OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 22 — Oct. 30, 2006
  • pp: 10359–10370
« Show journal navigation

Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement

Minh Châu Phan Huy, Guillaume Laffont, Véronique Dewynter, Pierre Ferdinand, Laurent Labonté, Dominique Pagnoux, Philippe Roy, Wilfried Blanc, and Bernard Dussardier  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 22, pp. 10359-10370 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.010359


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1466 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report what we believe to be the first Tilted short-period Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in a microstructured optical fiber for refractive index measurement. We investigate the spectral sensitivity of Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating to refractive index liquid inserted into the holes of a multimode microstructured fiber. We measure the wavelength shift of the first four modes experimentally observed when calibrated oils are inserted into the fiber holes, and thus we determine the refractive index resolution for each of these modes. Moreover, a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results of a modal analysis is performed. Two simulation tools are used, respectively based on the localized functions method and on a finite element method. All results are in very good agreement.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) are generally silica fibers with a solid core surrounded by a lattice of air holes running along the longitudinal axis. The core can be made of pure or doped silica. Because the refractive index of the core is higher than the highest effective index of the modes of the cladding, these fibers simply guide light by total internal reflection. Since a few years, such fibers are a great matter of concern for the optical fiber community due to their potential in several application fields (non-linear effects [1

1. N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennet, and D. J. Richardson, “Non linearity in holey optical fibers: measurement and future opportunities,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1395–1397 (1999) [CrossRef]

, 2

2. J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “Holey fiber based nonlinear optical devices for telecommunications,” Proc. 29th CLEO/QELS (Baltimore, June 2003)

], dispersion management [3

3. P. Andrés, A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and M. V. Andrés, “Dispersion and polarization properties in photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON (2002) [PubMed]

, 4

4. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. Barkou, and K. Dridi, “Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fiber,” 24th ECOC Conf. (Madrid, Sept. 1998)

], high optical power transmission [5

5. W.J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 48–53 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and sensing [6

6. D. Pagnouxet al., “Microstructured fibers for sensing applications,” invited paper Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)

]).

Different methods are described in the literature for Fiber Bragg Grating photowriting either in pure-silica or in doped core MOF. For pure-silica MOF, Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Long-Period Gratings (LPGs) photowriting are respectively reported by Groothoff et al. [7

7. N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, “Bragg gratings in air-silica structured fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 233–235 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] using a two-photon absorption process at 193 nm and by Kakarantzas et al. [8

8. G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1013–1015 (2002) [CrossRef]

] using a CO2 laser to periodically collapse the channels of the MOF by heat treatment. Humbert et al. [9

9. G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 349–350 (2003) [CrossRef]

] choose to use an electric arc technique to realize LPGs. For doped-core MOF, Canning et al. [10

10. J. Canning, N. Groothoff, E. Buckley, T. Ryan, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Digweed, “All-fibre photonic crystal distributed Bragg reflector fibre laser,” Opt. Express 11, 1995–2000 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] use a two-photon absorption process at 193 nm to write gratings in Er3+-doped aluminosilicate core photonic crystal fiber. In Ge-doped photosensitive fibers, Eggleton et al. [11

11. B.J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, “Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1460–1462 (1999) [CrossRef]

] photowrite FBGs and LPGs using a phase mask setup with a frequency-doubled excimer-pumped dye laser. While different gratings (LPGs and FBGs) have been already photowritten and characterized, we report in this paper what seems to be the first study dealing with Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating (TFBG) photowriting in microstructured optical fibers for sensing applications.

2. Microstructured fiber manufacturing and design

For MOF manufacturing, the first step consists of realizing a preform which is a stack of silica capillaries and rods (a few millimeters in diameter). The number and the general arrangement of the air holes of the preform will be preserved in the fiber drawn. For a Ge-doped core MOF, we substitute the central silica rod by a Ge-doped silica rod of equal diameter. The Ge-doped core is manufactured by MCVD process. In order to extract the Ge-doped rod from the MCVD preform, two successive machining steps are needed. So in the case of the six-hole fiber presented on Fig. 1, the MCVD preform is first reduced from 12 mm to 2 mm through mechanical machining and then further reduced down to 1 mm through a chemical attack (HF acid). To draw the fiber, a conventional drawing tower is used. The manufactured fiber can be described by a ring of six air holes (d ~ 15 μm and Λ ~ 15.8 μm), surrounding a non-circular and slightly decentred core of 11 μm in diameter (see Fig. 1). Such a fiber is multimode in the 1.5 μm spectral window. The multimode aspect of the fiber will be experimentally verified in section 4.2.

Fig. 1. Optical microscope image of the manufactured six-hole MOF.

3. Simulation tools

3.1. Localized functions method

3.2. Finite element method

We have also used a wellknown and commercially available software called “Femlab” [21] that is based on the finite element method. This method consists of meshing in 2D a section of the optical waveguide (splitted into a number -often large- of discrete elements) to be analyzed and of solving the Maxwell equations in these points called “nodes”. Femlab is used in our study to compare the FEM computed results and the LFM ones.

4. Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowriting

4.1. TFBG photowriting process

Fibers are previously hydrogen-loaded during one week at 150 bar and 25°C to increase the photosensitivity of the Ge-doped core and thus reduce the photowriting duration. Tilted FBGs are photowritten using a Lloyd mirror interferometer setup including a CW frequency-doubled argon laser emitting at 244 nm. To write TFBG, we need an angle different from π/2 between the Lloyd mirror and the fiber axis. In our setup, the fiber is held straight on between two clamps fixed on a rotary stage (see Fig. 2). In this way, we can easily and very accurately (±10-3 degree) adjust the required angle θ between the fiber axis and the interference fringes pattern.

Fig. 2. Lloyd mirror interferometer setup used for TFBG photowriting.

On Fig. 3, we present transmission spectra of TFBGs photowritten in standard single-mode fiber. We notice the change in TFBGs spectral response when the tilt angle θ increases. For θ = 0°, it is the coupling between the forward-propagating guided mode and the backward-propagating guided mode, corresponding to the so-called Bragg resonance, which is the most important. Resonances below 1538 nm correspond to the coupling between the fundamental mode (forward-propagating guided mode) and backward-propagating cladding modes (see Fig. 4). The coupling coefficient between the fundamental mode and a backward cladding mode is not null because the grating is spatially localized in the core: one way to decrease this coupling to cladding mode is precisely to extend the radius of the photosensitive region (hence by using fiber with a photosensitive cladding) [22

22. L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier, and D. L. Weidman, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583–1590 (2000) [CrossRef]

]. When the tilt angle increases, the coupling coefficient between the forward-propagating guided mode and the backward-propagating guided mode decreases. So, the Bragg resonance reflectivity decreases too. And the more the tilt angle θ increases, the more the coupling to cladding mode dominates and the coupling’s optimum is obtained for modes’ order higher and higher. On the transmission spectra, we notice that one resonance out of two presents a lower amplitude. These resonances with lower amplitude are the result of coupling between the fundamental guided mode and LP1n cladding modes, the other resonances (with higher amplitude) are due to coupling between the fundamental guided mode and LP0n cladding modes.

Fig. 3. Transmission spectra of (a) non-tilted, (b) 4°-tilted, (c) 8°-tilted, (d) 12°-tilted and (e) 16°-tilted FBGs photowritten in classical single-mode fiber with the Lloyd interferometer setup [23].
Fig. 4. Coupling between the fundamental mode (forward propagating guided mode) and backward cladding modes induced by TFBG [23]: on the right, coupling diagram showing the fundamental forward-propagating mode coupled to a backward-propagating cladding mode through the coupling vector (Λeff is the effective period of the grating, that is Λ – the fringe’s period – divided by cos θ – the tilt angle).

Fig. 5. Transmission spectrum of a 16°-tilted FBG photowritten in a standard singlemode fiber and for two distinct values of the surrounding refractive index [12].

4.2. Spectral response of a TFBG photowritten in MOF

On Fig. 6, we present spectral responses in transmission of TFBGs photowritten in the six-hole MOF presented in part 2 (see Fig. 1). For θ = 0°, we observe not only the Bragg resonance but also resonances to higher order modes. On the reflection spectrum, each mode is clearly characterized by a resonance peak, hence all of them may be considered as guided modes. Indeed the fiber was expected to be slightly multimode as already mentioned in section 2. When θ increases, more and more transmission dips are distinguishable on the spectrum, indicating that more and more modes are involved in the coupling process. As in the case of TFBGs in conventional fiber, the higher the tilt angle, the higher the mode’s order with the optimal coupling coefficient.

The six-hole fiber is slightly birefringent due to the index profile’s dissymmetry (holes diameters, pitch and core’s shape). Moreover, the TFBGs photowriting’s process also contributes to an extra birefringence effect (through radial asymmetry in UV light absorption and also due to the tilting of the grating’s pitch versus the propagation axis). So when the state of polarization of the input light is modified, we can observe the splitting of any spectral resonance in two sub-resonances. This effect is particularly distinguishable for higher order modes.

As higher order modes are less and less optically confined in the core of the MOF, their evanescent field interacts more efficiently with any medium inserted into the holes. Hence, when a liquid is inserted into the fiber holes, all resonances experience a spectral displacement. The resonance’s spectral shift is different from one mode to the other due to a more or less efficient evanescent field interaction. Hence, the sensitivity to the refractive index of the holes medium is increased when higher order modes’ resonances are considered. In section 6, this potential gain in sensitivity is characterized for refractometry purposes.

Fig. 6. Transmission spectrum of (a) non-tilted, (b) 3°-tilted, (c) 4°-tilted, (d) 6°-tilted FBG photowritten in the six-hole fiber.

5. Cross-comparison between theoretical and experimental modal field patterns

Fig. 7. Near-IR modal imaging setup.

Cross-section images of the six-hole fiber have been acquired using an optical microscope. We can determine the outline of the Ge-doped core thanks to its index contrast (see Fig. 1). This image is used as an entry parameter of the two simulation tools depicted in part 3 which outputs are the modal field patterns and effective indices that we can directly compare with those experimentally obtained.

As said in section 4.2, the fiber is birefringent, due to the fiber structure itself but also due to the tilted grating itself as well as to the photowriting process. The large refractive index contrast between the core and the cladding and the effect of the birefringence results in the splitting of the spectral resonances.

This splitting is visible only if the spectral variation between two subresonances, corresponding to the two polarisation states, is higher than the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of each resonance, which is about 200-300 pm. Moreover, this spectral variation increases with the mode’s order. Contrarily to the LFM software which is only scalar, the full-vectorial modelling based on the FEM takes into account the state of polarisation of the input light. However, by comparing the norms of the electric field for the two states of polarisation obtained by FEM, we do not notice any differences: the patterns’ orientations and forms are similar [15

15. M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, “Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992–997 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. Experimentally, we have imaged on the camera only one resonance corresponding to one of the two states of polarization and we have compared them to LFM and FEM simulation results. For FEM simulation results, we present only those corresponding to one state of polarization (see Fig. 8).

Fig. 8. Experimental TFBG transmission spectrum with corresponding experimental (top line), LFM-simulated (middle line) and FEM-simulated (bottom line, with commercial software Femlab) modal field pattern for the six-holes fiber

Fig. 9. Transmission spectrum of two 6°-tilted TFBGs photowritten in the core of two different sections of the six-holes fiber, revealing a) modes E and F or b) modes D, E, and F

6. TFBG spectral sensitivity to the refractive index of fluids inserted into the fiber channels

Contrarily to TFBGs photowritten in conventional single-mode fibers, TFBGs photowritten in the core of the six-hole fiber present fewer modes and the TFBG spectral response is different from one TFBG to another (even with the same tilt angle), as explained in section 5. Due to this variation in the TFBGs spectral responses, we cannot make use of the “area” approach, as introduced in section 3 in the case of TFBG in single-mode fiber, to determine the refractive index of the liquid inserted into the holes of the MOF. We rather choose to measure the spectral resonance shift versus the refractive index. Hence, we take benefit from the higher evanescent field interaction of the guided modes with the medium inserted into the channels.

Fig. 10. Wavelength shift of the first four resonances versus the refractive index of the fluid inserted into the holes.

For a given mode, the evolution of the resonance wavelength with the refractive index is fitted by a sum of two exponential functions (λ = a ebnL + c ednL). But, for mode (E), such a fit is not accurate enough. However, we notice that for refractive index close to 1.45, fitting curve of mode (E) intersects fitting curve of mode (C), which is not realistic. At this time, we do not have enough experimental data to accurately fit the evolution of the resonance wavelength of mode (E). This means that, for the mode (E), such a fit is not accurate enough. However such fitting curves can be used to determine the refractive index resolution at a given operating point on the wavelength vs refractive index curves. In Table 1, we report the refractive index resolution for several refractive index ranges. We assume that we have a 1 pm spectral resolution measurement setup, i.e. a typical value for FBG interrogation units [24

24. G. Laffont, N. Roussel, L. Maurin, J. Boussoir, B. Clogenson, L. Auger, S. Magne, and P. Ferdinand, “Wavelength tunable fiber ring laser for high-speed interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)

, 25

25. S. D. Dyer, P. A. Williams, R. J. Espejo, J. D. Kofler, and S. M. Etzel, “Fundamental limits in fiber Bragg grating peak wavelength measurements,” invited paper Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005).

]. For a given mode, when the refractive index nL approaches its effective index, the resonance wavelength shift increases, corresponding to a higher sensitivity and thus a better refractive index resolution. For the third mode (mode C), the refractive index resolution reaches 5.5 × 103 r.i.u. and 7.0 × 10-6 r.i.u. for a refractive index close to 1.300 and 1.444 respectively. In the same way, for a given refractive index, the wavelength shift is almost doubled from one mode to the following one. For instance, when the refractive index is equal to 1.301, the spectral shift is about 60 pm and 120 pm, respectively for mode (A) and mode (B) . So, the higher the mode order, the better the refractive index resolution. This is due to the fact that a higher order mode corresponds to a stronger evanescent field-external medium interaction (the mode is less confined within the fiber core). So, for a refractive index close to 1.30, the refractive index resolution is improved by a factor of 6, for the fifth mode (E) by comparison to the fundamental mode (A).

Table 1. Refractive index resolution of the first four modes (based on a 1 pm spectral resolution, [24]).

table-icon
View This Table

7. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This research is co-funded by the French Ministry of Research – ACI Nouvelles Méthodolo-gies Analytiques et Capteurs 2003 and by the INRS (Institut National de Recherche et de Sé-curité).

References and Links

1.

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennet, and D. J. Richardson, “Non linearity in holey optical fibers: measurement and future opportunities,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1395–1397 (1999) [CrossRef]

2.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “Holey fiber based nonlinear optical devices for telecommunications,” Proc. 29th CLEO/QELS (Baltimore, June 2003)

3.

P. Andrés, A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and M. V. Andrés, “Dispersion and polarization properties in photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON (2002) [PubMed]

4.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. Barkou, and K. Dridi, “Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fiber,” 24th ECOC Conf. (Madrid, Sept. 1998)

5.

W.J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “High power air-clad photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 48–53 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

D. Pagnouxet al., “Microstructured fibers for sensing applications,” invited paper Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)

7.

N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, “Bragg gratings in air-silica structured fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 233–235 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1013–1015 (2002) [CrossRef]

9.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, “Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres,” Electron. Lett. 39, 349–350 (2003) [CrossRef]

10.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, E. Buckley, T. Ryan, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Digweed, “All-fibre photonic crystal distributed Bragg reflector fibre laser,” Opt. Express 11, 1995–2000 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B.J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, “Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1460–1462 (1999) [CrossRef]

12.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765–770 (July 2001) [CrossRef]

13.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Mesure de la salinité et suivi de polymérisation d’une résine à l’aide d’un réfrac-tomètre à réseau de Bragg à traits inclinés,” Optix 2001, Marseille 26–28 Novembre

14.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, “Fiber Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibers for sensing application based on refractive index measurement,” Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)

15.

M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, “Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992–997 (2006) [CrossRef]

16.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495–497 (2000) [CrossRef]

17.

C. Kerbage, B. Eggleton, P. Westbrook, and R. Windeler, “Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Express 7, pp. 113–122 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. Parmentier, M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pag-noux, and B. Dussardier, “Cross comparison between theoretical and experimental modal field patterns in a doped-core microstructured fiber,” Summer school on advanced glass-based nanophotonics POWAG 2004

19.

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russel, “Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1662–1664 (1998) [CrossRef]

20.

T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093–1101 (1999) [CrossRef]

21.

http://www.comsol.com/

22.

L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier, and D. L. Weidman, “Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583–1590 (2000) [CrossRef]

23.

G. Laffont, “Etude et développement de transducteurs et systèmes de mesure à réseaux de Bragg à traits incli-nés photoinscrits dans des fibres optiques monomodes,” Ph. D Thesis, Lille University (2001, n°2983).

24.

G. Laffont, N. Roussel, L. Maurin, J. Boussoir, B. Clogenson, L. Auger, S. Magne, and P. Ferdinand, “Wavelength tunable fiber ring laser for high-speed interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)

25.

S. D. Dyer, P. A. Williams, R. J. Espejo, J. D. Kofler, and S. M. Etzel, “Fundamental limits in fiber Bragg grating peak wavelength measurements,” invited paper Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005).

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 2, 2006
Revised Manuscript: September 13, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: September 13, 2006
Published: October 30, 2006

Citation
Minh Châu Phan Huy, Guillaume Laffont, Véronique Dewynter, Pierre Ferdinand, Laurent Labonté, Dominique Pagnoux, Philippe Roy, Wilfried Blanc, and Bernard Dussardier, "Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating photowritten in microstructured optical fiber for improved refractive index measurement," Opt. Express 14, 10359-10370 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-22-10359


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennet, and D. J. Richardson, "Non linearity in holey optical fibers: measurement and future opportunities," Opt. Lett. 24, 1395-1397 (1999) [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "Holey fiber based nonlinear optical devices for telecommunications," Proc. 29th CLEO/QELS (Baltimore, June 2003)
  3. P. Andrés, A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, and M. V. Andrés, "Dispersion and polarization properties in photonic crystal fibers," Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks ICTON (2002) [PubMed]
  4. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, S. Barkou, and K. Dridi, "Dispersion properties of photonic crystal fiber," 24th ECOC Conf. (Madrid, Sept. 1998)
  5. W.J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "High power air-clad photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 48-53 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Pagnoux et al., "Microstructured fibers for sensing applications," invited paper Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)
  7. N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, "Bragg gratings in air-silica structured fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 233-235 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Kakarantzas, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Structural long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002) [CrossRef]
  9. G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructured fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003) [CrossRef]
  10. J. Canning, N. Groothoff, E. Buckley, T. Ryan, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Digweed, "All-fibre photonic crystal distributed Bragg reflector fibre laser," Opt. Express 11, 1995-2000 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B.J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999) [CrossRef]
  12. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (July 2001) [CrossRef]
  13. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Mesure de la salinité et suivi de polymérisation d’une résine à l’aide d’un réfractomètre à réseau de Bragg à traits inclinés," Optix 2001, Marseille 26-28 Novembre
  14. M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, "Fiber Bragg grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibers for sensing application based on refractive index measurement," Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)
  15. M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frignac, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc and B. Dussardier, "Fibre Bragg Grating photowriting in microstructured optical fibres for refractive index measurement," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, pp 992-997 (2006) [CrossRef]
  16. P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000) [CrossRef]
  17. C. Kerbage, B. Eggleton, P. Westbrook and R. Windeler, "Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 7, pp. 113-122 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Parmentier, M. C. Phan Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, and B. Dussardier, "Cross comparison between theoretical and experimental modal field patterns in a doped-core microstructured fiber," Summer school on advanced glass-based nanophotonics POWAG 2004
  19. D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russel, "Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1662-1664 (1998) [CrossRef]
  20. T.M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: an efficient modal model," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1093-1101 (1999) [CrossRef]
  21. http://www.comsol.com/
  22. L. Dong, G. Qi, M. Marro, V. Bhatia, L. L. Hepburn, M. Swan, A. Collier and D. L. Weidman, "Suppression of cladding mode coupling loss in fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1583-1590 (2000) [CrossRef]
  23. G. Laffont, "Etude et développement de transducteurs et systèmes de mesure à réseaux de Bragg à traits inclinés photoinscrits dans des fibres optiques monomodes," Ph. D Thesis, Lille University (2001, n°2983).
  24. G. Laffont, N. Roussel, L. Maurin, J. Boussoir, B. Clogenson, L. Auger, S. Magne and P. Ferdinand, "Wavelength tunable fiber ring laser for high-speed interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005)
  25. S. D. Dyer, P. A. Williams, R. J. Espejo, J. D. Kofler and S. M. Etzel, "Fundamental limits in fiber Bragg grating peak wavelength measurements," invited paper Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors OFS17 (Bruges, May 2005).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited