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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 7 — Apr. 3, 2006
  • pp: 2811–2816
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Nonlinear optical frequency conversion with stopped short light pulses

J. T. Li and J. Y. Zhou  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 7, pp. 2811-2816 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.002811


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Abstract

Efficient nonlinear optical frequency conversion is proposed and theoretically demonstrated by use of stopped short light pulses in a doubly resonant Bragg reflector. The pump pulse is shown to decelerate and stop in the reflector, and the stopped pump field reinforces the interaction with stimulated Raman scattering. The temporal walk-off between the pump pulse and the generated Raman pulse can be substantially reduced with the doubly resonant Bragg structure. Numerical simulations show that the conversion from the picosecond pump pulse to Stokes wave can reach 85%.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Practical photonic devices require a low input power, high conversion efficiency and flexible functionality. One challenge in designing and building such a device is to achieve convenient and efficient frequency conversion.

Nonlinear frequency conversion in bulk a medium, especially using third-order nonlinear effect, requires high intensity and long material length because of the small nonlinear susceptibility [1

1. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optic (John Wiley & Sons, Inc,1984).

]. In the case of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with a quasi-continuous wave as the pump, the intensity of the Stokes wave is given by [1

1. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optic (John Wiley & Sons, Inc,1984).

]

Is=ISNexp(gRLpL)=ISNexp(gRIpcn0t).
(1)

2. Theory

In a bulk medium, the temporal walk-off effects of SRS between the pump and frequency-shifted pulses can be negligible because the difference in the group velocities is small and the temporal walk-off length is tens of meters, which is much larger than the interaction length [4

4. C. Headley III and G. P. Agrawal, “Unified description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2170–2177 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. However, the difference in the group velocities can be very large in the case of SRS with ZV pulse as the pump. Hence the basic requirement to convert the energy of ZV pulse to another frequency is to reduce or even to cancel the walk-off effects. The ideal case is that the generated signal should also be a ZV soliton. If not possible, slow propagation of generated nonlinear signal would help to increase the nonlinear optical interaction hence the conversion efficiency.

A decelerated or stopped light pulse can be obtained with advanced technology at present. Experiments have demonstrated that the light pulses in a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) can be reduced to 50% of the light speed through the Kerr effect [5

5. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627–1630 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Use of a defect inside a photonic band gap (PBG) [6

6. R. H. Goodman, R. E. Slusher, and M. I. Weinstein, “Stopping light on a defect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1635–1652 (2002). [CrossRef]

], creation of a Raman gap soliton (GS) [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or GS collision [8

8. W. C. K. Mak, B.A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Formation of a standing-light pulse through collision of gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026609 (2003). [CrossRef]

] were proposed to generate ZV short light, although they have not yet been demonstrated experimentally due to the requirement of high input intensity. Optical pulses were also stopped by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a laser-induced grating [9

9. M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Stationary pulses of light in an atomic medium,” Nature 426, 638–641 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. A. André and M. D. Lukin, “Manipulating light pulses via dynamically controlled photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143602 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the intensity was too low to stimulate nonlinear processes such as SRS for the required long duration pump pulses. Based on EIT, a new all-optical mechanism was designed to stop light with linear optics [11

11. M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It was also predicted that the light can be decelerated and stopped by a PBG based on second-harmonic generation [13

13. C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, “Gap solitons and slow light,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 239–259 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, a structure of resonantly absorbing Bragg reflectors (RABR), a periodic array of thin layers of resonant two-level systems separated by half-wavelength nonabsorbing dielectric layers, was proposed and numerically demonstrated to be able to decelerate or stop short light pulse as ZV GS [14–19

14. G. Kurizki, A. E. Kozhekin, T. Opatrny, and B. A. Malomed, “Optical solitons in periodic media with resonant and off-resonant nonlinearities,” Progress in Optics 42, 93–140 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

Reduction of the temporal walk-off effects between the pump and Stokes pulses can be realized with a one-dimensional (1D) doubly resonant Bragg reflector (DRBR), which is similar to a superposed grating to generate multicomponent gap solitons [20

20. D. Rand, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, “Multicomponent gap solitons in superposed grating structure,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1695–1697 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This structure consists of 1D periodically arranged thin atomic layers with the period at half of the pump wavelength and a passive Bragg grating with the stop band at the Stokes wavelength. The two stop bands are not overlapped in the spectra and no passive Bragg grating is at the pump wavelength because the bandwidth of each stop band is ~100 cm-1 while the SRS has a typical frequency shift at hundreds of cm-1. On the one hand, the pump pulse can be decelerated and stopped by the thin atomic layers [17

17. J. Y. Zhou, H. G. Shao, J. Zhao, X. Yu, and K. S. Wong, “Storage and release of femtosecond laser pulses in a resonant photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1560–1562 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. W. N. Xiao, J. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Prineas, “Storage of ultrashort optical pulses in a resonantly absorbing Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 11, 3277–3283 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On the other hand, the Stokes pulse can be generated as a stopped or slowly oscillating soliton by the passive Bragg reflector [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By the interaction of these two kinds of stopped light pulses, the energy of the pump pulse can be efficiently shifted to the Stokes pulse. Furthermore, as described in Ref [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the energy of the Stokes pulse will eventually leak out from both sides of the finite length of DRBR.

By contrast, the generation of Raman GS [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] without ZV GS as the pump was difficult in experiment because the temporal walk-off between the pump and Stokes pulses was significant. In that case, the pump pulse had to be traveling waves while the Raman GS was a slowly oscillating field inside the sample [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Thus the pump pulse width had to be very large so as to treat it as a continuous wave (cw) to make sure that the Stokes pulse did not separate with the pump pulse until the SRS threshold was achieved. Therefore, a very high pulse energy density (200 J/cm2) with high intensity (400 GW/cm2) and long pulse duration (510 ps, corresponding to the length of 3 cm FBG) was needed. As a result, conversion efficiency would be very low and optical damage was likely to occur before SRS was observed.

The dynamics of a doubly resonant SRS process can be described by the Maxwell-Bloch (M-B) equations. Higher-order Stokes signals, which can be efficiently generated in a bulk medium, can be neglected in DRBR because their wavelengths are different from any Bragg resonance, and they would walk off quickly from the pump and the first Stokes component. As we shall see in the following discussion, the interaction time of SRS is determined by the period of the stopped pulses, which is in the order of ns and much longer than the Raman transverse relaxation time (orders of ten of ps).Thus the effect of Raman transverse relaxation can be neglected. Consulting the two-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations (TWMB) in Ref. [15

15. B. I. Mantsyzov and R. N. Kuz’min, “Coherent interaction of light with a discrete periodic resonant medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 37–44 (1986).

] and referring to the Raman and Kerr effects in Refs. [4

4. C. Headley III and G. P. Agrawal, “Unified description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2170–2177 (1996). [CrossRef]

] and [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we have M-B equations for the forward and backward pump amplitudes (E±p) and Stokes amplitudes (E±s) given by

±Σp±ζ+Σp±τ=iΓpΣp±[Σp±2+2Σp2+(2fR)(Σs+2+2Σs2)]
Gp2Σp±(Σs+2+Σs2)+P,
(2a)
±Σs±ζ+Σs±τ=iΓsΣs±[Σs±2+2Σs2+(2fR)(Σp+2+2Σp2)]
+Gs2Σs±(Σp+2+Σp2)+iKΣs∓;+iΔΣs±,
(2b)
Pτ=(Σp++Σp)n,
(2c)
nτ=Re[(Σp++Σp)P*].
(2d)

Where ±p,s = (2μτc /ħ)±p,s; τc = (2ħn 0 /μ 0 c 2 ωp μ 2 ρ)1/2 is the cooperative resonant absorption time; n 0 is the average refractive index of the DRBR; μ 0 is the vacuum permeability; c is the speed of light in vacuum; ωp and ωs are the frequencies of the pump and the Stokes waves; μ is the dipole matrix element; ρ is the density of two-level systems; P and n are the polarization and density of inverse population; ζ = zn 0 /c and τ = t /τc are the dimensionless spatial coordinate and time, respectively; Δ = δcτc /n 0 and K = κcτc /n 0 are the dimensionless detuning and coupling constant corresponding to the detuning and coupling constant of the passive Bragg grating, respectively; fR is the fraction of the nonlinearity arising from molecular vibrations, and a typical value is 0.18 [21

21. R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159–1166 (1989). [CrossRef]

]; Γp,s = μp,s n 2 ε 0 2/8,τ 2 τc are the dimensionless nonlinear coefficients for the pump and the Stokes waves, with n 2 the nonlinear index coefficient; ε 0 is the vacuum permittivity; Gs = (ε 0 c 2 ħ 2/8μ 2 τc )gR and Gp = (ωp /ωs )Gs are the dimensionless gain coefficients, with gR the Raman gain coefficient.

On the right-hand side of M-B Eqs. (2a) and (2b), the first term represents self- and crossed-phase modulation by Kerr and Raman effects, which modified both the pulses shapes and spectra, the same effect as in the bulk Raman active medium [4

4. C. Headley III and G. P. Agrawal, “Unified description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2170–2177 (1996). [CrossRef]

]; the second term represents the Raman gain; the third term of Eq. (2a) describes the polarization caused by the periodic atomic layers; the last terms of Eq. (2b) are the effects of coupling coefficient and grating detuning of the passive Bragg reflect. The Bloch equations for the polarization P and inversion n induced by the pump in the periodic atomic layers are given in Eqs. (2c) and (2d).

Using the parameters above, the energy density of the pump and the Stokes pulses can be expressed as [14

14. G. Kurizki, A. E. Kozhekin, T. Opatrny, and B. A. Malomed, “Optical solitons in periodic media with resonant and off-resonant nonlinearities,” Progress in Optics 42, 93–140 (2001). [CrossRef]

]

Wp,s=14ħωpρ(Σp,s+2+Σp,s2),
(3)

where |+p,s|2+|p,s|2 is the dimensionless energy density. The intensity of the forward and backward pulses can be expressed as

Ip,s±=ε0cn02ħ24μ2τc2Σp,s±2.
(4)

And Eq. (1) can be rewritten as

Σs±2=ΣSN±2exp(GsΣp±2τ),
(5)

where |±SN|2represents the dimensionless intensity of the weak Stokes seed.

We assume no initial polarization and population inversion in DRBR, and a sech-shaped pulse with pulse width τ 0 and peak intensity ∑0 entering the system from the left side. The forward and backward Stokes waves evolve from a weak cw Stokes seed with intensity ±SN. The equations are solved numerically with the 4th order Rugge-Kutta numerical method [22

22. C. M. de Sterke, K. R. Jackson, and B. D. Robert, “Nonlinear coupled-mode equations on a finite interval: a numerical procedure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 403–412 (1991). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results

First we assume that there is no Raman gain, i.e., Gs = Gp = 0, but with Kerr effect in DRBR in order to simulate how the pump pulse would evolve. In this case, the influence of the Raman wave propagation to the pump field can be ignored, i.e., ±S = 0, and the Eqs. (2) can be reduced to the two-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations (TWMB) [15

15. B. I. Mantsyzov and R. N. Kuz’min, “Coherent interaction of light with a discrete periodic resonant medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 37–44 (1986).

] with Kerr effect. Other parameters are as follows: the dimensionless nonlinear coefficients are Γp= 1×10-3 and Γs= 9.5× 10-4, corresponding to the ratio of the Stokes frequency to the pump frequency at ωs /ωp = 0.95; the intensity of the weak Stokes seed is ±SN = 10-5, the incident laser field’s pulse width ∑0 = 1.5τc and peak intensity ∑0 = 2.1507, similar to the pulse width and intensity used to generate a ZV GS in an RABR [16–19

16. B. I. Mantsyzov and R. A. Silnikov, “Unstable excited and stable oscillating gap 2π pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2203–2207 (2002). [CrossRef]

]; and the dimensionless spatial coordinate, coupling constant and detuning are ζ = 6, K = 4.5, and Δ = 0, respectively.

Figure 1 shows the evolution of the pump pulse into a stable stopped short light pulse. The trace of the stopped pulse is expressed with the population density n (Fig. 1(a)) and energy density |+p|2+|p|2 (Fig. 1(b)). This stopped pulse consists of forward and backward components of equal energy density |±p|2 = 1.4, which are coupled by the thin atomic layers [18

18. W. N. Xiao, J. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Prineas, “Storage of ultrashort optical pulses in a resonantly absorbing Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 11, 3277–3283 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The instability of the pump soliton is caused by the nonlinear optical Kerr effect. Note that our simulations (not shown here) show that the transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of the atomic layers affect the population density [18

18. W. N. Xiao, J. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Prineas, “Storage of ultrashort optical pulses in a resonantly absorbing Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 11, 3277–3283 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] but not the field distribution, thus the basic character of pulse localization will not change, the effect of relaxation times can be neglected.

Fig. 1. Evolution of (a) the population inversion n and (b) the energy density (|+p|2+|p|2) of the pump pulse in DRBR without SRS but with optical Kerr effect. Here τ 0 = 1.5τc , ∑0 = 2.1507, K = 4.5 and Δ = 0.

We further consider the situation with Raman gain. By substituting |±p|2 = 1.4, |±SN|2 = 10-10, and a given interaction time at τ = 1500 into Eq. (5), we obtain the required gain coefficient of the Stokes wave with Gs = 9.5 × 10-3.

Using Gp = 1 × 10-2, Gs = 9.5 × 10-3 and other parameters in Fig. 1, the evolution of the pump pulse and the generation of the Stokes pulse in DRBR are shown in Fig. 2. The energy density of the pump wave (|+p|2+|p|2) and the Stokes wave (|+s|2+|s|2) are shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). In this case, the pump pulse is first stopped as a solitary wave, as shown in Fig. 1. When the interaction time between the stopped soliton and the Raman active medium is greater than τ = 1500, the Stokes pulse starts to increase its intensity at the expense of the pump fields. During this process, both group velocities of the pump and the Stokes pulses are equal to zero, as the Stokes pulse is also trapped inside the grating as a stopped GS [7

7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 2. Evolution of the energy density of (a) the pump pulse (|+p,s|2+|p|2) and (b) the Stokes pulse (|+s|2+|s|2) in DRBR with SRS. Here Gp = 1 × 10-2, Gs = 9.5 × 10-3 and other parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.

After the efficient power exchange between the pump and the Stokes pulses, the energy of the Stokes pulse will leak out from both sides of the DRBR and the Stokes waves extend as nanosecond pulses. Figure 3 shows this process on the right-hand side of the DRBR. The same output pulse can be obtained from the left-hand side of the sample. The efficiency of the Raman shift can be estimated by comparing the output energy of the Stokes pulses with the energy of the stopped pump pulse. Remarkably, this efficiency can be greater than 80%, i.e., nearly 85% of photons can shift from the pump pulse to the Stokes pulse.

Fig. 3. The energy density of the Stokes pulse output from right-hand side (|+s(ζ = 6)|2) of DRBR. The same Stokes pulse output from left-hand side (|s(ζ = 0)|2) is not shown. The parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, a new scheme of using stopped short light pulses to generate SRS in a DRBR structure is proposed and numerically demonstrated. The nonlinear optical conversion is shown to be considerably more efficient than those in a bulk medium, and the required low input pulse energy is easily obtainable and so avoids nonreversible material damage by the incident laser. Although the theory in this work is applied specifically to enhance nonlinear Raman conversion, it is believed that the stopped short light pulses with doubly resonant structure should be a generally applicable technique for enhancing different kinds of nonlinear optical conversion.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation (NKBRSF) (G2004CB719805) and Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (10374120). The authors thank H. G. Shao for his help with numerical simulation.

References and links

1.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optic (John Wiley & Sons, Inc,1984).

2.

J. B. Grun, A. K. McQuillan, and B. P. Stoicheff, “Intensity and gain measurements on the stimulated Raman emission in liquid O2 and N2,” Phys. Rev. 180, 61–68 (1969). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Hoffmann and F. K. Tittel, “Wideband-tunable high-power radiation by SRS of a XeF(C→A) excimer laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 970–974 (1993). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Headley III and G. P. Agrawal, “Unified description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2170–2177 (1996). [CrossRef]

5.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627–1630 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

R. H. Goodman, R. E. Slusher, and M. I. Weinstein, “Stopping light on a defect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1635–1652 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, “Raman gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3586–3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

W. C. K. Mak, B.A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, “Formation of a standing-light pulse through collision of gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026609 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Stationary pulses of light in an atomic medium,” Nature 426, 638–641 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. André and M. D. Lukin, “Manipulating light pulses via dynamically controlled photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143602 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, “Gap solitons and slow light,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 11, 239–259 (2002). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Kurizki, A. E. Kozhekin, T. Opatrny, and B. A. Malomed, “Optical solitons in periodic media with resonant and off-resonant nonlinearities,” Progress in Optics 42, 93–140 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

B. I. Mantsyzov and R. N. Kuz’min, “Coherent interaction of light with a discrete periodic resonant medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 37–44 (1986).

16.

B. I. Mantsyzov and R. A. Silnikov, “Unstable excited and stable oscillating gap 2π pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2203–2207 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Y. Zhou, H. G. Shao, J. Zhao, X. Yu, and K. S. Wong, “Storage and release of femtosecond laser pulses in a resonant photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1560–1562 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

W. N. Xiao, J. Y. Zhou, and J. P. Prineas, “Storage of ultrashort optical pulses in a resonantly absorbing Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 11, 3277–3283 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-24-3277. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

J. Zhu, J. Y. Zhou, and J. Cheng, “Moving and stationary spatial-temporal solitons in a resonantly absorbing Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 13, 7133–7138 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-7133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. Rand, K. Steiglitz, and P. R. Prucnal, “Multicomponent gap solitons in superposed grating structure,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1695–1697 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silica-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159–1166 (1989). [CrossRef]

22.

C. M. de Sterke, K. R. Jackson, and B. D. Robert, “Nonlinear coupled-mode equations on a finite interval: a numerical procedure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 403–412 (1991). [CrossRef]

23.

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and S. W. Koch, “Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863–13872 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(190.5890) Nonlinear optics : Scattering, stimulated

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 15, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 28, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 8, 2006
Published: April 3, 2006

Citation
J. T. Li and J. Y. Zhou, "Nonlinear optical frequency conversion with stopped short light pulses," Opt. Express 14, 2811-2816 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-7-2811


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References

  1. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optic (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1984).
  2. J. B. Grun, A. K. McQuillan, and B. P. Stoicheff, "Intensity and gain measurements on the stimulated Raman emission in liquid O2 and N2," Phys. Rev. 180,61-68 (1969). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Hoffmann and F. K. Tittel, "Wideband-tunable high-power radiation by SRS of a XeF(C→A) excimer laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29,970-974 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. C. HeadleyIII and G. P. Agrawal, "Unified description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13,2170-2177 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, "Bragg grating solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76,1627-1630 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. H. Goodman, R. E. Slusher, and M. I. Weinstein, "Stopping light on a defect," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,1635-1652 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. H. G. Winful and V. Perlin, "Raman gap solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84,3586-3589 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. C. K. Mak, B. A. Malomed, and P. L. Chu, "Formation of a standing-light pulse through collision of gap solitons," Phys. Rev. E 68,026609 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Stationary pulses of light in an atomic medium," Nature 426,638-641 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. André and M. D. Lukin, "Manipulating light pulses via dynamically controlled photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143602 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, "Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,233903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, "Time reversal of light with linear optics and modulators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,173903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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