## RGB source based on simultaneous quasi-phase-matched second and third harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 22, pp. 10663-10668 (2006)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.010663

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### Abstract

We present a pulsed RGB source based on cascaded nonlinear processes that occur inside a single crystal of PPLN with two poling periodicities placed in tandem. The first periodicity produces a ~1.43 μm signal through optical parametric generation and the last section simultaneously produces the second (near - IR) and third harmonic (blue). The green is produced by second harmonic generation of the pump and the red is produced by non-phase-matched sum-frequency generation between the signal and pump beam.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, “Multigrating quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator in periodically poled LiNbO_{3},” Opt. Lett. **21**, 591–593 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2. M. Vaidyanathan, R. Eckardt, V. Dominic, L. Myers, and T. Grayson, “Cascaded Optical Parametric Oscillations,” Opt. Express **1**, 49–53 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. P. V. Gorelik, F. N. C. Wong, D. Kolker, and J. J. Zondy, “Cascaded optical parametric oscillation with a dual-grating periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Lett. **31**, 2039–2041 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, T. Usami, H. Ito, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, G. Arisholm, and U. Keller, “Powerful red-green-blue laser source pumped with a mode-locked thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. **29**, 1921–1923 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. D. Jaque, D. Campany, and J. García Solé, “Red, green and blue laser light from a single Nd:YAI_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} crystal based on laser oscillation at 1.3 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **75**, 325–327 (1999). [CrossRef]

_{3}(BO

_{3})

_{4}; Capmany [7

7. J. Capmany, “Simultaneous generation of red, green and blue continuous wave laser radiation in Nd^{3+}-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate,” App. Phys. Lett. **78**, 144–146 (2001). [CrossRef]

^{+3}-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate pumped with a 744 nm cw-Ti:saphire laser. The Nd ion emitted laser radiation at 1084 and 1372 nm, and the aperiodic domain structure generated their second harmonics (green and red); the blue light resulted from the sum of the 744 nm pump and the 1084 laser line. Liu et al. [8

8. Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, H. Liu, Y. Q. Lu, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “A scheme to realize three-fundamental-colors laser based on quasi-phase-matching,” Sol. State. Comm. **119**, 363–366 (2001). [CrossRef]

9. J. Liao, J. L. He, H. Liu, H. T. Wang, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Simultaneous generation of red, green and blue quasi-continuous-wave coherent radiation based on multiple quasiphase-matched interactions from a single aperiodically-poled LiTaO_{3}” Appl. Phys. Lett. **82**, 3159–3161 (2003). [CrossRef]

_{3}crystal to obtain the second and third harmonic (red and blue) of a 1.342 nm pump while the green was obtained by frequency doubling of a 1.064 μm pump; both pumps were derived from a Q-switched Nd:YVO

_{4}laser. Gao et al. [10] also created a single-crystal RGB source based on cascaded nonlinear interactions in stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal with two periodicities. In this case the pump was the second harmonic (532 nm) of a Nd:YVO

_{4}laser.

*ω*, its second and third harmonics, with propagation constants

*k*

_{1},

*k*

_{2}and

*k*

_{3}, respectively - interact in a periodically poled crystal. Quasi-phase-matching of the second harmonic waves requires a modulation of the nonlinearity of the medium with a periodicity Λ

_{shg}that satisfies

_{thg}such that

_{shg}=

*m*Λ

_{thg}, where

*m*is an integer that indicates the order of quasi-phase-matching [11

11. G. Z. Luo, S. N. Zhu, J. L. He, Y. Y. Zhu, H. T. Wang, Z. W. Liu, C. Zhang, and N. B. Ming, “Simultaneously efficient blue and red light generations in a periodically poled LiTO_{3},” Appl. Phys. Lett. **78**, 3006–3008 (2001). [CrossRef]

*m*= 3, we find from Eqs. (1) and (2) that second and third harmonic generation will occur simultaneously provided that the poling periodicity Λ satisfies both of the following two equations:

*λ*is the wavelength of the fundamental beam and

*n*

_{ω},

*n*

_{2ω},

*n*

_{3m}are the refractive indices of the 3 waves. For a given material at a given temperature, Eqs. (3) and (4) can only be satisfied for one pump wavelength and one periodicity. Using the Sellmeier equation given in [12

12. D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. **22**, 1553–1555 (1997). [CrossRef]

_{3}. The results are shown in Fig. 1.

*k*

_{2ω}-2

_{kω}±2

*π*/Λ and ∆

*k*

_{3ω}-

*k*

_{2ω}-

_{kω}±6

*π*/Λ be these deviations. Assuming that the three beams are extraordinarily polarized, that the duty cycle of the poling is 50%, and that

*I*

_{ω}≫

*I*

_{2ω}≫

*I*

_{3ω}, where

*I*

_{ω},

*I*

_{2ω}and

*I*

_{3ω}are the intensities of the different beams, a coupled-wave analysis shows that the output intensity

*I*

_{3ω}is given by

*G*is a constant given by

*G*= 144

*π*

^{4}

*λ*

^{4}(

*n*

_{3ω}

*n*

_{3ω}),

*Z*

_{0}≈ 377Ω is the impedance of vacuum and

*L*is the interaction length; the effective quasi-phase-matching nonlinearities for second and third harmonic generation are given by

*d*

_{33}is the element of the nonlinear tensor for interactions among extraordinarily polarized waves. The departure from perfect quasi-phase-matching is described by the factor Φ, given by

^{2}the conversion efficiency can be higher than 20%. These intensities can be attained inside the cavity of a continuous wave laser. We did not plot the power obtained at higher pump intensities since Eq. (7) would no longer be valid due to the two undepleted-pump approximations used in our analysis.

_{3}. Using standard electrical poling techniques, we made a PPLN crystal with two periodicities, one to convert through optical parametric generation a Q-switched, ~ 7 ns

*λ*= 1.064μ

*m*pulse into a 1.43 μm signal, and another to generate its second and third harmonics. Using the Sellmeier equation given in [12

12. D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. **22**, 1553–1555 (1997). [CrossRef]

*μm*; 27.6 : 15.2 μm; 27.7 : 15.2 μm; and 27.7 : 15.1

*μm*. In all the above cases the first grating was 2.0 cm long and the second was 1.5 cm long.

*μm*grating pair at temperatures around 160°C. By varying the temperature around this value we could change the signal wavelength generated by the first grating and therefore the wavelength of the third harmonic. We did not measure the signal wavelength directly, since we did not have a calibrated spectrometer sensitive at 1.4 μm; instead, we inferred the wavelength from the second and third harmonics of this beam, measured with a CCD-based spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB2000). The full-width at half maximum of the second harmonic signal was ~ 2 nm, while the width for the third harmonic was 0.7 nm or lower, close to the resolution of the spectrometer. Figure 4(a) shows the third harmonic wavelength vs temperature; Fig. 4(b) shows the third harmonic energy vs temperature, obtained by pumping the crystal with ~ 1 mJ. The FWHM of the plot shown in Fig. 4(b) is more than 3 times the width shown in Fig. 3(c). We believe this is due to effects not considered in the theory, such as the finite bandwidth of the fundamental wave produced by the first grating (at least 4 nm) and the change of the wavelength of this wave with temperature.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, “Multigrating quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator in periodically poled LiNbO |

2. | M. Vaidyanathan, R. Eckardt, V. Dominic, L. Myers, and T. Grayson, “Cascaded Optical Parametric Oscillations,” Opt. Express |

3. | P. V. Gorelik, F. N. C. Wong, D. Kolker, and J. J. Zondy, “Cascaded optical parametric oscillation with a dual-grating periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Lett. |

4. | D. Lee and P. F. Moulton, “High-efficiency, high-power, OPO-based RGB source,” in |

5. | F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, T. Usami, H. Ito, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, G. Arisholm, and U. Keller, “Powerful red-green-blue laser source pumped with a mode-locked thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. |

6. | D. Jaque, D. Campany, and J. García Solé, “Red, green and blue laser light from a single Nd:YAI |

7. | J. Capmany, “Simultaneous generation of red, green and blue continuous wave laser radiation in Nd |

8. | Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, H. Liu, Y. Q. Lu, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “A scheme to realize three-fundamental-colors laser based on quasi-phase-matching,” Sol. State. Comm. |

9. | J. Liao, J. L. He, H. Liu, H. T. Wang, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Simultaneous generation of red, green and blue quasi-continuous-wave coherent radiation based on multiple quasiphase-matched interactions from a single aperiodically-poled LiTaO |

10. | Z.D. Gao, Shih-Yu Tu, S. N. Zhu, and A. H. Kung, “A Monolithic Red-Green-Blue Laser Projection Source based on PPSLT,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, postdeadline paper CPDA3 (2006). |

11. | G. Z. Luo, S. N. Zhu, J. L. He, Y. Y. Zhu, H. T. Wang, Z. W. Liu, C. Zhang, and N. B. Ming, “Simultaneously efficient blue and red light generations in a periodically poled LiTO |

12. | D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. |

13. | R. S. Cudney, L. A. Ríos, M. J. Orozco Arellanes, F. Alonso, and J. Fonseca. Rev. Mex. Fís. |

**OCIS Codes**

(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate

(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing

(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

**ToC Category:**

Nonlinear Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: September 5, 2006

Revised Manuscript: October 5, 2006

Manuscript Accepted: October 12, 2006

Published: October 30, 2006

**Citation**

R. S. Cudney, M. Robles-Agudo, and L. A. Ríos, "RGB source based on simultaneous quasi-phasematched second and third harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express **14**, 10663-10668 (2006)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-22-10663

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### References

- L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Multigrating quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator in periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 21, 591-593 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Vaidyanathan, R. Eckardt, V. Dominic, L. Myers, and T. Grayson, "Cascaded Optical Parametric Oscillations," Opt. Express 1, 49-53 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. V. Gorelik, F. N. C. Wong, D. Kolker, J. J. Zondy, "Cascaded optical parametric oscillation with a dual-grating periodically poled lithium niobate crystal," Opt. Lett. 31, 2039-2041 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Lee and P. F. Moulton, "High-efficiency, high-power, OPO-based RGB source," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper CThJ2, p. 42.
- F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, T. Usami, H. Ito, S. Kurimura, K. Kitamura, G. Arisholm, and U. Keller, "Powerful red-green-blue laser source pumped with a mode-locked thin disk laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1921-1923 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Jaque, D. Campany, J. García Solé, "Red, green and blue laser light from a single Nd:YAI3(BO3)4 crystal based on laser oscillation at 1.3 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 325-327 (1999). [CrossRef]
- J. Capmany, "Simultaneous generation of red, green and blue continuous wave laser radiation in Nd3+-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 144-146 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, H. Liu, Y. Q. Lu, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, Z. Y. Xu, "A scheme to realize three-fundamental-colors laser based on quasi-phase-matching," Solid State. Commun. 119, 363-366 (2001). [CrossRef]
- J. Liao, J. L. He, H. Liu, H. T. Wang, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, N. B. Ming, "Simultaneous generation of red, green and blue quasi-continuous-wave coherent radiation based on multiple quasiphase-matched interactions from a single aperiodically-poled LiTaO3" Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3159 -3161 (2003). [CrossRef]
- Z.D. Gao, Shih-Yu Tu, S. N. Zhu and A. H. Kung, "A Monolithic Red-Green-Blue Laser Projection Source based on PPSLT," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, postdeadline paper CPDA3 (2006).
- G. Z. Luo, S. N. Zhu, J. L. He, Y. Y. Zhu, H. T. Wang, Z. W. Liu, C. Zhang, N. B. Ming, "Simultaneously efficient blue and red light generations in a periodically poled LiTO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,3006-3008 (2001). [CrossRef]
- D. H. Jundt, "Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1553-1555 (1997).. [CrossRef]
- R. S. Cudney, L. A. Ríos, M. J. Orozco Arellanes, F. Alonso, and J. Fonseca, "Fabricacion de niobato de litio periodicamente polarizado paraoptica no linea Rev.," Mex.Fís. 48, 548-555 (2002).

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