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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 8 — Apr. 17, 2006
  • pp: 3491–3496
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Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal

Hitomichi Takano, Bong-Shik Song, Takashi Asano, and Susumu Noda  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 8, pp. 3491-3496 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.003491


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Abstract

An in-plane, multi-channel drop filter with high efficiency, in a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) slab, is experimentally demonstrated. Based on the concept of heterostructure photonic crystals proposed previously, the device consists of multiple simply connected, PC-based filter units, in which each unit has a structure proportional to an optimized basic unit and operates at a different wavelength. Four-channel drop operation was successfully obtained, with high efficiencies of almost 100%, and equal quality factors, across all channels.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In recent years, photonic devices based on artificial defects formed by the introduction of small regions of disorder in photonic crystals (PCs) [1–14

1. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been vigorously studied for applications in a wide variety of fields: for example, ultra-small wavelength filters [2–9

2. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel Drop Tunneling through Localized States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998). [CrossRef]

], switching devices [10–13

10. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739–2741 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and delay devices [14

14. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], have been examined for applications in telecommunications, low-threshold nanolasers [15–17

15. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], chemical sensors [18

18. M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648–4650 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and quantum informatics. In particular, ultra-compact channel drop filters, consisting of point-defects and line-defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs, have attracted much attention; the ultimate sizes of such filters are predicted to be less than 1/10,000 of those of conventional optical devices [2–9

2. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel Drop Tunneling through Localized States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. A surface-emitting channel drop filter has been realized, in which light propagating through a line-defect waveguide is resonantly trapped by a point-defect cavity before being emitted normal to the surface [3

3. S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The concept of in-plane hetero photonic crystals (IP-HPCs), which consist of a series of connected PC regions with different lattice constants, has also been proposed [4

4. B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano “Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals,” Science 300, 1537 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such structures have been used to demonstrate multi-wavelength drop operations [4

4. B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano “Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals,” Science 300, 1537 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; and theoretical improvements in drop efficiency using reflection at the heterostructure interface have been calculated [6

6. S. Noda, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and T. Asano, “In-Plane Hetero Photonic Crystals,” in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Photonic and Electronic Crystal Structures V, (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 86.

, 19

19. B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Role of interfaces in heterophotonic crystals for manipulation of photons,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195101 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Another configuration to consider is that of an in-plane PC device in which light trapped in a point-defect cavity is extracted into a neighboring waveguide. This configuration may serve as a key platform upon which various functional elements can be integrated, switching, optical memory, etc. and therefore is expected to become increasingly important. One-channel drop operation of an in-plane device having an ultra-high Q nano-cavity [20

20. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] between two parallel waveguides has been demonstrated experimentally [5

5. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226–2228 (2004). [CrossRef]

], where the drop efficiency is theoretically limited to a maximum of 25%. Furthermore, one-channel in-plane drop operations with efficiencies of more than 80% have been demonstrated experimentally in devices which utilized destructive interference to eliminate undesired outputs [7

7. H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Highly efficient in-plane type filtering device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC) (San Francisco, CA, 2004), CWG6.

, 8

8. H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Highly efficient in-plane channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241101 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Another configuration which utilizes resonant-tunneling has been also proposed, and one-channel drop operation with an efficiency of 65±20% has been demonstrated experimentally [9

9. A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 4202–4209 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4202 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this work we experimentally investigate a method of making an in-plane multi-wavelength add/drop filter device with high efficiency and constant quality factor, based on the concept of heterostructure photonic crystals that we proposed previously.

2. Basic concept

Fig. 1. Schematic of the multi-channel add/drop filter described in Section 2

3. Filter unit structure and optical properties

In this section, we report experimental results of a device based upon the design described in Section 2. Figure 2(a) shows scanning electron micrographs of the fabricated basic filter unit and Figs. 2(b–d) show magnified views of important parts of the device. The device consisted of two photonic crystal slabs, PC1 and PC2, with lattice constants; a 1 = 0.420 μm and a 2 = 0.415 μm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The ratio a 1/a 2 = 1.012. Here, this value was chosen for the cut-off wavelength in PC2 to become shorter than the resonant wavelength of the point-defect cavity in PC1. The distance between the point-defect cavity and the heterostructure interface was set to d = 5a 1, as it was found that this distance optimized the phase condition of light reflected at the heterostructure interface. Figure 2(c) shows a magnified view of the point-defect cavity, which consisted of three missing air holes. The positions of the six air holes nearest both edges were fine-tuned to maximize the performance [21

21. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13, 1202–1214 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1202 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; air hole displacements were 0.173a 1 at position A, 0.024a 1 at position B, and 0.173a 1 at position C (see Fig. 2(c)). The intrinsic quality factor of the point-defect cavity was very high, at almost 100,000. Utilization of a cavity having very high intrinsic quality factor is crucial for in-plane type device in order to suppress an out-of-plane loss [5

5. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226–2228 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The point-defect cavity was centrally positioned in PC1, between the input and output waveguides, at a distance of 2.5√3a 1 from each waveguide. For multi-channel operation, the output waveguide was bent; the sizes of the two air holes at the corner were tuned in order to match the transmission frequency of the bent waveguide to the resonant frequency of the point-defect cavity as shown in Fig. 2(d) [5

5. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226–2228 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The radii of both air holes were set to r c = 0.26a 1, which is smaller than the normal air hole radius of 0.30a 1. The bending efficiency was estimated to be > 90%. The 2D-PC pattern was formed on the thin Si slab of a SiO2/Si substrate before the SiO2 layer under the PC slab was etched away to leave a membrane structure.

Fig. 2. Scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated device: (a) top view of the fabricated basic filter unit, showing the hetero photonic crystal structure and the high-Q nanocavity; (b) magnified view of the heterostructure interface; (c) magnified view of the point-defect cavity with very high quality factor of almost 100,000; and (d) magnified view of the bend in the output waveguide, showing the tuned radius of the two air holes at the corner.
Fig. 3. ‘Drop spectrum’ (red line) and ‘through spectrum’ (blue line) of the fabricated basic filter unit, and ‘through spectrum’ (gray line) of the reference waveguide. Scanning electron micrograph image of the fabricated device showing the reference waveguide and filter unit (centre left); and magnified images of the reference waveguide (top left) and device (below left).

The ‘drop spectrum’ of the fabricated device was measured by injecting light from a tunable laser into port 1 and observing the emission from port 3. The ‘drop spectrum’ plotted as a red line in Fig. 3, clearly contains an emission peak at 1580 nm. The quality factor of the filter was estimated to be QT = 1,400, from the full width at half maximum of the emission peak. The ‘through spectrum’ detected at port 2 of the device (blue line in Fig. 3), may be compared to the ‘through spectrum’ of a reference waveguide, prepared adjacent to the device (gray line in Fig. 3). The reference waveguide had a lattice constant of a 1 = 420 nm, which was the same as that of the input waveguide in the PC1 region (as shown in Fig. 3). The transmission intensities of the input and reference waveguides were almost equal across their common transmission wavelengths, however, the cut-off wavelengths of the waveguide modes were slightly different. This difference was caused by the heterostructure of the device: the cut-off wavelength of the device was determined by one of the waveguide modes of PC2, as wavelengths above 1573 nm (within the region in yellow in Fig. 3) were cut by the heterostructure interface. To estimate the drop efficiency, the peak intensity of the ‘drop spectrum’ observed at port 3 was divided by the intensity of the ‘through spectrum’ of the reference waveguide at the corresponding wavelength. A high drop efficiency η of almost 100% was found.

4. Multi-channel drop operation

Next, we describe the configuration of a fabricated multi-channel add/drop filter. Figure 4 shows scanning electron micrographs of a fabricated four-wavelength filter device. The device consisted of four simply connected filter units, with proportional structures. The first filter unit shown in Fig. 4(b), had an equivalent structure to the basic filter unit described above. Each filter unit was composed of two adjacent PC regions. So, the whole device consisted of a total of five photonic crystal slabs, PC1 to PC5, each with a different lattice constant. The individual lattice constants were set to a 1 = 0.420 μm, a 2 = 0.415 μm, a 3 = 0.410 μm, a 4 = 0.405 μm and a 5 = 0.400 μm, such that a 1/a 2 = a 2/a 3 = a 3/a 4 = a 4/a 5 = 1.012. Within each PC, the distance between the point-defect cavity and the heterostructure interface was set to be five times the lattice constants e.g. d 1 = 5a 1 etc,.

Fig. 4. Scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated multi-wavelength filter device: (a) top view of the fabricated four-channel filter structure; (b)–(e) magnified views of the 1st – 4th filter units with proportional structures.

The drop spectra of the fabricated device were measured; by injecting light into the input port and observing the emission from the output ports of the filter units. The resulting drop spectra are shown in Fig. 5; red, orange, green and blue lines correspond to the emission observed from the output ports of the 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th filter units, respectively. A single clear emission peak was found in each of the four spectra, at 1516 nm, 1536 nm, 1559 nm, and 1583 nm. The quality factor of the first filter unit was estimated to be QT = 900, from the full width at half maximum of the emission peak. Both the resonant wavelength and estimated quality factor are consistent with those of the basic filter unit described above. The change of resonant wavelength between each successive filter unit was caused by the corresponding small changes in lattice constant; the wavelength intervals between adjacent emission peaks were almost equal. The wavelength intervals are around 20 nm, which is determined by the lattice constant ratio of 1.012 utilized here. The intervals can be tuned according to need by changing the ratio of lattice constants and by appropriately designing the position of hetero-interfaces to be used for reflection. (The details will be reported in separate paper.) It is also noteworthy that the quality factors of the filter units were almost equal, QT = 900 – 1000.

Also shown in Fig. 5 is the ‘through spectrum’ of a reference waveguide prepared adjacent to the device, with a lattice constant of a 1 = 420 nm, which is equal to that of the input waveguide of the PC1 region. The drop efficiency of each filter unit was estimated by dividing the peak intensity in the ‘drop spectrum’ by the intensity of the ‘through spectrum’ of the reference waveguide at the same wavelength. The four estimated drop efficiency were all in the range η = 100 ± 20 %.

Fig. 5. ‘Drop spectra’ of the fabricated multi-wavelength filter device (red, orange, green and blue lines correspond to the emission observed from the output ports of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th filter units, respectively; and ‘through spectrum’ of the reference waveguide (gray line).

5. Conclusion

We have experimentally investigated a method to obtain multi-channel drop operation, using in-plane channel drop filters in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs. The basic filter unit, containing an ultra-high Q nanocavity and reflective photonic crystal heterostructure interface, was experimentally determined to have a very high drop efficiency of almost 100%. Furthermore, a four-wavelength filter device, by simply connecting four filter units with structures proportional to that of the basic filter unit, showed multi-channel drop operation with very high efficiencies of almost 100%, and almost equal quality factors, across all channels. Thus, we have experimentally demonstrated a very simple method of making multichannel add/drop filters, using heterostructure photonic crystals, in which the efficiency is improved by reflection at the heterostructure interface, and dimensionless parameters including the efficiency and the quality factor are maintained across all channels.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research and an IT program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, Core Research for Evolution Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).

References and links

1.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Channel Drop Tunneling through Localized States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960–963 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano “Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals,” Science 300, 1537 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226–2228 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Noda, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and T. Asano, “In-Plane Hetero Photonic Crystals,” in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Photonic and Electronic Crystal Structures V, (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 86.

7.

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Highly efficient in-plane type filtering device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC) (San Francisco, CA, 2004), CWG6.

8.

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Highly efficient in-plane channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241101 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 13, 4202–4209 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4202 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, “High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739–2741 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Asano, W. Kunishi, M. Nakamura, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Dynamical wavelength tuning of channel-drop device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Electron. Lett , 41, 37–38 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13, 801–820 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-801 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13, 2678–2687 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2678 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296–1298 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

K. Kounoike, M. Yamaguchi, M. Fujita, T. Asano, J. Nakanishi, and S. Noda, “Investigation of spontaneous emission from quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab”, Electron. Lett. 41, 1402 (2005) [CrossRef]

18.

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648–4650 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Role of interfaces in heterophotonic crystals for manipulation of photons,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 195101 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13, 1202–1214 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1202 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591–4593 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Multichannel Add/Drop Filter Based on In-Plane Hetero Photonic Crystals,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 23, 1449–1455 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: February 9, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 30, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 30, 2006
Published: April 17, 2006

Citation
Hitomichi Takano, Bong-Shik Song, Takashi Asano, and Susumu Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3491


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References

  1. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Channel drop tunneling through localized states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960-963 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure," Nature (London) 407, 608-610 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Noda, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and T. Asano, "In-Plane Hetero Photonic Crystals," in Technical Digest of International Symposium on Photonic and Electronic Crystal Structures V, (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 86.
  7. H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient in-plane type filtering device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," in Technical Digest of Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/International Quantum Electronics Conference (IQEC) (San Francisco, CA, 2004), CWG6.
  8. H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient in-plane channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, "Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4202-4209 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4202 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, "High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Asano, W. Kunishi, M. Nakamura, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Dynamical wavelength tuning of channel-drop device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Electron. Lett,  41, 37-38 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, "Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper," Opt. Express 13, 801-820 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-3-801 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, "Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 13, 2678-2687 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-7-2678 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Kounoike, M. Yamaguchi, M. Fujita, T. Asano, J. Nakanishi, and S. Noda, "Investigation of spontaneous emission from quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab", Electron. Lett. 41, 1402 (2005) [CrossRef]
  18. M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Role of interfaces in heterophotonic crystals for manipulation of photons," Phys. Rev. B 71, 195101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1202 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Multichannel Add/Drop Filter Based on In-Plane Hetero Photonic Crystals," J. Lightwave. Technol. 23, 1449-1455 (2005). [CrossRef]

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