Distortion-tolerant 3D recognition of occluded objects using computational integral imaging
Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 25, pp. 12085-12095 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.012085
Acrobat PDF (1582 KB)
Abstract
In a computational three-dimensional (3D) volumetric reconstruction integral imaging (II) system, volume pixels (voxels) of the scene are reconstructed plane by plane. Therefore, foreground occluding objects and background occluded objects can be reconstructed separately when there is enough spatial separation between the occluding object and the occluded object. Using volumetric computational II reconstruction, we are able to recognize distorted and occluded objects with correlation based recognition algorithms. We present experimental results which show recognition of 3D rotated and occluded targets in a reconstructed scene. We also show the ability of the proposed technique to recognize distorted and occluded 3D non-training targets.
© 2006 Optical Society of America
1. Introduction
7. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 157–159 (2001) [CrossRef]
9. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing and reconstruction with time-division multiplexed computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7036–7042 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
12. M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5806–5813 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
9. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing and reconstruction with time-division multiplexed computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7036–7042 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
13. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483–491 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
16. S.-H. Hong and Bahram Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral Imaging,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354–359 (2005). [CrossRef]
17. Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5488–5496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
19. S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Optimum nonlinear composite filter for distortion-tolerant pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2172–2178 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
28. B. Javidi and J. Wang, “Optimum distortion-invariant filter for detecting a noisy distorted target in nonoverlapping background noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2604–2614 (1995). [CrossRef]
29. F. Goudail and P. Refregier, “Statistical algorithms for target detection in coherent active polarimetric images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 3049–3060 (2001). [CrossRef]
2. Overviews of related techniques
2.1 3D volumetric reconstructions of occluded objects using computational II
13. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483–491 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
14. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition,” Opt. Express 13, 9310–9330 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9310. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
16. S.-H. Hong and Bahram Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral Imaging,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354–359 (2005). [CrossRef]
2.2 Distortion-tolerant optimum nonlinear filter
19. S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Optimum nonlinear composite filter for distortion-tolerant pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2172–2178 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
3. Distortion-tolerant 3D occluded object recognition
18. B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects using volumetric reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1106–1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
4. Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References and Links
1. | S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001). |
2. | P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, “Image reconstruction using electro-optic holography,” Proc. of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172–173. |
3. | B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002). |
4. | T. Okoshi, Three-dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976). |
5. | G. Lippmann, “La photographic intergrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci.146, 446–451 (1908). |
6. | H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lipmann lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171–176 (1931). [CrossRef] |
7. | H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 157–159 (2001) [CrossRef] |
8. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Formation of orthoscopic three-dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1869–1870 (2003). [CrossRef] |
9. | A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing and reconstruction with time-division multiplexed computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 42, 7036–7042 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
10. | H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, “Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059–2065 (1998). [CrossRef] |
11. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324–326 (2002). [CrossRef] |
12. | M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5806–5813 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
13. | S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483–491 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-483. [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
14. | S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition,” Opt. Express 13, 9310–9330 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9310. [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
15. | B. Javidi, S.-H. Hong, and O. Matoba, “Multi dimensional optical sensors and imaging systems,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2986–2994 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
16. | S.-H. Hong and Bahram Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral Imaging,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354–359 (2005). [CrossRef] |
17. | Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5488–5496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
18. | B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects using volumetric reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1106–1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
19. | S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Optimum nonlinear composite filter for distortion-tolerant pattern recognition,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2172–2178 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
20. | O. Matoba, T. J. Naughton, Y. Frauel, N. Bertaux, and B. Javidi, “Real-time three-dimensional object reconstruction by use of a phase-encoded digital hologram,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6187–6192 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
21. | B. Javidi, Image Recognition and Classification, Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002). [CrossRef] |
22. | J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics, 2^{nd} edition (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996). [PubMed] |
23. | H. Kwon and N. M. Nasrabadi, “Kernel RX-algorithm: a nonlinear anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 388–397 (2005) [CrossRef] |
24. | Selected Papers on Automatic Target Recognition, F. Sadjadi, Editor, SPIE- CDROM (1999). |
25. | J. L. Turin, “An introduction to matched filters,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-6311–329 (1960). [CrossRef] |
26. | P. Refreigher, V. Laude, and B. Javidi, “Nonlinear joint-transform correlation: an optimal solution for adaptive image discrimination and input noise robustness,” Opt. Lett. 19, 405–407 (1994). |
27. | A. Mahalanobis, “Review of correlation filters and their application for scene matching,” Optoelectronic Devices and Systems for Processing, Critical Reviews of Optical Science Technology , B. Javidi and K. Johnson eds., CR 65, SPIE Press, 240–260 (1996). |
28. | B. Javidi and J. Wang, “Optimum distortion-invariant filter for detecting a noisy distorted target in nonoverlapping background noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2604–2614 (1995). [CrossRef] |
29. | F. Goudail and P. Refregier, “Statistical algorithms for target detection in coherent active polarimetric images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 3049–3060 (2001). [CrossRef] |
30. | M. T. Prona, A. Mahalanobis, and K. N. Zachery, “LADAR automatic target recognition using correlation filters,” Proc. SPIE, Automatic Target Recognition IX , 3718, 388–396 (1999). |
31. | J. Maycock, T. Naughton, B. Hennely, J. McDonald, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional scene reconstruction of partially occluded objects using digital holograms,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2975–2985 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
OCIS Codes
(080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
ToC Category:
Imaging Systems
History
Original Manuscript: August 22, 2006
Revised Manuscript: October 9, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 12, 2006
Published: December 11, 2006
Citation
Seung-Hyun Hong and Bahram Javidi, "Distortion-tolerant 3D recognition of occluded objects using computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 14, 12085-12095 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12085
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References
- S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001).
- P. Ambs, L. Bigue, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, "Image reconstruction using electro-optic holography," Proc. of the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2003, vol. 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2003) pp. 172-173.
- B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, Berlin, 2002).
- T. Okoshi, Three-dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).
- G. Lippmann, "La photographic intergrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
- H. E. Ives, "Optical properties of a Lipmann lenticulated sheet," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 21, 171-176 (1931). [CrossRef]
- H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, "Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159 (2001) [CrossRef]
- J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Formation of orthoscopic three-dimensional real images in direct pickup one-step integral imaging," Opt. Eng. 42, 1869-1870 (2003). [CrossRef]
- A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing and reconstruction with time-division multiplexed computational integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 42, 7036-7042 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Hoshino, F. Okano, H. Isono, and I. Yuyama, "Analysis of resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2059-2065 (1998). [CrossRef]
- J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics," Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002). [CrossRef]
- M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, "Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude modulated microlens array," Appl. Opt. 43, 5806-5813 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 12, 483-491 (2004), [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, "Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition," Opt. Express 13, 9310-9330 (2005), [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Javidi, S.-H. Hong, and O. Matoba, "Multi dimensional optical sensors and imaging systems," Appl. Opt. 45, 2986-2994 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- <jrn>. S.-H. Hong and Bahram Javidi, "Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral Imaging," IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354-359 (2005).</jrn> [CrossRef]
- Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, "Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging," Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, "Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects using volumetric reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 31, 1106-1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, "Optimum nonlinear composite filter for distortion-tolerant pattern recognition," Appl. Opt. 41, 2172-2178 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Matoba, T. J. Naughton, Y. Frauel, N. Bertaux, and B. Javidi, "Real-time three-dimensional object reconstruction by use of a phase-encoded digital hologram," Appl. Opt. 41, 6187-6192 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Javidi, Image Recognition and Classification, Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2002). [CrossRef]
- J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996). [PubMed]
- H. Kwon and N. M. Nasrabadi, "Kernel RX-algorithm: a nonlinear anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43, 388-397 (2005) [CrossRef]
- Selected Papers on Automatic Target Recognition, F. Sadjadi, Editor, SPIE- CDROM (1999).
- J. L. Turin, "An introduction to matched filters," IRE Trans. Inf. Theor. IT-6311-329 (1960). [CrossRef]
- P. Refreigher, V. Laude, and B. Javidi, "Nonlinear joint-transform correlation: an optimal solution for adaptive image discrimination and input noise robustness," Opt. Lett. 19, 405-407 (1994).
- A. Mahalanobis, "Review of correlation filters and their application for scene matching," Optoelectronic Devices and Systems for Processing, Critical Reviews of Optical Science Technology, B. Javidi and K. Johnson eds., CR 65, SPIE Press, 240-260 (1996).
- B. Javidi, and J. Wang, "Optimum distortion-invariant filter for detecting a noisy distorted target in nonoverlapping background noise," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2604-2614 (1995). [CrossRef]
- F. Goudail and P. Refregier, "Statistical algorithms for target detection in coherent active polarimetric images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 18, 3049-3060 (2001). [CrossRef]
- M. T. Prona, A. Mahalanobis, and K. N. Zachery, "LADAR automatic target recognition using correlation filters," Proc.SPIE, Automatic Target Recognition IX, 3718, 388-396 (1999).
- J. Maycock, T. Naughton, B. Hennely, J. McDonald, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional scene reconstruction of partially occluded objects using digital holograms," Appl. Opt. 45, 2975-2985 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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