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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 8 — Apr. 17, 2006
  • pp: 3294–3303
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On the spatial orientation of the transverse irradiance profile of partially coherent beams

R. Martínez-Herrero and P. M. Mejías  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 8, pp. 3294-3303 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.003294


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Abstract

On the basis of the irradiance-moments formalism, four matrices are proposed whose elements, defined for any partially coherent field, are closely related with the second-order measurable parameters handled in the ISO standard 11146. These matrices are shown to exhibit a number of properties concerning the orientation of the transverse profile of a partially coherent beam. This behavior is described by the rotation of the principal axes of the field around its propagation axis. In addition, these matrices provide information about the spatial structure of the field (beam spread product and orbital part of the angular momentum). A new overall parameter is introduced in terms of the above matrices, which remains invariant under rotation of the Cartesian coordinate axes and upon propagation through rotationally-symmetric first-order optical systems.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The overall spatial structure of light fields has been described by means of their irradiance-moments.[1–6

1. R. Simon, N. Mukunda, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “Partially coherent beams and a generalized ABCD-law,” Opt. Commun. 65, 322–328 (1988). [CrossRef]

] Based on this formalism, a number of measurable parameters (beam width, far-field divergence, beam propagation factor, etc) have been adopted as current ISO standards. [7

7. ISO 11146, Laser and laser related equipment-Test methods for laser beam widths, divergence angles and beam propagation ratios: ISO 11146-1:2005, Part 1: Stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams; ISO11146-2:2005, Part 2: General astigmatic beams; ISO/TR 11146-3:2004, Part 3: Intrinsic and geometrical laser beam classification, propagation, and details of test method; ISO/TR 11146-3:2004/Cor1:2005 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005).

]

In this characterization, the spatial symmetry of the transverse beam profile has revealed to be another interesting property. For instance, the light fields can be classified as stigmatic (ST), simple astigmatic (SA) and general astigmatic (GA) fields (associated to rotational symmetry, orthogonal symmetry and other kind of symmetry, respectively). [8–10

8. J. A. Arnaud and H. Kogelnik, “Light beams with general astigmatism,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1687–1693 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

In the most generalized case, the irradiance distribution across the beam profile rotates as the field freely propagates. [8–15

8. J. A. Arnaud and H. Kogelnik, “Light beams with general astigmatism,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1687–1693 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] This happens, for example, when a He-Ne TEM00 laser beam travels through two cylindrical non-parallel and non-orthogonal lenses separated by a free space. The output field would then show a rotating elliptical spot upon propagation.[8

8. J. A. Arnaud and H. Kogelnik, “Light beams with general astigmatism,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1687–1693 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] In this sense, it should be noted that there are non-rotating GA beams which behave similar to ST and SA fields: the internal features of these GA beams remains hidden if only rotationally-symmetric optics is used, and can only be revealed after propagation through cylindrical lenses.[12

12. G. Nemes and J. Serna, “Do not use spherical lenses and free spaces to characterize beams: a possible improvement of the ISO/DIS 11146 document,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, A. Giesen and M. Morin, eds. (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure-Technologiezentrum, Döseldorf, Germany, 1997), pp. 29–49.

] These fields are usually called pseudo-ST (PST) and pseudo-SA (PSA) beams (also called pseudo-type fields).[12

12. G. Nemes and J. Serna, “Do not use spherical lenses and free spaces to characterize beams: a possible improvement of the ISO/DIS 11146 document,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, A. Giesen and M. Morin, eds. (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure-Technologiezentrum, Döseldorf, Germany, 1997), pp. 29–49.

,13

13. J. Serna, F. Encinas, and G. Nemes, “Complete spatial characterization of a pulsed doughnut-type beam by use of spherical optics and a cylindrical lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1726–1733 (2001). [CrossRef]

,16

16. G. Nemes, private communication.

] SA- and PSA-beams look similar in free space, but PSA fields carry orbital angular momentum, a characteristic that the SA beam does not have.

On the basis of the irradiance-moments formalism, the spatial orientation of a general partially coherent beam at each transverse plane has been described in the literature by means of a pair of orthogonal axes (principal axes) defined in terms of the second-order coherence features of the field.[5

5. J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. J. Serna, P. M. Mejías, and R. Martínez-Herrero, “Rotation of partially coherent beams through free space,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 873–880 (1992). [CrossRef]

] Within this framework, in the present work four matrices will be introduced, which are closely connected with the orientation of the beam profile. Moreover, the elements of these matrices allow describing the overall spatial structure of the beam. In addition, in terms of such matrices, a new parameter is also proposed which remains invariant under propagation through stigmatic optical systems.

2. Basic formalism

Let us consider a quasimonochromatic partially coherent beam. Here we are interested on the overall behaviour of the field, which is described by means of the so-called beam irradiance moments. As is well known, these parameters (denoted by sharp brackets) can be defined in terms of the Wigner distribution function, h(r,η,z), associated to the field, in the form

<xmynupvq>1Io+xmynupvqhrηzdrdη,
(1)

where m, n, p and q are integer numbers, r = (x, y) denotes the two-dimensional position vector transverse to the propagation direction z, = (ku, kv) = (kx, ky) provides the wavevector components along the x- and y-axes (accordingly, u and v represent angles of propagation, without taking the evanescent waves into account) and Io = ∫ h dr dη is proportional to the total beam power. The four first-order moments, <x>, <y>, <u> and <v>, characterize the centre of the beam and its mean direction. For simplicity, in what follows we assume that these moments vanish (this is not a restriction, since it is equivalent to a shift of the Cartesian coordinate system). On the other hand, the (squared) beam width at a plane z = constant and the (squared) far-field divergence are represented by < x 2 + y 2 > and < u 2 + v 2 >, respectively. In addition, the crossed moment <xu + yv> gives the position of the beam waist through the condition <xu + yv> = 0.

The spatial orientation of the irradiance profile can be characterized[5

5. J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

,17

17. J. Serna, P. M. Mejías, and R. Martínez-Herrero, “Rotation of partially coherent beams through free space,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 873–880 (1992). [CrossRef]

] by the orientation of two orthogonal axes (the so-called principal axes) for which the crossed x-y moment vanishes, i.e., < xy > = 0 . In this case, we know that the beam widths < x 2 >1/2 and < y 2 >1/2 reach their extreme values along such axes.[17

17. J. Serna, P. M. Mejías, and R. Martínez-Herrero, “Rotation of partially coherent beams through free space,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 873–880 (1992). [CrossRef]

] Since, in general, the spatial profile rotates as the field propagates in free space, the principal axes are used to describe this rotation: it would suffice to determine the angle that the principal axes make with some fixed laboratory coordinate system.

3. Matrices and properties

In terms of the irradiance moments, let us now introduce the following set of four 2×2 matrices:

M0=(<x2+y2><xu+yv><xu+yv><u2+v2>),
(2.a)
M1=(<x2y2><xuyv><xuyv><u2v2>),
(2.b)
M2=(2<xy><xv+yu><xv+yu>2<uv>),
(2.c)
M3=(0<xvyu><yuxv>0),
(2.d)

As is apparent from the definition, the near and far field behavior can be inferred from the diagonal elements of M 0. Furthermore, the non-diagonal elements provide the position of the waist plane and its determinant gives the beam quality parameter. [5

5. J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

]

On the other hand, the matrix M 3 contains information about the extrinsic (also called orbital) part of the angular momentum of the beam. Finally, the matrices M 1 and M 2 include all the second-order parameters required to know the orientation of the beam profile freely propagating. To show this, let θ be the angle between the principal axes of the beam and the laboratory reference axes. It can be shown that the evolution of θ under free propagation is given by the expression

tan2θ(z)=2<xy>+2z(<xv>+<yu>)+2z2<uv><x2><y2>+2z(<xu><yv>)+z2(<u2><v2>),
(3)

where the moments are calculated (or measured) at a certain plane, say, z = 0. It is immediate to see that the coefficients of the z-polynomial in the numerator of Eq. (3) are the elements of M 2, and the coefficients in the denominator correspond to the matrix M 1. Note that a rotation by the angle θ would diagonalize the beam submatrix W=(<x2><xy><xy><y2>). This does not occur, however, for the submatrices (<xu><xv><yu><yv>) and (<u2><uv><uv><v2>) when a general field is considered. [10

10. G. Nemes and A. E. Siegman, “Measurement of all ten second-order moments of an astigmatic beam by use of rotating simple astigmatic (anamorphic) optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 2257–2264 (1994). [CrossRef]

]

It can be shown that the above four matrices have the following general properties:

  1. A beam does not rotate when freely propagates if and only if

    a) at least one of the matrices, M 1 or M 2, are zero,

    or

    a) M 1 and M 2 are proportional.

    Proof

    To show this property it would suffice to note that, according with Eqs. (3), (2.b) and (2.c), we have

    M1=0tan2θ(z)=,
    (4.a)

    M2=0tan2θ(z)=0,
    (4.b)

    M3=cM1tan2θ(z)=c,
    (4.c)

    where c is a constant.

  2. A beam does not rotate under free propagation if and only if there exists a coordinates system with respect to which M 1 and/or M 2 are zero.

    Proof

    The demonstration follows at once from property (i) when either M 1 or M 2 are zero. Let us then consider the third possibility considered in that property, namely, M 2 = cM 1. Under rotation of the transverse Cartesian axes around the propagation direction z, the matrices M 1 and M 2 become

    M1=M1cos2α+M2sin2α,
    (5.a)

    M2=M1sin2α+M2cos2α,
    (5.b)

    where α is the rotation angle, and the primes refer to the values after rotation. After substitution of the condition M 2 = cM 1 into Eqs. (5), we get

    M1=(cos2α+csin2α)M1,
    (6.a)

    M2=(sin2α+ccos2α)M1.
    (6.b)

    It is now easy to see that M2 = 0 when α = α 0, where

    tan2α0=c.
    (7)

    In addition, M1 equals zero when the rotation angle take the value α= α 0 + π/4. We thus see that, after a certain rotation of the coordinates axes, we could make M 1 or M 2 equal to zero, and property (i) would apply again.

  3. The matrices M i, i = 0, 1, 2, 3, propagate through stigmatic optical systems according with the law

    (Mi)output=S(Mi)inputSt,i=0,1,2,3,
    (8)

    where S=(abcd)denotes the 2×2 ABCD matrix representing the stigmatic optical system, and t means transposition.

    Proof

    Let us first recall the paraxial law for the second-order moments of a partially coherent beam propagating through a general first-order optical system: [5

    5. J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

    ]

    Boutput=PBinputPt,
    (9)

    where P represents the 4×4 ABCD matrix associated to the general optical system and B is the beam moments matrix

    B=(<x2><xy><xu><xv><xy><y2><yu><yv><xu><yu><u2><uv><xv><yv><uv><v2>).
    (10)

    From Eqs. (9) and (10), we have that, for stigmatic optical systems, the irradiance moments <xv> and <yu> at the output plane are given in terms of the input values as follows

    <xv>output=ac<xy>input+ad<xv>input+bc<yu>input+bd<uv>input,
    (12)

    Since the non-zero elements of the matrix M 3 are ±(<xv> - <yu>), it is easy to see that the propagation law for this matrix can be written in the form

    (M3)output=S(M3)inputSt,
    (13)

    in accordance with Eq. (8).The propagation law for the other matrices, M 0, M 1 and M 2, can be obtained in a similar way from Eqs. (9) and (10).

  4. The matrices M 0 and M 3 are invariant under rotation of the Cartesian axes around the propagation axis z.

    Proof

    Note first that a transverse axes rotation is equivalent to a first-order optical system characterized by the 4×4 ABCD matrix (cosαsinα00sinαcosα0000cosαsinα00sinαcosα), where α is the rotation angle. From the application of Eqs. (9) and (10), we get, for example,

    <xv>rot=sinαcosα<xu>cos2α<xv>sin2α<yu>+sinαcosα<yv>,
    (14)

    <yu>rot=sinαcosα<xu>sin2α<xv>+cos2α<yu>+sinαcosα<yv>,
    (15)

    where the subscript rot denotes the values after rotation. We then have

    <xvyu>rot=<xvyu>.
    (16)

    Accordingly, the matrix M 3 remains invariant under rotation. In a similar way, it can be shown that the elements of M 0 does not change after rotation of the Cartesian axes.

4. Overall parameter

In terms of the above matrices, let us now introduce the following parameter:

g=tr[(M01M1)2]tr[(M01M2)2][tr(M01M1M01M2)]2,
(17)

where “tr” stands for the trace of the matrices. It can be shown that this parameter exhibits several interesting properties, namely,

  1. The parameter g does not change under propagation through stigmatic optical systems.

    Proof

    Let us consider a partially coherent beam propagating through a stigmatic optical system characterized by its ABCD matrix S. Taking into account the propagation law (9), we have

    (M01Mi)output=(St)1(M01)inputS1S(Mi)inputSt=(St)1(M01Mi)inputSt,i=1,2
    (18)

    Accordingly, after using the cyclic property of the trace, we get

    tr[(M01Mi)output2]=tr[(M01Mi)input2],i=1,2,
    (19)

    and

    tr[(M01M1M01M2)output]=tr[(M01M1M01M2)input].
    (20)

    It then follows at once from Eq. (11) that g remains invariant through this kind of optical systems.

  2. The parameter g remains constant under rotation of the Cartesian axes around the propagation axis.

    The proof is given in Appendix A.

  3. g ≥ 0. In particular, g = 0 if and only if the orientation of the transverse profile does not change when the beam freely propagates.

    The proof is given in Appendix B.

    We thus see that the parameter g can be useful to characterize the orientation of the beam profile of any partially coherent field traveling through rotationally-symmetric optical systems (note that free propagation is a particular case).

5. Concluding remarks

Note first that, in terms of the matrices defined in Section 3, one can write three overall parameters, which remain invariant through stigmatic optical systems and also under rotation of the Cartesian reference axes:

  1. det M 0 = Q 3D
  2. det M 3 = (<xv> - <yu>)2 = L 2
  3. g

In these expressions, Q 3D is the beam quality parameter[5

5. J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. F. Encinas-Sanz, J. Serna, C. Martínez, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Time-varying beam quality factor and mode evolution in TEA CO2 laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1835–1838 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. P. M. Mejías, R. Martínez-Herrero, G. Piquero, and J. M. Movilla, “Parametric characterization of the spatial structure of non-uniformly polarized laser beams,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 65–130 (2002), and references therein. [CrossRef]

] (also called beam spread product), and it measures the joint capability of the beam for simultaneous near and far-field focusing. The parameter L 2 provides information about the orbital part of the angular momentum of the beam, and we have shown that g characterizes the rotation capability of a freely propagating field. In addition, it should be remarked that all these parameters can be obtained from measurements at a transverse plane z, in terms of the second-order irradiance moments of the beam at such plane. Note also that both the parameter g and the matrices M i, i = 0, 1, 2, 3, also apply to the description of coherent light fields.

Finally, it should be mentioned that the matrices introduced in this work are closely connected with the parameter J (see, for example, Ref. 5) through the relation.

2J=i=03detMi.
(21)

It is interesting to recall that this parameter J is invariant upon propagation through general first-order optical systems.[5

5. J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

]

Appendix A

In this Appendix we will show that the parameter g remains constant under rotation of the Cartesian axes around the propagation axis z.

After application of Eqs. (6a) and (6b), we get

(M01M1)=M01M1cos2α+M01M2sin2α,
(A.1)

where again α is the rotation angle and the prime refers to the values after rotation. Taking this into account, it is not difficult to see that

(M01M2)=M01M1sin2α+M01M2cos2α,
(A.2)
tr{[(M01M1)]2}=
=tr[(M01M1)2]cos22α+tr[(M01M2)2]sin22α+
+2tr(M01M1M01M2)sin2αcos2α
(A.3)
tr{[(M01M2)]2}=
=tr[(M01M1)2]sin22α+tr[(M01M2)2]cos22α
2tr(M01M1M01M2)sin2αcos2α
(A.4)
tr[(M01M1M01M2)]=
={tr[(M01M1)2]+tr[(M01M2)2]}sin2αcos2α+
+2tr(M01M1M01M2)(cos22αsin22α)
(A.5)

Let us now write

T1tr[(M01M1)2],
(A.6)
T2tr[(M01M2)2],
(A.7)
T3tr(M01M1M01M2),
(A.8)

where the values of the matrices M i refer to the former coordinates axes (before rotation). It can then be shown from Eqs. (A.3)-(A.5) that

gafterrotation=T1T2T32=gbeforerotation,
(A.9)

which is the result we are looking for.

Appendix B

We will first show that g ≥ 0 . For simplicity, from now on let us consider that the matrices are evaluated at the waist plane of the beam. In addition, the coordinates axes are chosen to fulfil < uv > = 0 (this is not a true restriction, because the parameter g does not change under rotation of the Cartesian axes). Taking this into account, the matrices M 0 and M 2 reduce to

M0=(<r2>00<η2>),
(B.1)

with < r 2 > = < x 2 + y 2 > ; < η 2 > = < u 2 + v 2 >, and

M2=(2<xy><xv+yu><xv+yu>0),
(B.2)

where the irradiance moments should be evaluated at the waist plane. It then follows

M01M1=(<x2y2><r2><xuyv><r2><xuyv><η2><u2v2><η2>),
(B.3)
M01M2=(2<xy><r2><xv+yu><r2><xv+yu><η2>0).
(B.4)

Therefore we have

tr(M01M1M01M1)=<x2y2>2<r2>2+2<xuyv>2<r2><η2>+<u2v2>2<η2>2,
(B.5)
tr(M01M2M01M2)=4<xy>2<r2>2+2<xv+yu>2<r2><η2>,
(B.6)
tr(M01M1M01M2)=2<xy><x2y2><r2>2+2<xvyu><xuyv><r2><η2>.
(B.7)

After some straightforward calculations we finally get

g=2<r2>3<η2>(<xv+yu><x2y2>2<xy><xuyv>)2+
+4<xy>2<u2v2>2<r2>2<η2>2+2<xv+yu>2<u2v2>2<r2><η2>20,Q.E.D.
(B.8)

Let us now show that g = 0 if and only if the orientation of the beam profile remains invariant upon free propagation.

We first assume that the transverse profile does not rotate. In this case, from the property (i) of the matrices M i (see Section 3), along with the definition of g [cf. Eq. (11)], it follows at once that this parameter should be equal to zero.

Expression (B.8) and the equality g = 0 imply the simultaneous fulfilment of the following three equations:

<xv+yu><x2y2>=2<xy><xuyv>,
(B.9)
<xy><u2v2>=0,
(B.10)
<xv+yu><u2v2>=0.
(B.11)

The trivial solutions of these equations are (a) M 1 = M 2 = 0; and (b) M 1 or M 2 equal to zero. In both cases, property (i) of Section 3 would again conclude that the beam does not rotate. Let us then consider that M 1 and M 2 differ from zero. We have two possibilities, namely, < u 2 - v 2 > = 0 ; and < u 2 - v 2 > ≠ 0 . This second possibility would imply (see Eqs. (B.10), (B-11))

<xy>=<xv+yu>=0,
(B.12)

so that M 2 = 0, which, in turns, implies that the orientation of the beam profile will not change.

Let us finally assume the other possibility, i.e., < u 2 - v 2 > = 0 . Since M 1 and M 2 are not zero, it is not difficult to see that M 1 and M 2 should be proportional. Again, property (i) of Section 3 enables us to conclude that the beam profile does not rotate upon free propagation, Q. E. D.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia of Spain, project FIS2004-1900, and by the Universidad Complutense-Comunidad de Madrid, within the framework of the Research Groups Program 2005-06, 910335.

References and links:

1.

R. Simon, N. Mukunda, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “Partially coherent beams and a generalized ABCD-law,” Opt. Commun. 65, 322–328 (1988). [CrossRef]

2.

S. Lavi, R. Prochaska, and E. Keren, “Generalized beam parameters and transformation law for partially coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3696–3703 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. J. Bastiaans, “Propagation laws for the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function in first-order optical systems,” Optik 82, 173–181 (1989).

4.

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators” in Laser Resonators, Proc. SPIE 1224, 2–14 (1990). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Serna, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Parametric characterization of general partially coherent beams propagating through ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1094–1098 (1991). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Weber, “Propagation of higher-order intensity moments in quadratic-index media,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1027–1049 (1992). [CrossRef]

7.

ISO 11146, Laser and laser related equipment-Test methods for laser beam widths, divergence angles and beam propagation ratios: ISO 11146-1:2005, Part 1: Stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams; ISO11146-2:2005, Part 2: General astigmatic beams; ISO/TR 11146-3:2004, Part 3: Intrinsic and geometrical laser beam classification, propagation, and details of test method; ISO/TR 11146-3:2004/Cor1:2005 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005).

8.

J. A. Arnaud and H. Kogelnik, “Light beams with general astigmatism,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1687–1693 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Serna and G. Nemes, “Decoupling of coherent Gaussian beams with general astimatism,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1175 (1993). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Nemes and A. E. Siegman, “Measurement of all ten second-order moments of an astigmatic beam by use of rotating simple astigmatic (anamorphic) optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am A 11, 2257–2264 (1994). [CrossRef]

11.

F. Gori, V. Bagini, M. Santarsiero, F. Frezza, G. Schettini, and G. Schirripa Spagnolo, “Coherent and partially coherent twisting beams,” Opt. Review 1, 143–145 (1994).

12.

G. Nemes and J. Serna, “Do not use spherical lenses and free spaces to characterize beams: a possible improvement of the ISO/DIS 11146 document,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, A. Giesen and M. Morin, eds. (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure-Technologiezentrum, Döseldorf, Germany, 1997), pp. 29–49.

13.

J. Serna, F. Encinas, and G. Nemes, “Complete spatial characterization of a pulsed doughnut-type beam by use of spherical optics and a cylindrical lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1726–1733 (2001). [CrossRef]

14.

P. Pääkkänen, J. Lautanen, M. Honkanen, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, V. A. Soife, and A. T. Friberg, “Rotating optical fields: exeperimental demonstartion with diffractive optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2355–2369 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, V. A. Soifer, M. Honkanen, J. Lautanen, and J. Turunen, “Generation of rotating Gauss-Laguerre modes with bibary-phase diffractive optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 227–238 (1999).

16.

G. Nemes, private communication.

17.

J. Serna, P. M. Mejías, and R. Martínez-Herrero, “Rotation of partially coherent beams through free space,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 873–880 (1992). [CrossRef]

18.

F. Encinas-Sanz, J. Serna, C. Martínez, R. Martínez-Herrero, and P. M. Mejías, “Time-varying beam quality factor and mode evolution in TEA CO2 laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1835–1838 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

P. M. Mejías, R. Martínez-Herrero, G. Piquero, and J. M. Movilla, “Parametric characterization of the spatial structure of non-uniformly polarized laser beams,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 65–130 (2002), and references therein. [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 9, 2006
Revised Manuscript: April 2, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: April 3, 2006
Published: April 17, 2006

Citation
R. Martínez-Herrero and P. M. Mejias, "On the spatial orientation of the transverse irradiance profile of partially coherent beams," Opt. Express 14, 3294-3303 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3294


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References

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  13. J. Serna, F. Encinas and G. Nemes, "Complete spatial characterization of a pulsed doughnut-type beam by use of spherical optics and a cylindrical lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1726-1733 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Pääkkönen, J. Lautanen, M. Honkanen, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, V. A. Soife and A. T. Friberg, "Rotating optical fields: exeperimental demonstartion with diffractive optics," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2355-2369 (1998). [CrossRef]
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