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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 23 — Nov. 13, 2006
  • pp: 10984–10989
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High-sensitivity multi-channel single-interferometer DPSK receiver

D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, and J. J. Carney  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 23, pp. 10984-10989 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.010984


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Abstract

A high-sensitivity method of demodulating wavelength-division-multiplexed optical DPSK channels using a single interferometer is described and demonstrated. We show that this technique can operate within existing standards and achieve near-quantum-limited receiver performance. The resulting hardware simplification has potential to reduce the cost of deploying and scaling future wide-band optical-communication networks employing WDM-DPSK.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) modulation has received considerable attention by the free-space optical (FSO) communications community and the telecom industry due to its increased sensitivity over commonly used on-off-keying, and reduced peak power which mitigates nonlinear effects [1–8

1. J. C. Livas, “High sensitivity optically preamplified 10 Gb/s receivers,” in OFC, Paper PD4 (1996).

]. DPSK’s utility has been established with many long-haul fiber-optic experiments demonstrating multiple Tbit/s over ~10,000 km fiber spans with hundreds of WDM-DPSK channels (λs), e.g., [9–13

9. K. Yonenaga and K. Hagimoto, “10-Git/s x four-channel WDM transmission experiment over 2400-km DSF using optical DPSK direct detection scheme,” in OFC (1997).

]. The benefits of optical DPSK come at the cost of increased complexity, requiring a phase modulator and differential precoding in the transmitter (TX), and an optical delay-line interferometer (DI) demodulator and balanced detector detection in the receiver (RX) in order to derive maximum benefit. Of these elements, the DI is the most technically challenging and the least mature. For good performance, the arms of the DI must be stable to a small fraction of a wavelength, requiring careful thermo-mechanical packaging and/or stabilization techniques [14–18

14. E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, “High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263–265 (1994). [CrossRef]

], adding to size, weight, power, and cost. By using standard approaches that demultiplex λs before the DI, a separate DI is required for each channel, and the associated DI costs and complexities grow with the channel count. This can be considerable for high-rate 100+ channel systems.

Miyamoto and coauthors [19

19. Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, “S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40× 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1569–1570 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, “Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067–2078 (2002). [CrossRef]

] demonstrated concurrent PSK to ASK conversion of 43 Gbit/s WDM-DPSK channels to WDM-duobinary channels on the 100 GHz ITU grid using a 50 GHz free-spectral-range (FSR) DI. While well suited for applications where spectral efficiency is required, this simplified DPSK RX incurs sensitivity penalties of 3 dB due to single-ended DPSK reception and another ~0.5 dB due to the ~14% mismatch between the 50 GHz DI FSR and the 42.8 GHz data rate when used with 66% RZ waveforms. As shown in Fig. 1, the mismatch penalty is waveform dependent and with ~14% delay error, the penalty increases to ~0.8 dB and ~1.2 dB for 50% RZ and 33% RZ pulse-shapes, respectively, further reducing the sensitivity benefit of DPSK.

Fig. 1. Commonly used 33%RZ, 50%RZ, and 66%RZ pulse-carving waveforms (left) and the impact of interferometer delay error on DPSK receiver sensitivity for each waveform (right).

Simplified multi-channel ‘DPSK’ receivers have also been implemented with periodic narrow band optical filtering and similar duobinary signals over dispersive channels [21–24

21. A. Royset and D. R. Hjelme, “Novel dispersion tolerant optical duobinary transmitter using phase modulator and Bragg grating filter,” in ECOC (1998).

]. While dispersion tolerant, these single-ended demodulators also incur sensitivity penalties in excess of 3 dB when compared DPSK receivers employing balanced detection. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the key elements of a framework for implementing a highsensitivity multi-channel WDM-DPSK RX using a single DI that can achieve near-quantumlimited performance and maintain compatibility with existing standards.

2. The Multi-Channel DPSK Approach

Multi-channel DPSK reception (Fig. 2) can be achieved by leveraging the DI’s periodic transfer function (Fig. 3), and constraining the channel wavelength spacing (Δνch), to enable simultaneous demodulation of all λs. Unlike single-channel DPSK receivers in which the DI can track the incoming signal, in the multi-channel configuration, independent channels must have the same wavelength periodicity as the DI in order to avoid significant SNR penalties.

WDM channel separation is achieved via optical demultiplexing after the DI [19

19. Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, “S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40× 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1569–1570 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, “Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067–2078 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 25

25. D. O. Caplan, “Multi-channel DPSK Receiver,” in US Pat. Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).

]. Balanced detection, needed to achieve high-sensitivity, requires one extra WDM RX filter, but the WDM cost is small relative to the potential cost of hundreds of interferometers and associated stabilization hardware. Generally, the DI FSR=1/(nτb), where τb is the bit duration, and n is the integer representing the separation between differentially encoded bits (see e.g., [26

26. J. R. Minch, D. J. Townsend, and D. R. Gervais, “Rate Adjustable NRZ-DPSK Modulation Scheme with a Fixed Interferometer,” in IEEE LEOS (2005).

]). Typically, adjacent bits are encoded (n=1), requiring a 1-bit DI for demodulation, with FSR=1/τb=R, the channel rate. With polarity correction, the SNR peaks occur every FSR/2 (independent of n) as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. A Multi-λ DPSK RX with feedback and feedforward alignment capabilities that can include a pilot tone (λp) or master-channel, wavemeter, channel power and bit-error rate (BER), and interactive communication with the network (NFB) [25].

In order to avoid significant SNR degradation (Δγ), two conditions must be satisfied. First, Δνch must be within a small frequency offset (Δf) from an integer multiple m, of FSR2 (assuming polarity correction), i.e.,

Δνch=mFSR2±Δf.
(1)
Fig. 3. Periodic transfer function (fringes) of a DI: sin2() and cos2() outputs; and calculated (Δγcalc) and measured (Δγexpt) SNR penalties as a function of carrier frequency offset Δf, normalized by the DI FSR.

The second condition requires that the transmitted channel(s) each be aligned to target SNR fringe peaks (Δf→0). A detailed numerical analysis for the DPSK wavelength offset penalty is given in [27

27. H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, “Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887–1891 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. An alternative offset penalty calculation can be obtained in closedform following the approach in [28

28. S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson, and J. C. Livas, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 29

29. M. Schwartz, W. R. Bennett, and S. Stein, Communication Systems and Techniques (IEEE Press, New York, 1996).

]. Using the Marcum Q-function defined as

Qm(a,b)=bxexp[12(x2+a2)]Io(ax)dx,
(2)

where IO being the is the modified Bessel function of the first kind of zero order, the BER and SNR estimate (γcalc) are given by

BERcalc0.5[1Qm(2γthcos(πΔfFSR),2γthsin(πΔfFSR))+Qm(2γthsin(πΔfFSR),2γthcos(πΔfFSR))],
(3)
γcalcln(2·BERcalc)andΔγ10log10(γcalcγth),
(4)

where γth is the ideal SNR at the input to the preamplified RX (without frequency offset) and Δγ is the effective SNR penalty in dB. For a coherent source, such as a laser operating well above threshold, γth is equivalent to the number of photons-per-bit. This straightforward estimate for the offset SNR penalty provided excellent agreement with the measured data, shown in Fig. 3. For |Δf/FSR|<~4%, Δγ<½ dB at the 10-3 BER, which is an error-free threshold point for commonly used FEC [5–7

5. D. O. Caplan, J. C. Gottschalk, R. J. Murphy, N. W. Spellmeyer, and M. L. Stevens, “Performance of high-rate high-sensitivity optical communications with forward error correction coding,” in CLEO (Paper CPDD9, 2004).

]. Note that for a fixed frequency offset, this alignment penalty is reduced as the FSR gets larger, an effect that makes it more challenging to avoid penalties at lower data rates.

Proper wavelength alignment can be achieved with either absolute λ-control at the TX and RX (a feature that could be particularly useful in FSO applications to assist acquisition), or with (slow) feedback from the RX via network-level maintenance and control. One means of achieving absolute λ-control of the DI is to use a stable thermal design [17

17. J. Hsieh, A. Chiayu, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal Demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK Signals,” in ECOC (2005).

]. Another approach is to lock the DI to a pilot tone, which could be a locally-resident calibrated laser, that could, for example, operate outside of the communication band to conserve available spectrum. Alternatively, a master-reference channel could be used that the DI and all other λs can align to with feedback [18

18. D. O. Caplan, “Reconfigurable Polarization Independent Interferometers and Methods of Stabilization,” in US Pat. Appl. 11/318,255 (2005).

]. The pilot-based approach provides additional flexibility, by allowing DI adjustment by simply tuning the pilot wavelength or standard signal tracking (in single-channel applications) in a common platform.

For 40 Gbit/s DPSK channels received with a 40 GHz FSR interferometer, each λ needs to be within ±1.6 GHz of its target fringe peak (|Δf|<1.6 GHz) in order to limit Δγ<½ dB. Typical steady-state 1.55µm DFB laser wavelength depends on temperature and current, with

dλdT0.1nmoC=12.5GHzoCanddλdi0.004nmmA=0.5GHzmA.
(5)

This level of wavelength control corresponds to temperature and current control of ~130mdeg C and ~3 mA resolution, respectively, which can be readily achieved with commercially available controllers. In addition, integrated or external λ-monitoring with feedback can be used to further stabilize the TX wavelength, providing another reliable means for sub-GHz λ-control [30

30. T. Shinagawa, “Detailed investigation on reliability of wavelength-monitor-integrated fixed and tunable DFB laser diode modules,” J. Lightwave Technology 23, 1126–1136 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

To avoid performance penalties when using a multi-channel DPSK receiver, the half-channel-rate and channel spacing can be chosen to uphold Eq. (1) by either: a) adjusting the channel spacing to be a multiple of the channel rate, abandoning the ITU grid if necessary, or b) adjusting R/2 to be an even factor of the channel spacing, abandoning, for example, SONET or G.709 standards if necessary.

If conforming with existing standards is the priority, Eq. (1) may not be satisfied exactly, but the associated performance penalties and deviation from the standard can be constrained to acceptable levels. For example, 10.7 Gbit/s channels on the 100 GHz ITU grid can be demodulated without performance penalty by a 10.7 GHz FSR DI, which can accept optical center frequencies every ~5.3 GHz with polarity correction. While most of the DI fringes will not align exactly to the 100 GHz ITU grid, none will misalign by more than 5.3/2 or ~2.7 GHz (FSR4) , with the average deviation of only ~1.4 GHz (FSR8) . This deviation can be further reduced by a factor of n by demodulating with an n-bit DI, albeit with increased alignment sensitivities [25

25. D. O. Caplan, “Multi-channel DPSK Receiver,” in US Pat. Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).

].

3. Experimental Demonstration

We demonstrate the multi-channel DPSK RX with a 2-channel experiment at 2.5 Gbit/s, using two pulse-carved transmitters shown below and described further in [31

31. D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, and R. J. Murphy, “Demonstration of Optical DPSK Communication with 25 Photons/Bit Sensitivity,” in CLEO (2006).

], with λ1=1556nm and λ2=1551nm, separated by ~250 FSRs. The 400psec DI is stabilized and locked onto λ1 which serves as a pilot channel (CH1). BER feedback from the second channel (CH2) is used to align λ2 to the DI and optimize performance. A calibrated power meter is used to estimate the power at the RX input with ~±0.1 dB accuracy, and a wave meter is used to monitor incoming signal λs with ~12 MHz resolution. Open-loop wavelength stability for CH2 was measured to be better than ±32 MHz, with a 12 MHz standard deviation during the 24 hour BER stability measurements shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 4. The experimental setup consisting of a 2-channel (wavelength) master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) TX that generates 50%-RZ DPSK waveforms, and an opticallypreamplified Multi-Channel DPSK Receiver. A differential delay > the bit period is inserted between the two channels to ensure bit-pattern independence.

The BER measurements in Fig. 6 were made with the pilot channel (CH1) filtered with a nearly-matched 3.8 GHz Gaussian fiber-Bragg grating [31

31. D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, and R. J. Murphy, “Demonstration of Optical DPSK Communication with 25 Photons/Bit Sensitivity,” in CLEO (2006).

], operating individually and together with the slave-channel CH2, demonstrating near-record RX sensitivities of ~28 photons/bit (PPB), only ~1.5 dB from theory. The ~0.5 dB difference between these measured CH1 sensitivities and those in [31

31. D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, and R. J. Murphy, “Demonstration of Optical DPSK Communication with 25 Photons/Bit Sensitivity,” in CLEO (2006).

] result from the dual-polarization RX used in these experiments.

Fig. 5. SNR stability of the slave-channel (CH2) with open-loop λ-control.
Fig. 6. Measured BER curves for two 2.5 Gbit/s WDM-DPSK channels demodulated with the same interferometer. The CH1 RX filter is a nearly matched 3.8 GHz Gaussian, yielding performance 1.5 dB from theory. CH2 performance is ~3.3 dB from theory due to a wider 13 GHz Gaussian receiver filter.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have described and demonstrated for the first time, a stable transmittercentric approach of aligning incoming WDM-DPSK channels to either the odd or even fringes of a single interferometer for penalty-free multi-channel operation. Our experiments incorporated a flexible pilot-based interferometer stabilization technique and validated this multi-channel DPSK RX approach with stable near-quantum-limited performance for two simultaneously demodulated λs; no measurable SNR penalty was observed for multi-λ operation over an extended 24-hour period. While it is likely that DPSK-based communications will first target 40 Gbit/s rates, these 2.5 Gbit/s multi-channel DPSK experiments are a much more stressful test, requiring 16-times better alignment between signal-wavelength and interferometer. We note also that these interferometer sharing and stabilization techniques can be used with other wavelength multiplexed differential phasemodulation formats such as DQPSK.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

J. C. Livas, “High sensitivity optically preamplified 10 Gb/s receivers,” in OFC, Paper PD4 (1996).

2.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” in LEOS (1999).

3.

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz, “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth, and A. Umbach, “A 42.7-Gb/s Integrated Balanced Optical Front End with Record Sensitivity,” in OFC (Paper PD39-1, 2003).

5.

D. O. Caplan, J. C. Gottschalk, R. J. Murphy, N. W. Spellmeyer, and M. L. Stevens, “Performance of high-rate high-sensitivity optical communications with forward error correction coding,” in CLEO (Paper CPDD9, 2004).

6.

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, “High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZDPSK with forward error correction,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579–1581 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Mizuochi et. al., “Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems,” IEEE Sel. Top. in Quantum Electronics 10, 376–386 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Yonenaga and K. Hagimoto, “10-Git/s x four-channel WDM transmission experiment over 2400-km DSF using optical DPSK direct detection scheme,” in OFC (1997).

10.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, “2.5 Tb/s (64 × 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40× 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans,” in OFC (2002).

11.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73 Tb/s over 11,000 km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10 Gb/s,” in OFC (Paper PD22-1, 2003).

12.

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, F. Liu, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, and P. Reeves-Hall, “DWDM 40G transmission over trans-Pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC and all-Raman amplified 100 km Ultrawave fiber spans,” in OFC (Paper PD18-1, 2003).

13.

B. Zhu, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, A. H. Gnauck, C. Doerr, J. Leuthold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, M. O. Pedersen, J. Kim, R. L. Lingle, Jr., Y. Emori, Y. Ohki, N. Tsukiji, A. Oguri, and S. Namiki, “6.4 Tbit/s (160×42.7 Gb/s) transmission with 0.8 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 32×100 km of fiber using CSRZ-DPSK format,” in OFC (Paper PD19, 2003).

14.

E. A. Swanson, J. C. Livas, and R. S. Bondurant, “High sensitivity optically preamplified direct detection DPSK receiver with active delay-line stabilization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 263–265 (1994). [CrossRef]

15.

D. G. Heflinger, J. S. Bauch, and T. E. Humes, “Apparatus and method for tuning an optical interferometer,” in US Pat. 6,396,605 (2002).

16.

F. Séguin and F. Gonthier, “Tuneable All-Fiber® Delay-Line Interferometer for DPSK Demodulation,” in OFC (2005).

17.

J. Hsieh, A. Chiayu, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. Gnauck, and X. Wei, “Athermal Demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK Signals,” in ECOC (2005).

18.

D. O. Caplan, “Reconfigurable Polarization Independent Interferometers and Methods of Stabilization,” in US Pat. Appl. 11/318,255 (2005).

19.

Y. Miyamoto, H. Masuda, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, Y. Kisaka, H. Kawakami, M. Tomizawa, Y. Tada, and S. Aozasa, “S-band WDM coherent transmission of 40× 43-Gbit/s CS-RZ DPSK signals over 400 km DSF using hybrid GS-TDFAs/Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1569–1570 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara, M. Tomizawa, and Y. Tada, “Novel modulation and detection for bandwidth-reduced RZ formats using duobinary-mode splitting in wideband PSK/ASK conversion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 20, 2067–2078 (2002). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Royset and D. R. Hjelme, “Novel dispersion tolerant optical duobinary transmitter using phase modulator and Bragg grating filter,” in ECOC (1998).

22.

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, “Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal,” in ECOC (2001).

23.

H. Bissessur, G. Charlet, E. Gohin, C. Simonneau, L. Pierre, and W. Idler, “1.6 Tbit/s (40×40 Gbit/s) DPSK transmission over 3×100 km of TeraLight fibre with direct detection,” Electron. Lett. 39, 192–193 (2003). [CrossRef]

24.

A. D’Errico, R. Proietti, N. Calabretta, L. Giorgi, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “WDM-DPSK Detection by Means of Frequency-Periodic Gaussian Narrow Filtering” in OFC (2006).

25.

D. O. Caplan, “Multi-channel DPSK Receiver,” in US Pat. Appl. 11/022,344 (2004).

26.

J. R. Minch, D. J. Townsend, and D. R. Gervais, “Rate Adjustable NRZ-DPSK Modulation Scheme with a Fixed Interferometer,” in IEEE LEOS (2005).

27.

H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, “Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Tech. 21, 1887–1891 (2003). [CrossRef]

28.

S. R. Chinn, D. M. Boroson, and J. C. Livas, “Sensitivity of optically preamplified DPSK receivers with Fabry-Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14 (1996). [CrossRef]

29.

M. Schwartz, W. R. Bennett, and S. Stein, Communication Systems and Techniques (IEEE Press, New York, 1996).

30.

T. Shinagawa, “Detailed investigation on reliability of wavelength-monitor-integrated fixed and tunable DFB laser diode modules,” J. Lightwave Technology 23, 1126–1136 (2005). [CrossRef]

31.

D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, and R. J. Murphy, “Demonstration of Optical DPSK Communication with 25 Photons/Bit Sensitivity,” in CLEO (2006).

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 18, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 10, 2006
Published: November 13, 2006

Citation
D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, and J. J. Carney, "High-sensitivity multi-channel single-interferometer DPSK receiver," Opt. Express 14, 10984-10989 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-23-10984


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References

  1. J. C. Livas, "High sensitivity optically preamplified 10 Gb/s receivers," in OFC, Paper PD4 (1996).
  2. W. A. Atia, and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," in LEOS (1999).
  3. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth, and A. Umbach, "A 42.7-Gb/s Integrated Balanced Optical Front End with Record Sensitivity," in OFC (Paper PD39-1, 2003).
  5. D. O. Caplan, J. C. Gottschalk, R. J. Murphy, N. W. Spellmeyer, and M. L. Stevens, "Performance of high-rate high-sensitivity optical communications with forward error correction coding," in CLEO (Paper CPDD9, 2004).
  6. N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, and M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40-Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Mizuochi, et. al., "Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10-Gb/s optical communication systems," IEEE Sel. Top. in Quantum Electronics 10, 376 - 386 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Gnauck, and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 - 130 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yonenaga, and K. Hagimoto, "10-Git/s x four-channel WDM transmission experiment over 2400-km DSF using optical DPSK direct detection scheme," in OFC (1997).
  10. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, and D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 x 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 x 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans," in OFC (2002).
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