OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 7 — Apr. 3, 2006
  • pp: 2791–2797
« Show journal navigation

Investigation of second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer during photobleaching

Kaisheng Chen, Xiaoxu Deng, Feng Wang, Zhuangqi Cao, and Qishun Shen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 7, pp. 2791-2797 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.002791


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (217 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The second-order nonlinearity of poled-polymer during photobleaching process is monitored with second harmonic generation(SHG) intensity enhanced by surface plasmon resonance(SPR) in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. The nonlinear coefficient d33 of the poled polymer is determined by comparing the SPR enhanced second harmonic generation(SHG) intensities with that from the calibrated quartz. Experimental results show that photobleaching process has less effect on the second-order nonlinearity of a poled cross-linked polymer than that of a poled side-chain polymer.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Nonlinear polymer films are expected to offer a number of advantages over inorganic crystals, including their relatively large second-order susceptibility, fast response time and simple processing techniques. It has been more than 20 years since the first electric field poled second-order nonlinear polymers were reported. During this period numerous investigations have been published to study the physical and chemical properties of second-order nonlinear polymers and their potential applications in electrooptics and frequency-doubling devices[1

1. Donald M. Burland, Robert D. Miller, and Cecilia A. Walsh, “Second-Order Nonlinearity in Poled-Polymer Systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75(1994) [CrossRef]

,2

2. K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11–17(1997) [CrossRef]

]. Photobleaching is an attractive method for fabricating optical waveguide in polymeric materials[3–7

3. Jan Vydra, Hanno Beisinghoff, Theo Tschudi, and Manfred Eich, “Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035–1037(1996) [CrossRef]

]. The variation in optical nonlinearity and chemical stability of NLO polymer during the photobleaching is an important characteristic for its application in waveguide devices. In this paper, a real-time scheme is proposed to test the performance of different dyed polymeric systems during photobleaching process through monitoring the SHG intensity enhanced by SPR. By comparing the SPR enhanced SHG intensity generated from the NLO polymer with that from calibrated quartz crystal, the NLO coefficient d33 is quantitatively determined in our experiment. The merit of the method is that the changes of both the refractive index and thickness of the NLO poled-polymer film during the photobleaching have little effect on the SHG intensity enhanced by the SPR and that the derived mathematical expression for determining the NLO coefficient is much simplified. The results show that photobleaching process has less effect on the second-order nonlinearity of a poled cross-linked polymer than that of a poled side-chain polymer.

2. Theory

Attenuated total reflection geometry utilized in our experiments is shown in Fig. 1, where medium 1 is a glass prism with refractive index n 1 for the fundamental frequency ω and refractive index N 1 for the harmonic frequency 2ω; medium 2 is a metal film with thickness d, the complex dielectric constants of the metal film at frequency ω and 2ω are ε2(ω) and ε2(2ω), respectively; medium 3 is an NLO poled-polymer film with the nonlinear coefficient d33 ; medium 4 is air. A p-polarized laser beam with intensity I(ω) is incident on prism-metal film interface. At the SPR incidence angle a surface plasmon resonance is excited at the interface between the metal and the polymer, the intensities I(2ω) of second harmonic generation enhanced by SPR is measured against the incidence angle under scanning. According to the theoretical analyses by Sipe et al in [8

8. J. E. Sipe, V.C.Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389–4402(1980) [CrossRef]

], it is recognized that the SHG signals from the silver film are resulting from a bulk current within the film and two surface currents which could be characterized as two dipole sheets situated in the immediate vicinity of the prism-metal interface and metal-polymer interface, respectively, which is illustrated in Fig. 1(b). Nonlinear interaction between the excited SPR and the medium can cause a strong peak of the SHG, up to four orders of SHG magnitude above the background in the direction determined by wave vector matching condition n 1 sinθ0 2N 1 sinθr, where θ0 and θr are the incidence angle of fundamental field and reflection angle of second-harmonic generation, respectively. From the hydrodynamic theory of electron gas, the SPR-enhanced SHG intensity for total internal reflection at the SPR incidence angle can be expressed as[8–10

8. J. E. Sipe, V.C.Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389–4402(1980) [CrossRef]

]

I(2ω)2πN1cn12d332As*2(1R)2I(ω)2
(1)

where R is the linear reflectivity of the incident fundamental beam for the ATR configuration, As* is the ratio E12ω/E1+ω resulted from the NLO poled polymer, where E1+ω is the downward-propagating incident field and E12ω is the upward-propagating second-harmonic field. The ratios E1+ω resulted from the bulk metal and two dipole sheets are much smaller than As* and can be neglected. As* is given in the following formation [8

8. J. E. Sipe, V.C.Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389–4402(1980) [CrossRef]

]:

As*=4πK0{K0N1sinθr[(a)2(b)2]2W3ab}W3N3(2w3+W3)(1R23R21e2iW2d)T21eiw2dT32eiw3d
(2)

where a=n1sinθ0n3t23t12ei(w2w3)d1r23r21e2iw2d,b=n32n12sin2θ0n3t23t12ei(w2w3)d1r23r21e2iw2d,wi=k0ni2n12sin2θ0,rij and tij are the Fresnel coefficients at ω for reflection and transmission, k 0 is the wave vector in vacuum at ω. The corresponding capital letters indicate these quantities evaluate at 2ω. According to the simulated results as shown in Fig. 2, the coupling efficiency (1-R) in Eq. (1) at SPR incidence angle remains unchanged as the refractive index of the NLO polymer changes from 1.413 to 1.643 with fixed thickness of silver film. The absorption of polymer remains almost unchanged at fundamental frequency which is far away from the absorption region, with the result that the photo-induced absorption has little effect on R in Eq. (1). The penetration depth of SPR in the NLO polymer is so thin that the thickness change of polymer film during bleaching can be ignored. Therefore, in our case, the changes in refractive index, absorption and thickness of polymer film during the photobleaching process have little effect on the change of SHG intensity enhanced by SPR. The changes of NLO coefficient d33 of polymer film is the main causes for the change of the SPR-enhanced SHG intensity during the bleaching process. Moreover, the prism configuration seperates the fundamental wave and the SHG light by prism dispersion so that SHG beam can be observed easily[11

11. M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, “New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933–1935(1992) [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1. ATR configuration. (a) The schematic drawing for sample; (b) Theoretical mode.

From Eq. (1), by comparing the SPR-enhanced SHG intensity generated from the interface of metal-polymer with that from interface of metal-quartz, the formulation to calculate the nonlinear coefficient d33 of polymer film is derived to be

d33p=1BIp(2ω)Iq(2ω)Iq(ω)Ip(ω)d11q
(3)

where I j(2ω) and Ij (ω) (j = p, q) represent the SPR-enhanced SHG intensity and incident intensity of fundamental wave, respectively; the superscript and subscript p and q in Eq. (3) represent the parameters of polymer and quartz, respectively; the coefficient B can be expressed as

B=Ap*2Aq*2(1Rp1Rq)2
(4)

where Rp and Rq are the linear reflectivity of the incident fundamental beam at the SPR incidence angle. The contour diagram of the coefficient B which indicates the relation between n ω and Δn = n ω-n 2ω for different kinds of NLO polymers is shown in Fig. 3. In it, the refractive indices of the prism for the fundamental frequency ω and for the harmonic frequency 2ω are assumed to be known. Then the NLO coefficient d33 can be determined with Eq. (3) since the coefficient B for different kinds of polymer can be found directly in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. Simulated SPR curves showing the reflectivity R versus angle of incident at 1.064μm; the thickness of silver film is 45nm; the refractive index the NLO polymer decreases from 1.643 to 1.413. The refractive index of prism at 1.064μm is 1.775.
Fig. 3. The contour of coefficient B for different kinds of NLO polymer with refractive index of n ω and Δn; Ag film, 45nm; at the SPR incidence angle, Rp=1% ; prism, ZF7; λ =1.064μm.

3. Experiment

In our experiment, two samples with different kinds of EO materials were fabricated. For the first sample, (NCO)2DR-19 was synthesized from nonlinear chromophore disperse red(DR-19) and toluene diisocyanate, then a cross-linked polyurethane was prepared by mixing (NCO)2DR-19 with trimer of toluene diisocyanate and triehtanolamine at 80°C, in which the concentration of DR-19 is 30wt%[12

12. X. Li, Q. Yuan, D. Wang, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Cross-linked polyurethane with high thermal stability and low optical loss,” Proc. SPIE 4905, 405–408(2002) [CrossRef]

]. The molecular structure of (NCO)2DR-19 and absorption spectrum of polyurethane are shown in Fig. 4. The polymer material (before bleached: B=0.595, n ω=1.591, n 2ω=1.665; after bleached B=0.696, n ω=1.583, n 2ω=1.655; λ=1.064μm) in N,N-dimethyl formamide solution was spin-coated on the base of a glass prism (ZF7, n 1=1.775, λ=1.064μm) which was precoated with a 45-nm-thin silver layer(ε2(ω)=-52.4+i3.74, ε2(2ω)=-10.6+i0.91) by sputtering technique. The thickness of the polymer film was 3.4μm. The refractive index and the thickness of polymer film were measured with the conventional m-line method. Thickness and complex dielectric constant of the metal film was measured by the double wavelength method[13

13. W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, “Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 189–191(1981) [CrossRef]

]. In order to remove the centrosymmetric structure of polymer, the film was corona-poled in the air by an applied electric voltage of 4.3kV at 160°C for 25 minutes with interelectrode distance being 2cm, and cooled down to room temperature with the field still applied.

Fig. 4. The chemical structure of (NCO)2DR-19 and absorption spectrum of polyurethane

The second sample was fabricated with the same procedures as the first one. The EO material is a side-chain polymer PEI which was prepared from a chromophore-containing dianhydride based on 2, 2-[4-[(4-hitrophenhl)-azo]phenyl] iminobisethanol, benzophenone-3, 3 , 4, 4 -tetracarboxylic dianhydride, and 4, 4 -diamino-3,3 -dimethyl diphenyl-methane[14

14. Jiongxin Lu and Jie Yin, “Synthesis and Characterization of Photocrosslinkable, Side-Chain, Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Poly(ester imide)s with Great Film-Forming Ability and Long-Term Dipole Orientation Stability,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 41, 303–312(2003) [CrossRef]

]. The chemical structure and absorption spectrum of PEI is shown in Fig. 5. The thickness of the polymer film (before bleached: B=0.242, n ω=1.658, n2ω=1.752; after bleached: B=0.251, n ω=1.649, n 2ω=1.744) was 3.5μm. The poling temperature was 170oC and poling voltage was about 4.2kV.

Fig. 5. The chemical structure and absorption spectrum of PEI (x = 30)

An X-cut quartz reference sample was prepared for measuring NLO coefficient d33 of the two kinds of poled polymer. A silver film of thickness 45nm was deposited on the surface of the X-cut quartz flat to serve as the light-coupling layer. The quartz flat with Ag film was located closely to the base of the prism, with the index matching liquids(Certified Refractive Index Liqids, Series M, 1.755±0.0005; Structure Probe, Inc) filled in the gap between the prism and Ag film.

The experiment setup is shown in Fig. 6. A p-polarized Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (pulse width 16ns, λ=1.064μm, maximum output energy, 300mJ; maximum repeat frequency, 10Hz) was used as a fundamental light. The sample was placed on a θ/2θ goniometer to adjust the incident angle to the SPR incidence angle accurately. An UV light with power of 140mW/cm2 was placed in front of the prism base with the distance about 5cm. The relative spectral power distribution of UV light is show at the upper right corner of Fig. 6. The incident laser intensity was carefully controlled to avoid the damage of the thin metal film. Output signal from the sample was transmitted through an absorption cell and a filter to block the fundamental wave. The SHG light was observed in the reflective direction to be at an angle of 4° with the reflected fundamental laser, and collected by a photomultiplier tube, then amplified and averaged in a boxcar integrator. Output signal from the boxcar was treated by a computer and visualized on an oscillograph.

Fig. 6. The experimental set-up. The upper right corner is the relative spectral power distribution of UV light.
Fig. 7. Time dependence of SHG intensity for two kinds of NLO polymer.

The SHG intensities of the poled-polymer samples were monitored during the whole bleaching process. For each measurement, only slight adjustment of the previously fixed incident angle was made to reach the SPR incident angle by θ/2θ goniometer while the light path remained unchanged because the refractive index change of polymer is small through bleaching and the reception area of photomultiplier tube is relatively large. As shown in Fig. 7, the SHG intensities in the bleaching procedure had undergone first a slow decay and then a fast decay for both poled cross-linked polymer and poled side-chain polymer. For the first 30 minutes, the SHG intensity decreased very slowly. This is due to the fact that in a strongly absorbing material the photons responsible for the bleaching reaction cannot penetrate deeply into the film, thus converting only chromophores near the surface. Once these molecules are bleached their absorptivity decreases and the light can penetrate deeper inside the film. The SHG intensity decreased very quickly from 30 to 100 minutes. 125 minutes later from the beginning, the SHG intensity almost kept its value invariable. After the bleaching process, it was found that the SHG intensity of poled cross-linked polymer still remained 72% of the initial value whereas the SHG intensity of poled side-chain polymer only remained 25% of the initial value. The predominant bleaching process is an irreversible decomposition of the NLOmoieties accompanied by a broadening of the polymer molecular weight distribution[3

3. Jan Vydra, Hanno Beisinghoff, Theo Tschudi, and Manfred Eich, “Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035–1037(1996) [CrossRef]

], which cause the decrease of SHG intensity enhanced by SPR. The different ranges of change in SHG intensities show that the poled cross-linked polymer is more stable than the poled side-chain polymer in photobleaching.

The main reason that causes the decreasing of the SHG intensities of poled-polymer samples is the degradation of NLO coefficient d33 . By comparing the SHG intensities of the two poled-polymer samples with that of the X-cut quartz reference sample, the NLO coefficient d33 of the two kinds of poled-polymer films before and after the bleaching process were calculated from Eq. (3) and calibrated by X-cut quartz reference sample(d11 =0.42pm/V, which was measured using conventional SHG measurement technique by comparing with standard quartz before silver film was deposited). The results are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. The NLO coefficient d33 of two kinds of poled-polymer before and after photobleaching process.

table-icon
View This Table

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we demonstrate a new scheme to monitor the degradation of the SPR-enhanced SHG intensity of NLO poled-polymer during photobleaching, and the NLO coefficient d33 of poled-polymer is determined by comparing the SPR-enhanced SHG intensity with that from calibrated quartz. The advantages of this technique lie in its simplicity and ignoring the effect of the changes in refractive index and thickness of poled-polymer film on the SHG intensity. First of all, compared with the conventional technique[15–17

15. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22(1962) [CrossRef]

], since the SHG beam based on SPR radiates in the reflected direction to be at an angle of 4° with the reflected fundamental laser light as a result of the prism dispersion, the fundamental wave can be blocked and the SHG beam can be observed easily. Second, the derived mathematical expression in this paper for determining the NLO coefficient is much simplified than those in [16

16. Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, “New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145–146(1992) [CrossRef]

,17

17. M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “New Polymers with Large and Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects,” Macromolecules 24, 5421–5428(1991) [CrossRef]

], in which only two parameters(the coefficient B, the ratio Ip(2ω)Iq(2ω)Iq(ω)Ip(ω)) are needed for the measurement. Third, the SHG intensity is independent of the changes in refractive index and thickness of poled-polymer film during the bleaching process. For most of NLO polymer, the contour diagram shown in this paper can be used directly(ZF7 prism). Before the coefficient B is obtained, four parameters (n ω and n 2ω of prism and NLO polymer, respectively) should be achieved in advance.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.60544010 and 60237010.

References and links

1.

Donald M. Burland, Robert D. Miller, and Cecilia A. Walsh, “Second-Order Nonlinearity in Poled-Polymer Systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75(1994) [CrossRef]

2.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11–17(1997) [CrossRef]

3.

Jan Vydra, Hanno Beisinghoff, Theo Tschudi, and Manfred Eich, “Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035–1037(1996) [CrossRef]

4.

Toshiaki Hattori, Tomoaki Shibata, Sinji Onodera, and Toshikuni Kaino, “Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photoinduced bleaching,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240–3244(2000) [CrossRef]

5.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, “Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16–18(1993) [CrossRef]

6.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, “Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing,” Optical Materials 21, 495–498(2002) [CrossRef]

7.

D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, “Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using twophoton excitation under continuous wave illumination,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433–437(2002) [CrossRef]

8.

J. E. Sipe, V.C.Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, “Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389–4402(1980) [CrossRef]

9.

H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, “Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals,” Opt. Commun. 23, 245–248(1977) [CrossRef]

10.

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, “Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light,” Phys. Rev. 181, 1261–1271(1969) [CrossRef]

11.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, “New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933–1935(1992) [CrossRef]

12.

X. Li, Q. Yuan, D. Wang, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, “Cross-linked polyurethane with high thermal stability and low optical loss,” Proc. SPIE 4905, 405–408(2002) [CrossRef]

13.

W. P. Chen and J. M. Chen, “Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 189–191(1981) [CrossRef]

14.

Jiongxin Lu and Jie Yin, “Synthesis and Characterization of Photocrosslinkable, Side-Chain, Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Poly(ester imide)s with Great Film-Forming Ability and Long-Term Dipole Orientation Stability,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 41, 303–312(2003) [CrossRef]

15.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of Dispersion and Focusing on the Production of Optical Harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22(1962) [CrossRef]

16.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, “New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145–146(1992) [CrossRef]

17.

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “New Polymers with Large and Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects,” Macromolecules 24, 5421–5428(1991) [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials
(260.5130) Physical optics : Photochemistry

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 23, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 22, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 2006
Published: April 3, 2006

Citation
Kaisheng Chen, Xiaoxu Deng, Feng Wang, Zhuangqi Cao, and Qishun Shen, "Investigation of second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer during photobleaching," Opt. Express 14, 2791-2797 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-7-2791


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000). [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, "Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using two-photon excitation under continuous wave illumination," Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433-437(2002). [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980). [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, "Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals," Opt. Commun. 23, 245-248(1977). [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261-1271(1969). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992). [CrossRef]
  12. X. Li, Q. Yuan, D. Wang, Z. Cao, and Q. Shen, "Cross-linked polyurethane with high thermal stability and low optical loss," in Materials and Devices for Optical and Wireless Communications, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. X. Xia, and K. Iga, eds., Proc. SPIE 4905, 405-408(2002). [CrossRef]
  13. W. P. Chen, and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 189-191(1981). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Lu, and J. Yin, "Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, side-chain, second-order nonlinear optical poly(ester imide)s with great film-forming ability and long-term dipole orientation stability," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41,303-312(2003). [CrossRef]
  15. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited