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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 24 — Nov. 27, 2006
  • pp: 11616–11621
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Design of the Microstructured Optical Fiber-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors with enhanced microfluidics

A. Hassani and M. Skorobogatiy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 24, pp. 11616-11621 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.011616


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Abstract

The concept of a Microstructured Optical Fiber-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor with optimized microfluidics is proposed. In such a sensor plasmons on the inner surface of large metallized channels containing analyte can be excited by a fundamental mode of a single mode microstructured fiber. Phase matching between plasmon and a core mode can be enforced by introducing air filled microstructure into the fiber core, thus allowing tuning of the modal refractive index and its matching with that of a plasmon. Integration of large size microfluidic channels for efficient analyte flow together with a single mode waveguide of designable effective refractive index is attractive for the development of integrated highly sensitive MOF-SPR sensors operating at any designable wavelength.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Propagating at the metal/dielectric interface, surface plasmons [1

1. V.M. Agranovich and D.L. Mills. Surface Polaritons - Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces, (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).

] are extremely sensitive to changes in the refractive index of the dielectric. This feature constitutes the core of many Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors. Typically, these sensors are implemented in the Kretschmann-Raether prism geometry to direct p-polarized light through a glass prism and reflect it from a thin metal (Au, Ag) film deposited on the prism facet [2

2. E. Kretschmann and Z.H. Raether, Naturforschung23, 2135 (1993).

]. The presence of a prism allows resonant phase matching of an incident electromagnetic wave with a high-loss plasmonic wave at the metal/analyte interface at a specific combination of the angle of incidence and wavelength. By detecting changes in the amplitude or phase of a reflected light due to its coupling with a plasmon wave one can detect minute changes in the refractive index of an analyte bordering the metal layer. Using optical fibers instead of a prism in plasmonic sensors offers miniaturization, high degree of integration and remote sensing capabilities. Over the past decade driven by the need of miniaturization of SPR sensors various compact configurations enabling coupling between optical waveguide modes and surface plasmonic waves have been investigated. Among others, metallized single-mode, polarization maintaining, and multi-mode waveguides, metallized tapered fibers, and metallized fiber Bragg gratings have been studied [3

3. R.C. Jorgenson and S.S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. M.B. Vidal, R. Lopez, S. Aleggret, J. Alonso-Chamarro, I. Garces, and J. Mateo, “Determination of probable alcohol yield in musts by means of an SPR optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 455 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, “Single-mode, optical fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5197 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. J. Homola, “Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance excitation,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 401 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. A.J.C. Tubb, F.P. Payne, R.B. Millington, and C.R. Lowe, “Single-mode optical fibre surface plasma wave chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 41, 71 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. J. Homola, R. Slavik, and J. Ctyroky, “Intreaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon wave: spectral properties,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1403 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. A. Diez, M.V. Andres, and J.L. Cruz, “In-line fiber-optic sensors based on the excitation of surface plasma modes in metal-coated tapered fibers,” Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Manikova, and J. Ctyroky, “Surface plasmon resonance based on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 236 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. D. Monzon-Hernandez, J. Villatoro, D. Talavera, and D. Luna-Moreno, “Optical-fiber surface-plasmon resonance sensor with multiple resonance peaks,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1216 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, “High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 115, 227 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsuiand, and J. Kondoh, “Fundamental characteristics of a dual-colour fibre optic SPR sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. J. Ctyroky, F. Abdelmalek, W. Ecke, and K. Usbeck, “Modelling of the surface plasmon resonance waveguide sensor with Bragg grating,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 927 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, “Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. B.D. Gupta and A.K. Sharma, “Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study,” Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Two principal difficulties hindering development of the integrated waveguide-based sensors have been identified.

One of the problems is phase matching of a waveguide core mode and a plasmonic wave. Mathematically, phase matching constitutes equating the effective refractive indexes of the two modes at a given wavelength of operation. In the case of a single mode waveguide effective refractive index of its core mode is close to that of a core material, which for most practical materials is higher than 1.45. Effective refractive index of a plasmon is typically close to that of a bordering analyte, which in the case of air is ~1.0, while in the case of water is ~1.33. Only at higher frequencies [5

5. R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, “Single-mode, optical fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5197 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. J. Homola, “Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance excitation,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 401 (1995). [CrossRef]

] (which for the case of a gold metal film corresponds to λ<700nm) plasmon refractive index becomes high enough as to match that of a waveguide core mode. High frequency of operation limits plasmon penetration depth into the analyte, thus reducing sensitivity. Moreover, since plasmon in a planar film covering the waveguide can only be excited with a p-polarized light this necessitates the use of polarization-maintaining fibers to improve coupling efficiency between the plasmon and core guided modes [11

11. M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Manikova, and J. Ctyroky, “Surface plasmon resonance based on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 236 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. From a sensor design point of view it is quite unsatisfactory to be limited by the values of the material refractive indices without the ability of compensating material limitations with a judicious choice of a sensor geometry. In principle, phase matching problem can be alleviated by coupling to a plasmon via the high order modes of a multimode waveguide [16

16. A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, “Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. B.D. Gupta and A.K. Sharma, “Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study,” Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Such modes can have significantly lower effective refractive indices than a waveguide core index. In such a setup light has to be launched into a waveguide as to excite high order modes some of which will be phase matched with a plasmon. As only a fraction of higher order modes are phase matched to a plasmon, then only a fraction of total launched power will be coupled to a plasmon, thus reducing sensor sensitivity. Moreover, as power distribution in high order modes is sensitive to the launching conditions this adds additional noise due to variations in a coupling setup.

Second problem that limits development of waveguide based sensors is that of packaging of a microfluidics setup, waveguide and a metallic layer into a sensor. Thus, in traditional single mode fiber based sensors, to metallize fiber surface one has to first strip the fiber jacket and then polish fiber cladding almost to the core to enable evanescent coupling with a plasmon. This laborious procedure compromises fiber integrity making resulting sensor prone to mechanical failures. Integration of a metallized fiber piece into a microfluidics setup presents yet another additional step in sensor fabrication, thus increasing the overall fabrication cost.

The goal of this paper is to build upon a great body of ideas developed by the waveguide-based SPR sensing community and to illustrate that the phase matching and packaging issues can be facilitated using Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) or Microstructured Optical Fibers (MOFs) operating in the effectively single mode regime. Recently, we have demonstrated that effective refractive index of a Gaussian-like core mode propagating in the ati-guiding Bragg waveguide [20

20. M. Skorobogatiy and A. Kabashin, “Plasmon excitation by the Gaussian-like core mode of a photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 8419 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. M. Skorobogatiy and A. Kabashin, “Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211641 (2006). [CrossRef]

] can be designed to take any value from 0 to that of a refractive index of a core material. This allows phase matching and plasmon excitation by the Gaussian-like waveguide core mode at any desirable wavelength. Microfluidics in microstructured fibers is enabled by passing the analyte though the porous cladding, thus solving one of the packaging problems. Deposition of metal layers inside of the MOF can be performed ether with high pressure CVD technique [22

22. P.J.A Sazio, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311, 1593 (2006). [CrossRef]

] or wet chemistry deposition technique used in fabrication of metal covered hollow waveguides [23

23. J.A. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

2. Geometry of a MOF-based SPR sensor

In this paper we develop general principles of a Microstructured Optical Fiber design for applications in plasmonic sensing for which phase matching with a plasmon wave and optimized microfluidics are the two key requirements. Figure 1(a) shows schematic of a proposed hexagonal solid-core MOF based SPR sensor. Fiber core is surrounded by the two layers of holes. Metallized holes of the second layer are considerably larger than these of the first layer, thus simplifying the flow of the analyte through them. To lower the refractive index of the core guided mode (in order to facilitate phase matching with a plasmon) we introduce a small hole in the core center, which, in principle, can be substituted by an array of even smaller holes. Holes in the core and a first layer are filled with air nair=1.0, while metal covered holes of the second layer are filled with analyte (water) na=1.33. Diameters of the holes in the first and second layers are d 1=0.6Λ and d 2=0.8Λ, respectively. Pitch of the underlying hexagonal lattice is Λ=2µm. The core of a MOF features a central air hole of diameter dc=0.45Λ. By changing the size of this hole, one can tune the effective-index of a fundamental mode. The first layer of holes works as a low index cladding enabling guidance in the fiber core. Size of the holes in the first layer influences strongly coupling strength between the core mode and a plasmon (larger hole size results in weaker coupling, thus longer sensors). Holes in the second layer are metallized with a 40nm layer of gold and feature large diameters to facilitate the flow of analyte. Here, we assume that the MOF is a glass made with refractive index given by the Sellmeier formula. Dielectric constant of the gold layer is given by the Drude model. We note in passing that many other designs that feature large microfluidic channels to simplify analyte flow can be readily envisioned. For example, Fig. 1(d) shows a fiber crossection where instead of a second layer of holes two large semi circular channels covered with metal are used instead. In the rest of the paper we discuss in details sensor design with crossection shown in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 1. a) Schematic of a MOF-based SPR sensor. Holes in the second layer are filled with analyte and metallized for plasmon excitation. Air filled holes in the first layer enable guiding in the higher refractive index fiber core, while at the same time controlling coupling strengths between the core mode and a plasmon. Small air filled hole in the fiber core is used to lower the refractive index of a core guided mode to facilitate phase matching with a plasmon. b) Field distribution of a core mode at the first plasmon resonance at λ=560nm. c) Field distribution of a core mode at the second plasmon resonance at λ=950nm. d) Alternative schematic featuring larger microfluidic channel. e) Field distribution of a core mode at the plasmon resonance at λ=650nm for crossection d).

3. Coupling of a MOF core guided mode with plasmonic waves

Fig. 2. Calculated loss spectra of the MOF core guided mode exhibiting three loss peaks corresponding to the excitation of various plasmonic modes in the metallized holes. Black solid line -na=1.33, blue doted line -na=1.34. For comparison, red dashed-line shows the confinement loss of a core guided mode in the absence of a metal coating.

4. Characterization of sensitivity of a MOF-based SPR sensor

S(λ)=-(∂α(λ, na)/∂na)/α(λ, na).

Fig. 3. a) Calculated loss spectra of the first plasmonic peak for 30nm, 40nm and 50nm thicknesses of a gold coating. b) Sensitivity of the MOF-based SPR sensor for the 30nm, 40nm, 50nm and 65 nm thicknesses of a gold coating.

In Fig. 3(b) we present sensitivity of the proposed MOF-SPR sensor for various thicknesses of the metal layers. As seen from the Fig. 3(b) sensitivity depends weakly on the gold layer thickness. The maximum of sensitivity shifts to shorter wavelengths for thinner metal films. For all the curves, at the wavelengths of maximal sensitivity the 10-4 change in the analyte refractive index results in at least 1% change in the transmitted intensity, which is well comparable to what is obtained in conventional fiber-based SPR sensors.

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. A. Kabashin for his insights into the possible modes of operation of MOF based plasmonic sensors; Prof. M. Koshiba, Prof. K. Saitoh, and Dr. S.K. Varshney for the in-depth discussion of the Finite Element Method in application to the analysis of plasmonic sensors; Canada Research Chair, NSERC, FQRNT and Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovations funding programs for their support of this work.

References and links

1.

V.M. Agranovich and D.L. Mills. Surface Polaritons - Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces, (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).

2.

E. Kretschmann and Z.H. Raether, Naturforschung23, 2135 (1993).

3.

R.C. Jorgenson and S.S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993). [CrossRef]

4.

M.B. Vidal, R. Lopez, S. Aleggret, J. Alonso-Chamarro, I. Garces, and J. Mateo, “Determination of probable alcohol yield in musts by means of an SPR optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 455 (1993). [CrossRef]

5.

R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, and J. Tornos, “Single-mode, optical fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5197 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Homola, “Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance excitation,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 401 (1995). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1996). [CrossRef]

8.

A.J.C. Tubb, F.P. Payne, R.B. Millington, and C.R. Lowe, “Single-mode optical fibre surface plasma wave chemical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 41, 71 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Homola, R. Slavik, and J. Ctyroky, “Intreaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon wave: spectral properties,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1403 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Diez, M.V. Andres, and J.L. Cruz, “In-line fiber-optic sensors based on the excitation of surface plasma modes in metal-coated tapered fibers,” Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Manikova, and J. Ctyroky, “Surface plasmon resonance based on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B 90, 236 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Monzon-Hernandez, J. Villatoro, D. Talavera, and D. Luna-Moreno, “Optical-fiber surface-plasmon resonance sensor with multiple resonance peaks,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1216 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. Monzon-Hernandez and J. Villatoro, “High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 115, 227 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsuiand, and J. Kondoh, “Fundamental characteristics of a dual-colour fibre optic SPR sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

J. Ctyroky, F. Abdelmalek, W. Ecke, and K. Usbeck, “Modelling of the surface plasmon resonance waveguide sensor with Bragg grating,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 927 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, “Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons,” Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999). [CrossRef]

18.

B.D. Gupta and A.K. Sharma, “Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study,” Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

S.J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, “Optical fiber hybrid-surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 83 (1993). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Kabashin, “Plasmon excitation by the Gaussian-like core mode of a photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 8419 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Skorobogatiy and A. Kabashin, “Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211641 (2006). [CrossRef]

22.

P.J.A Sazio, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311, 1593 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

J.A. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211 (2000). [CrossRef]

24.

L.O. Cinteza, T. Ohulchanskyy, Y. Sahoo, E.J. Bergey, R.K. Pandey, and P.N. Prasad, “Diacyllipid Micelle-Based Nanocarrier for Magnetically Guided Delivery of Drugs in Photodynamic Therapy,” Mol. Pharm 3, 415 (2006) [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 2, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 8, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: November 8, 2006
Published: November 27, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 12 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
A. Hassani and M. Skorobogatiy, "Design of the microstructured optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensors with enhanced microfluidics," Opt. Express 14, 11616-11621 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11616


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References

  1. V.M. Agranovich, D.L. Mills. Surface Polaritons - Electromagnetic Waves at Surfaces and Interfaces, (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).
  2. E. Kretschmann, Z.H. Raether, Naturforschung 23, 2135 (1968).
  3. R.C. Jorgenson, S.S. Yee, "A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 12, 213 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. M.B. Vidal, R. Lopez, S. Aleggret, J. Alonso-Chamarro, I. Garces and J. Mateo, "Determination of probable alcohol yield in musts by means of an SPR optical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 11, 455 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Alonso, J. Subias, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, J. Tornos, "Single-mode, optical fiber sensors and tunable wavelength filters based on the resonant excitation of metal-clad modes," Appl. Opt. 33, 5197 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Homola, "Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance excitation," Sens. Actuators B 29, 401 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. A.J.C. Tubb, F.P. Payne, R.B. Millington, C.R. Lowe, "Single-mode optical fibre surface plasma wave chemical sensor," Sens. Actuators B 41, 71 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Homola, R. Slavik, J. Ctyroky, "Intreaction between fiber modes and surface plasmon wave: spectral properties," Opt. Lett. 22, 1403 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Diez, M.V. Andres, J.L. Cruz, "In-line fiber-optic sensors based on the excitation of surface plasma modes in metal-coated tapered fibers," Sens. Actuators B 73, 95 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Piliarik, J. Homola, Z. Manikova, J. Ctyroky, "Surface plasmon resonance based on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber," Sens. Actuators B 90, 236 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Monzon-Hernandez, J. Villatoro, D. Talavera, D. Luna-Moreno, "Optical-fiber surface-plasmon resonance sensor with multiple resonance peaks," Appl. Opt. 43, 1216 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Monzon-Hernandez, J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B 115, 227 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Suzuki, M. Sugimoto, Y. Matsuiand, J. Kondoh, "Fundamental characteristics of a dual-colour fibre optic SPR sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1547 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Ctyroky, F. Abdelmalek, W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, "Modelling of the surface plasmon resonance waveguide sensor with Bragg grating," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 927 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Trouillet, C. Ronot-Trioli, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, "Chemical sensing by surface plasmon resonance in a multimode optical fibre," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 227 (1995). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Weisser, B. Menges, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Refractive index and thickness determination of monolayers by multi mode waveguide coupled surface plasmons," Sens. Actuators B 56, 189 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. B.D. Gupta, and A.K. Sharma, "Sensitivity evaluation of a multi-layered surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensor: a theoretical study," Sens. Actuators B 107, 40 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. S.J. Al-Bader and M. Imtaar, "Optical fiber hybrid-surface plasmon polaritons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 83 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Skorobogatiy, A. Kabashin, "Plasmon excitation by the Gaussian-like core mode of a photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 8419 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Skorobogatiy, A. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211641 (2006) [CrossRef]
  22. P.J.A Sazio, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1593 (2006) [CrossRef]
  23. J.A. Harrington, "A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 211 (2000) [CrossRef]
  24. L.O. Cinteza, T. Ohulchanskyy, Y. Sahoo, E.J. Bergey, R.K. Pandey, and P.N. Prasad, "DiacyllipidMicelle-Based Nanocarrier for Magnetically Guided Delivery of Drugs in Photodynamic Therapy," Mol. Pharm 3, 415 (2006) [CrossRef]

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