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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 23 — Nov. 13, 2006
  • pp: 11184–11193
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Slow light and 3D imaging with non-magnetic negative index systems

Leonid V. Alekseyev and Evgenii Narimanov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 23, pp. 11184-11193 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.011184


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Abstract

We demonstrate that strongly anisotropic planar dielectric systems can be used to create waveguides supporting modes with extremely slow group velocity. Furthermore, we show that such systems can be used for 3D imaging, with a potential for subwavelength resolution.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Materials with negative refractive index (NIMs) have attracted significant attention in recent years [1

1. J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Physics Today , 57, 37–43 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713–2715 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. NIMs’ predicted potential for subwavelength resolution [3

3. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and aberration-free imaging, along with their demonstrated realizability through modern processing technologies, spurned much interest in negative index phenomena.

Despite successful proof-of-principle experiments, significant challenges exist for implementing NIM materials, especially at optical frequencies. The existing methods to achieve negative refractive index either rely on simultaneously negative values of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability [4

4. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative value of ε and µ, Soviet Physics Uspekhi 10, 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

] (which for high frequencies are created via resonant response and are thus accompanied by high losses), or require nontrivial subwavelength-scale material patterning [5

5. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which results in strong sensitivity to disorder. Due to these limitations, all practical NIM designs are currently restricted to GHz frequencies [1

1. J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Physics Today , 57, 37–43 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Recently, a new class of NIMs has been proposed that does not require magnetic resonance or periodic patterning. The proposed method of obtaining negative effective index relies on traveling wave solutions in a strongly anisotropic planar waveguide geometry and presents a promising platform for creating devices at optical frequencies. It was shown earlier [7

7. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. V. A. Podolskiy, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic media: the THz perspectives of left-handed materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2343–2349 (2005). [CrossRef]

] that a planar metallic waveguide with sufficient anisotropy can support modes with negative group velocity and exhibit negative refractive index.

In the present paper we perform a detailed analysis of modes in a strongly anisotropic dielectric waveguide and demonstrate that it can enable slow group velocities. Furthermore, we show that when used as a slab lens, this system is capable of 3D imaging with a potential for subwavelength resolution.

2. Slow light in negative-index media

Slow light systems, particularly in the solid state, are actively studied due to their intriguing behavior, as well as multiple potential applications. However, all existing methods of slowing light either rely on a narrow material resonance (and thus only allow for limited tunability) [9

9. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413, 273–276 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903, (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or require periodic patterning and are thus highly sensitive to disorder [12

12. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Here we propose an alternative approach to attaining slow group velocities, which can be implemented in a planar, non-periodic semiconductor system.

Slow light in our system results from combining materials with positive and negative effective refractive index. Negative index behavior, in turn, arises as a consequence of strong material anisotropy, which drastically affects light propagation and leads to negative group velocity [7

7. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. V. A. Podolskiy, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic media: the THz perspectives of left-handed materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2343–2349 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1. Isofrequency curve and relative direction of the wave vector k⃗ and the Poynting vector S⃗ for (a) isotropic material, (b) material with εx,εz>0, (c) material with εx<0, εz>0.

We consider a uniaxial system with negative permittivity along the optical axis. Light propagating in a uniaxial medium may constitute an ordinary or an extraordinary wave, depending on whether the E-field vector has a non-vanishing component along the optical axis. Since ordinary waves are not affected by the anisotropy, in what follows we focus on the extraordinary polarization. Taking as the direction of the optical axis, we may characterize the extraordinary wave in a uniaxial crystal by the dispersion relation

kx2εz+ky,z2εx=ω2c2.
(1)

This equation can be used to understand one key consequence of material anisotropy: the deviation of the Poynting vector S⃗ from the direction of the wave vector k⃗. For sufficiently weak absorption, the direction of the Poynting vector is identical to the direction of the group velocity vector v⃗g=∇k⃗ω(k⃗) [13

13. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, and L. P. Pitaevskii, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed., (Reed Ltd., Oxford, 1984).

]. This implies that S⃗ is normal to the isofrequency curves given by Eq. (1).

In Fig. 1 we draw vectors S⃗ and k⃗ for a lossless isotropic medium, as well as for two different cases of uniaxial anisotropy (εx, εz>0 and εx<0, εz>0). In the isotropic case, the wave vector surfaces are circles, and therefore S⃗∝∇k⃗ω(k⃗)∝k⃗, i.e. S⃗ and k⃗ are collinear. For εxεz, εx,z>0, the wave vector surfaces become ellipsoidal; as a consequence, the angle between S⃗ and k⃗ is non-zero (increasing with stronger anisotropy). Finally, for a material with negative transverse dielectric permittivity εx<0 and positive in-plane permittivity εz>0, the dispersion relation (1) becomes hyperbolic. The curvature of the hyperbola is such that the signs of Sz and kz are opposite [Fig. 1(c)], as was pointed out by Belov in Ref. [6

6. P. A. Belov, “Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 37259–263 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

This result can be understood quantitatively: the component of the Poynting vector for the extraordinary wave is given by

Sz=kz2ωεxH2.
(2)

Evidently, if εx<0, Sz is negative, i.e. opposite to the direction of the wave vector component kz. As we shall see, this sign difference leads to the (effective) negative refractive index for refraction at an interface and for waveguiding.

In particular, when {εx<0, εz>0} material is used as a core of a planar mirror waveguide (oriented along the yz plane), negative group velocity modes arise [7

7. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

]; for these modes the wave vector and the energy flux are antiparallel. Similarly, when such material is used as a core of a dielectric waveguide, energy flux in the core is antiparallel to the wave vector. However, the energy flux in the waveguide cladding (made of regular, isotropic dielectric) is, as usual, collinear with the wave vector.

Fig. 2. (a) Dielectric planar waveguide schematics. (b) Guided mode dispersion curves for anisotropic core with εx<0, εz>0 (εd=1, εx=10, εz=-2). Note that we do not draw the dispersion curves for low frequencies, as spatial dispersion effects are expected to significantly affect the dielectric response in that regime.

It has been recently suggested that balancing positive energy flux in a dielectric with negative energy flux in a medium with simultaneously negative values of dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability can be used to effectively slow the group velocity of propagating modes [14

14. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Guided modes in a waveguide filled with a pair of single-negative (SNG), double-negative (DNG), and/or double-positive (DPS) layers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 199–210 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. While our system does not exhibit magnetic response, the general concept of balancing flux in different regions of a compound structure can still be applied, provided that one medium is characterized by negative group velocity.

3. Guided modes of a strongly anisotropic waveguide

Planar dielectric waveguides admit two distinct polarizations – TE and TM modes. If the waveguide core possesses anisotropy (with optical axis x transverse to the waveguide plane yz), only TM modes are affected by the anisotropy (much like only the extraordinary waves are affected by the anisotropy of bulk uniaxial media). In particular, when εx<0, the dispersion curves for these modes acquire a qualitatively different character from those in an εx,z>0 waveguide.

For guided TM waves, the electric field in the three regions of the waveguide in Fig. 2(a) can be expressed as

E1=(Axx̂+Azẑ)eκ1xeikzz
(3a)
E2=[(Bxsinkxx+Cxcoskxx)x̂+(Bzsinkxx+Czcoskxx)ẑ]eikzz
(3b)
E3=(Dxx̂+Dzẑ)eκ3xeikzz.
(3c)

Requiring continuity at the boundaries and compliance with Maxwell’s equations, we can obtain the guidance condition in the form

κiεdi=fj(kx,kz;κj),
(4)

where (i, j) ∆ {(1, 3), (3, 1)} and

fj(kx,kz;κj)=(kxεz)(εdjkxεzκjcotkxdεzκj+εdjkxcotkxd) .

Dispersion relations in the three regions are

kz2εx+kx2εz=ω2c2
(5)
kz2κi2εdi=ω2c2,i{1,3}.
(6)

For the case εd1=εd3εd these equations can be combined as

κ2εx+kx2εz=(1εdεx)ω2c2,
(7)

while the guidance condition becomes

κ=kxεdεz{tankxd2(odd modes)cotkxd2(even modes).
(8)

Finally, kx may be expressed through kz and ω using Eq. (5). We thereby obtain a set of transcendental equations, which may be solved graphically or numerically to yield ω vs. kz dispersion curves.

A particular feature of an anisotropic waveguide is that propagating TM modes can exist for various sign combinations of εx and εz. For εx, εz>0 the modes resemble those in an isotropic waveguide, while for εx, εz<0 propagating solutions vanish. If only one of the εx, εz is negative, propagating solutions exist, and their behavior is strongly affected by the altered character of the dispersion relation.

In Fig. 2(b) we plot dispersion curves of the guided modes resulting from solving Equations (7) and (8) (with a negative value of the transverse permittivity εx). For every guided mode we observe regions with both positive group velocity (most of the energy travels in the waveguide cladding) and negative group velocity (most of the energy is in the core). Furthermore, it is evident that for each mode there exists the value of the signal frequency ω 0 corresponding to an extremely strong suppression of the group velocity.

Fig. 3. (a) Artificially structured material: a stack of alternating layers with ε 1>0, ε 2<0 and with layer thickness dλ. (b) Dielectric constants (real parts) for the SiC/SiO2 stack. Shaded region indicates the regime where εx<0, εz>0.

It should be noted that Fig. 2(b) curves do not include the effects of material dispersion or losses, necessarily present in any realistic design of the waveguide structure. These effects alter the exact appearance of the dispersion curves, but preserve slow group velocity behavior around ω 0.

4. Practical realizations of slow light in anisotropic waveguides

The {εx<0, εz>0} anisotropy required for the waveguide core can be found in several naturally occurring substances – such as e.g. bismuth in the THz domain and sapphire in the far IR [15

15. L. V. Alekseyev, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Terahertz non-magnetic negative-refraction system,” submitted to Applied Physics Letters.

]. It can also be readily achieved in artificially nanostructured systems, for instance, in a layered medium with alternating permittivities in the x direction [7

7. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. V. A. Podolskiy, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic media: the THz perspectives of left-handed materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2343–2349 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. G. Shvets, “Photonic approach to making a material with a negative index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035109 (2003). [CrossRef]

] – see Fig. 3(a). This medium consists of a sequence of “dielectric” layers (ε 1>0) and “conductive” layers (ε 2<0) [17

17. E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electron. Lett. 371243–1244 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the near field,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419–1430 (2003).

]. The effective dielectric tensor of such structure (with the volume fraction of the conducting layers Nc) is given by [19

19. R. Wangberg, J. Elser, E. E. Narimanov, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Non-magnetic nano-composites for optical and infrared negative-refractive-index media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 498–505 (2006). [CrossRef]

]

εx=ε1ε2Ncε1+(1Nc)ε2
εz=(1Nc)ε1+Ncε2.
(9)

Provided ε 1>0, ε 2<0 these equations lead to a well-defined frequency interval with εx<0, εz>0. Such a layered system can be fabricated using epitaxial semiconductor growth, with selective doping used to attain ε 2<0 in the “metallic” regions. Alternatively, these conductive layers may be made from a naturally occurring material with ε<0.

In the visible spectrum, plasmon resonance results in ε<0 for a number of metals, which, however, suffer from substantial losses due to free carriers. One relatively low-loss plasmonic material is silver. Ag/SiO2 multilayer systems for imaging applications are actively being investigated both experimentally [20

20. D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Experimental comparison of resolution and pattern fidelity in single- and double-layer planar lens lithography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 461–467 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and theoretically [21

21. K. J. Webb and M. Yang, “Subwavelength imaging with a multilayer silver film structure,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2130–2132 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such systems could potentially be utilized to create anisotropic waveguide structures described above for operating in the visible range.

Fig. 4. (a) Dispersion curves for a waveguide with air cladding (εd=1) and SiC/SiO2 metamaterial core. The characteristic planar waveguide dispersion curves are evident in the region ω/ω* ≳ 1.1, where ω* is the center of the {εx<0, εz>0} region. (b) Negative index modes in the {εx<0, εz>0} region. (c) Magnitude of the group velocity of the fourth order negative index mode [indicated by the arrow in (b)]. Shaded region indicates ≲ 10% relative change in group velocity. The spectral width of this region is 390 GHz.

At different wavelengths, other mechanisms can result in ε<0, with losses lower than those in silver. In the mid-infrared, for instance, negative permittivity occurs in a number of compounds due to phononic resonances. A low-loss material, well-suited for studying negativeindex phenomena in the mid-IR, is silicon carbide [16

16. G. Shvets, “Photonic approach to making a material with a negative index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035109 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. G. Shvets, Y. Urzhumov, and D. Korobkin, “Enhanced near-field resolution in mid-infrared using metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 468–478 (2006). [CrossRef]

], a wide bandgap, environmentally robust semiconductor with multiple existing and prospective applications in optoelectronics, power electronics, MEMS, and sensors. Its dielectric function is given by

εSiC=εω2ωLO2+iγωω2ωTO2+iγω,
(10)

where ω LO=972 cm-1, ω TO=796 cm-1, ε =-6.5, and γ=5 cm-1 [22

22. G. Shvets, Y. Urzhumov, and D. Korobkin, “Enhanced near-field resolution in mid-infrared using metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 468–478 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, “Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide,” Phys. Rev. 113, 127132 (1959). [CrossRef]

]. The resonant behavior results in ε SiC<0 for the wavelengths of 10.3–12.5 µm.

We model the anisotropic waveguide core as a metamaterial composed of interleaved SiC and SiO2 (ε≃3.9) layers, with the SiC volume fraction Nc=50%. In Fig. 3(b) we plot εx and εz as given by Eqs. (9) and (10). Several distinct regions can be defined by the signs of εx and εz. For high and low wavelengths (λ>12.6 µm and λ<10.3 µm) both dielectric components are positive (εx≡Re[εx], εz≡Re[εz]>0). In the 11–12.6 µm spectral band, εx>0, εz<0. Finally, in the range of 10.3–11 µm Fig. 3(b) shows εx<0, εz>0, the anisotropy needed to realize negative effective index and hence slow light. The center of this frequency range (≈10.6 µm) corresponds to the frequency that we denote by ω*.

In Fig. 4(a) we plot the guided mode dispersion curves of the air-clad (εd=1) waveguide with the SiC/SiO2 metamaterial core. Values of ω/ω* ≳ 1.1 (λ≲10.3 µm) cover the region where εx, εz>0. The mode dispersion curves in this region correspond to the usual guided TM modes of a dielectric waveguide. Curves in the range 0.85 ≲ ω/ω* ≲ 0.9 (λ=11–12.6 µm) represent the εx>0, εz<0 modes, which we do not treat here. Finally, the spectral region 0.9 ≲ ω/ω* ≲ 1.0 (λ=10.3–11 µm) corresponds to εx<0, εz>0 – the requirement for negative index modes.

This region is examined in Fig. 4(b).We note that the dispersion curves of modes in the figure appear qualitatively similar to those of interface plasmon or phonon polaritons of a negative permittivity slab [24

24. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills (eds.), Surface Polaritons (North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1982).

]. However, the structure of the modes in our system is markedly different from that of slab-guided polaritons. Guided modes of Fig. 4(b) are essentially bulk states and, as such, their dispersion characteristics do not depend on the thicknesses of individual layers.

Fig. 5. The schematics (a) and the actual electric field (b) for the refraction of a light beam at the boundary of air with an εx<0, εz>0 material. Note negative refraction of the beam and the direction of the wavefronts (εz=3, εx=-1.5).

Frequency-dependent group velocity of a single slow mode [indicated by arrow in Fig. 4(b)] is plotted in Fig. 4(c). We obtain vg≲0.004c over a 1.1 THz frequency range. Such wide bandwidth suggests the possibility of using the proposed system as an optical buffer. Assuming operation around the point of zero second-order dispersion and restricting group velocity deviation from that point to less than 10% (shaded region in the figure), we obtain a usable data transmission bandwidth of 390 gigabits per second, with the required device length of 14.4 µm for a 4-bit buffer. These parameters are comparable to operational characteristics of most currently proposed solid state slow light devices, in particular those based on electromagnetically induced transparency and coupled resonator systems [26

26. J. B. Khurgin, “Optical buffers based on slow light in electromagnetically induced transparent media and coupled resonator structures: comparative analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1062–1074 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The combination of large data bandwidth and compact device size exhibited by our system is similar to that of the recently proposed plasmonic slow light waveguides [24

24. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Like the plasmonic devices, our system is strongly limited by losses (~ 4 dB/µm). It should be noted that our device exhibits somewhat lower losses while attaining slower group velocities than the plasmonic slow light structures [24

24. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Negative refraction at the surface of negative index media

Fig. 6. Refocusing of a Gaussian beam with a planar lens. (a) Schematics of a beam with and without the planar lens. (b) Rapid spread of a tightly focused Gaussian beam. (c) Refocusing of a beam by a planar lens ~150 µm in thickness made from the proposed SiC/SiO2 metamaterial. Waist of the incident beam is located at x/λ=-12, and the boundaries of the lens (indicated by red lines) at x/λ=±7.5. Relative intensity is plotted in false color.
sinχ=sinχ0εz+(1εzεx)sin2χ0sign[εz],sinϑ=sinχ0εx2εz+(1εxεz)sin2χ0sign[εx],
(11)

leading to χ>0, ϑ<0 for εx<0, εz>0. In Fig. 5(b) we show the direct (numerical) calculation of the refraction of an optical Gaussian beam incident on the surface between air and strongly anisotropic dielectric with εx<0, εz>0. As expected, the direction of the beam follows the negative refraction of the Poynting vector, while the tilted wavefronts indicate positive refraction of the wave vector.

6. Conclusion

We have demonstrated that a planar anisotropic waveguide with negative transverse permittivity (εx<0, εy,z>0) supports slow light modes. Such modes are made possible by the balance of positive energy flux in the cladding and negative energy flux in the core. Resonant coupling to these slow light modes with kz>ω/c allows the use of this structure as a planar lens with subwavelength resolution.

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by National Science Foundation grants DMR-0134736 and ECS-0400615, and by Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM).

References and links

1.

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, “Reversing light with negative refraction,” Physics Today , 57, 37–43 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction of modulated electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2713–2715 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative value of ε and µ, Soviet Physics Uspekhi 10, 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

5.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

P. A. Belov, “Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 37259–263 (2003). [CrossRef]

7.

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B 71201101(R) (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

V. A. Podolskiy, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic media: the THz perspectives of left-handed materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2343–2349 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

10.

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413, 273–276 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903, (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, and L. P. Pitaevskii, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed., (Reed Ltd., Oxford, 1984).

14.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Guided modes in a waveguide filled with a pair of single-negative (SNG), double-negative (DNG), and/or double-positive (DPS) layers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 199–210 (2004). [CrossRef]

15.

L. V. Alekseyev, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Terahertz non-magnetic negative-refraction system,” submitted to Applied Physics Letters.

16.

G. Shvets, “Photonic approach to making a material with a negative index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 035109 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Shamonina, V. A. Kalinin, K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, “Imaging, compression and Poynting vector streamlines for negative permittivity materials,” Electron. Lett. 371243–1244 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

S. A. Ramakrishna, J. B. Pendry, M. C. K. Wiltshire, and W. J. Stewart, “Imaging the near field,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1419–1430 (2003).

19.

R. Wangberg, J. Elser, E. E. Narimanov, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Non-magnetic nano-composites for optical and infrared negative-refractive-index media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 498–505 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

D. O. S. Melville and R. J. Blaikie, “Experimental comparison of resolution and pattern fidelity in single- and double-layer planar lens lithography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 461–467 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

K. J. Webb and M. Yang, “Subwavelength imaging with a multilayer silver film structure,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2130–2132 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G. Shvets, Y. Urzhumov, and D. Korobkin, “Enhanced near-field resolution in mid-infrared using metamaterials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 468–478 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

W. G. Spitzer, D. Kleinman, and D. Walsh, “Infrared properties of hexagonal silicon carbide,” Phys. Rev. 113, 127132 (1959). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljačić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills (eds.), Surface Polaritons (North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1982).

26.

J. B. Khurgin, “Optical buffers based on slow light in electromagnetically induced transparent media and coupled resonator structures: comparative analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1062–1074 (2005). [CrossRef]

27.

T. Dumelow, J. A. P. da Costa, and V. N. Freire, “Slab lenses from simple anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. B 72235115 (2005). [CrossRef]

28.

L. V. Alekseyev and E. E. Narimanov, “3D imaging with planar dielectric lens,” Proceedings CLEO/QELS, QWE4 (2006).

29.

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Near-sighted superlens,” Opt. Lett. 30, 75–77 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(260.1180) Physical optics : Crystal optics

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: July 21, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 1, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: November 1, 2006
Published: November 13, 2006

Citation
Leonid V. Alekseyev and Evgenii Narimanov, "Slow light and 3D imaging with non-magnetic negative index systems," Opt. Express 14, 11184-11193 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-23-11184


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References

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