stenger, and H. R. Telle, “Carrier-envelope offset dynamics of mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. , 27, 194–196 (2002) [CrossRef]

] rely on the fact that a femtosecond mode-locked oscillator emits a train of pulses with repetition rate νR which suffers a pulse-to-pulse CEP slippage Δϕ. In the frequency domain, such pulse train gives rise to a frequency comb, i.e. a superposition of longitudinal modes with frequencies ν=ν CEO+ R, where νCEO=Δϕ2πνR is the carrier-envelope-offset frequency. Generation of actively CEP-stabilized pulses can then be accomplished in three steps: (i) measurement of νCEO by a nonlinear interferometer; (ii) stabilization of νCEO by active feedback on the oscillator; (iii) picking of pulses at a fraction of νCEO, so that their CEP becomes reproducible from shot to shot. The selected CEP-stable pulses are then amplified either in a solid-state amplifier or in an OPA [11

11. C. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Lett. , 29, 1369–1371 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. R. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, “High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. , 30, 78–80 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and a second electronic feedback loop is required to compensate for CEP fluctuations induced by the amplification process [5

5. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light field,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Passive methods, pioneered by Baltuška et al. [13

13. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the Carrier-Envelope Phase of Ultrashort Light Pulses with Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], are based on the process of DFG, in which two pulses at frequencies ω2 and ω3 are mixed in a second-order nonlinear crystal to generate the difference frequency (DF): ω132. The CEPs of the three pulses are linked through the parametric interaction by the relationship: ϕ 1=ϕ 3-ϕ 2-π/2. If the two pulses undergoing the DFG process are derived from the same source and thus share the same CEP (ϕ 3=ϕ+c 3, ϕ 2=ϕ+c 2), then ϕ 1=c 3-c 2 -π/2=const., i.e. the fluctuations of ϕ are automatically cancelled in a passive, all-optical way. Passive CEP stabilization can be realized in an OPA, in which the idler is the DF between pump and signal waves; if pump and signal are derived from the same source, then the idler is phase-stable. CEP stabilization of the idler has been achieved in OPAs pumped either by the fundamental frequency (FF) or by the second harmonic (SH) of Ti:sapphire [13

13. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the Carrier-Envelope Phase of Ultrashort Light Pulses with Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. X. Fang and T. Kobayashi, “Self-stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of an optical parametric amplifier verified with a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1282–1284 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. S. Adachi, P. Kumbhakar, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-monocyclic near-infrared pulses with a stabilized carrier-envelope phase characterized by noncollinear cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1150–1152 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. DFG between pulses generated by two OPAs sharing the same CEP has also been demonstrated [16

16. C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2668–2670 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These are all inter-pulse DFG schemes, as they involve mixing of two separate frequency-shifted pulses, synchronized by a delay line; in this case, any fluctuation of the path-length difference will induce a CEP jitter. A more robust approach is based on an intra-pulse scheme, in which DFG is achieved between long and short wavelength components of a single ultrabroadband pulse [17

17. T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, “Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of difference-frequency generation”, Opt. Lett. 29, 632–634 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332–334 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; in this case the two pulses undergoing the DFG process are automatically synchronized and delay-induced CEP jitter is suppressed. In a first implementation of this idea, pulses generated by DFG from an ultrabroadband Ti:sapphire oscillator have been stretched and used to seed an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier pumped by an electronically synchronized 30 ps Nd:YLF laser [19

19. T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuška, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, “Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1103–1105 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; the system produces 20-fs, 80-µJ phase stable pulses at 2.1 µm. We recently proposed an alternative scheme [20

20. C. Manzoni, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of high energy self-phase stabilized pulses by difference frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. , 31, 963–965 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which is driven by a CPA Ti:sapphire system: the seed, generated by DFG of a hollow-fiber-broadened supercontinuum, is amplified by an OPA pumped by the FF of Ti:sapphire and operated around degeneracy. The advantages of our approach are the following: (i) generation of energetic seed pulses, minimizing background superfluorescence in the OPA stages; (ii) use of a single laser system for generating DFG and pumping the OPAs, simplifying synchronization issues; (iii) use of short pump pulses avoiding the need to stretch the seed pulses and thus simplifying (or avoiding) the compressor. In a preliminary experiment we generated 20-µJ phase stable pulses at 1.4 µm; here we increase the energy by an order of magnitude and demonstrate a nearly transform-limited (TL) 15-fs duration.

3. Experimental setup

Fig. 1. Experimental setup for the generation of high-energy self-phase-stabilized pulses; Ti:Sa, CPA Ti:sapphire laser; DFG, 200 µm thick BBO crystal; POL, thin film polarizer.
Fig. 2. Normalized spectra of the DF pulses (black solid line) and of the pulses after the first (blue dashed line) and second (red dotted line) OPA stages.
Fig. 3. Normalized spectra of the amplified pulses after the first OPA stage.
Fig. 4. Beam profile after the second OPA stage.

4. Pulse characterization

Thanks to the saturation of the second OPA stage, the amplified pulses display a good energy stability, with peak-to-peak fluctuations <5%. They also show an excellent spatial beam quality, with a clean beam profile as reported in Fig. 4. The amplified pulses are expected to be close to a TL duration without the need of any compression. In fact the DF pulses are generated by a ≈12 fs pulse and thus have a comparable duration. The contribution to dispersion due to the propagation in the BBO crystals used for the NOPA stages can be minimized by tuning the central wavelength of the amplified pulses around 1.55 µm, where BBO exhibits zero second-order dispersion. The amplified pulse width is measured by an unbalanced collinear second-harmonic autocorrelator using a 100-µm-thick BBO crystal. The resulting interferometric autocorrelation is shown in Fig. 5 (thick solid line), together with a calculated trace (thin solid line) starting from the corresponding measured spectrum (see inset of Fig. 5) and assuming a flat spectral phase. The results indicate that the pulses are nearly TL and have a FWHM duration of 15 fs, which corresponds to ≈3 optical cycles at the carrier wavelength. The CEP stability of the amplified pulses was verified and characterized by an f -to-2f interferometer [24

24. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihara, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1436–1438 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. A suitably attenuated fraction of the pulse energy is first focused in a 2 mm thick sapphire plate, to generate a white light continuum, and then frequency doubled in a 100 µm thick BBO crystal. The spatially overlapped FF and SH are sent to a spectrometer through a polarizer. In the 700–800 nm wavelength range, the spectrally broadened FF and the SH are overlapped; by adjusting their relative intensities with the polarizer, an interference pattern is observed. Fig. 6(a) shows, as a black solid line, an interferogram acquired by averaging over 200 shots; the appearance of a high-contrast fringe pattern is a clear demonstration of CEP stabilization. To prove that the fringes stem from FF-SH interference and do not have any spurious origin, we inserted a 5.9 mm thick BK7 plate before the SH crystal. The plate is expected to increase, due to dispersion, the delay between the 750 and 1500 nm components, and thus decrease the fringe period, as observed in Fig. 6(b). By taking the inverse Fourier transforms of the oscillatory components of the interferograms (see inset of Fig. 6) one finds an increase in delay by 206.2 fs, in excellent agreement with the calculated 204.3 fs group delay introduced by the plate. Finally, Fig. 7 displays a sequence of interferograms acquired over a 6 seconds observation time, indicating that the CEP has some residual fluctuations. They are attributed mainly to environmental noise of the system (mechanical vibrations, air turbulence...), which will have to be accurately reduced in order to optimize this source for applications.

Fig. 5. Measured interferometric autocorrelation of the high-energy pulses (red thick solid line) and calculated autocorrelation (black thin solid line) starting from the pulse spectrum (shown in the inset) and assuming flat spectral phase.
Fig. 6. Spectral interference patterns between FF and SH as generated (a) and with a 5.9 mm thick BK7 plate on the beam path (b). The inset shows the Fourier transforms of the oscillatory components of the interferograms.
Fig. 7. Sequence of interferograms acquired over successive laser shots. Each interferogram corresponds to 10 pulses.

5. Conclusions

In this work we have presented a source of high-energy, self phase stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses in the IR, based on DFG between different spectral components of a high-energy ultra-broadband pulse followed by parametric amplification. The main advantages of our approach can be summarized as follows: (i) it is based on the widespread and reliable CPA Ti:sapphire technology; (ii) it uses a passive, all-optical CEP stabilization method; (iii) thanks to the low material dispersion in the IR, it directly generates short pulses without need of any compression. We demonstrate 200-µJ, 15-fs phase-stable pulses at 1.5 µm; the duration and energy of these pulses make them ideally suited to be used as drivers for attosecond pulse generation through HHG. The system has the potential of generating shorter pulses by using also in the second amplification stage a type I configuration, characterized by a broader bandwidth acceptance; the availability of a suitable compressor will allow generating near single-cycle CEP-stable pulses. Higher-energy pulses can be produced by use of more efficient nonlinear crystals such as lithium niobate; however, even more intriguing is the possibility of using this system as a front-end for a high-energy OPA, pumped by a 100-mJ, 10-Hz Ti:sapphire system, enabling TW-level self CEP-stabilized pulses.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the experimental support of Daniele Brida. This work was partially supported by the European Union within contracts RII3-CT-2003-506350 (Laserlab Europe) and MRTN-CT-2003-505138 (XTRA).

References and links

1.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Wester-walbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder”, Nature 427, 817–821 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813855 (2004).

3.

E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching,” Science 302, 9598 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, “Applications of high order harmonics,” Eur. Phys. J. D 26, 9198 (2003).

5.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light field,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspectives on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. , 35, 43–59 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, R. S. Windeler, J. Stenger, and H. R. Telle, “Carrier-envelope offset dynamics of mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. , 27, 194–196 (2002) [CrossRef]

11.

C. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Lett. , 29, 1369–1371 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, “High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. , 30, 78–80 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the Carrier-Envelope Phase of Ultrashort Light Pulses with Optical Parametric Amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

X. Fang and T. Kobayashi, “Self-stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of an optical parametric amplifier verified with a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1282–1284 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Adachi, P. Kumbhakar, and T. Kobayashi, “Quasi-monocyclic near-infrared pulses with a stabilized carrier-envelope phase characterized by noncollinear cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1150–1152 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2668–2670 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, “Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of difference-frequency generation”, Opt. Lett. 29, 632–634 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30, 332–334 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuška, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, “Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1103–1105 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. Manzoni, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of high energy self-phase stabilized pulses by difference frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. , 31, 963–965 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1 (2003). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihara, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1436–1438 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 27, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2006
Published: October 16, 2006

Citation
C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, "High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization," Opt. Express 14, 10109-10116 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-10109


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References

  1. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427,817-821 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67,813855 (2004).
  3. E. A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, A. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,9598 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of high order harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,9198 (2003).
  5. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light field," Nature 421,611-615 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, "Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating," Nat. Phys. 2,319-322 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspectives on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35,43-59 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, R. S. Windeler, J. Stenger, and H. R. Telle, "Carrier-envelope offset dynamics of mode-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 27,194-196 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29,1369-1371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, "High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control," Opt. Lett. 30,78-80 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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