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Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 8 — Apr. 17, 2006
  • pp: 3654–3659
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Vibrational spectrum of γ-HNIW investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

Lantao Guo, Ying Hu, Yan Zhang, Cunlin Zhang, Yunqing Chen, and X.-C. Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 8, pp. 3654-3659 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.003654


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Abstract

Experimental and theoretical investigations of the vibration spectrum of λ-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane in the region of 0.2–2.5 terahertz are presented for the first time. The refraction index, absorption coefficient, and complex dielectric function of this sample are measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The simulated spectrum using density functional theory (DFT) is in agreement with the experimental data. The observed spectra features are assigned based on DFT calculation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Terahertz (THz) or far infrared (far-IR) spectroscopy can reveal rich spectroscopic and structural information of NO2-containing compounds since many vibrational modes (e.g. out of plane vibrations, torsion of NO2 groups and phonon/intermolecular modes) of these compounds are located in THz range. The vibrational spectrum varies with the number and substitution position of the NO2 groups. Many THz spectroscopic studies on different explosives, such as 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX), 2,4-Dinitrobenzene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) have been reported in recent years [1–9

1. F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. γ-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane. (γ-HNIW), a caged nitramine, was first synthesized by Nielsen. Its performance is better than HMX, a commonly used explosive. γ-HNIW has been studied in IR and far-IR ranging from 120 cm-1 to 3100 cm-1 via Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and laser Raman [10–12

10. T. P. Russell, P. J. Miller, G. J. Piermarini, and S. Block, “High-pressure phase transition in γ-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 5509–5512 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. However, THz spectrum of γ-HNIW below 100 cm-1 (∼3 THz) still has not been explored previously.

As an attractive and unique spectroscopic technique in the far-IR range, THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been utilized in a wide range of research fields in the past ten years, including chemical and biological detections and identifications [13

13. M. Walther, B. Fischer, M. Schall, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational spectra of all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis retinal measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 332, 389–395 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Different from conventional spectroscopic techniques, THz-TDS can provide both absorption coefficient and refraction index of a sample with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and without using the Kramers-Kroning relation.

Theoretically, the caged structural compounds are of great interests due to high density, high energy, and high tension. DFT has proved to be a reliable theoretical method to predict accurate vibrational frequencies for medium size molecules [2

2. Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2, 4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Due to the lack of THz spectrum of γ-HNIW down to 3 THz (∼100 cm-1), it is essential to investigate γ-HNIW in THz band both in experiment and theory.

In this letter, both the experiment and simulation of THz spectra for γ-HNIW in the range of 0.2–2.5 THz are presented. The refraction index, absorption coefficient, and complex dielectric function of this sample are measured by THz-TDS. Vibration frequencies were calculated based on DFT in the THz region. The characteristics of both the experimental and simulated spectra are analyzed and compared. DFT calculations allowed for assignments of the observed vibrational frequencies.

2. Experimental methods and materials

2.1 Experimental setup

The experimental setup for THz-TDS has been described in the literature [15

15. N. Li, J. L. Shen, J. H. Sun, L. S. Liang, X. Y. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. Jia, “Study on THz spectrum of Methamphetamine,” Opt. Express 13, 6750–6755 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6750. [CrossRef]

]. Where a repetition rate of 82 MHz, diode-pump mode-locked Ti: sapphire laser (MaiTai, Spectra Physics) provides the femtosecond pulses with duration of 100 fs and center wavelength of 810 nm. A p-type InAs wafer with <100> orientation is used as the THz emitter and a 2.8 mm-thick ZnTe with <110> orientation is employed as the sensor. The THz beam path is covered by a box and is purged with dry nitrogen to minimize the absorption of water vapor and to enhance the SNR. The humidity is kept less than 1% and temperature is kept at 293 K. The dynamic range is about 4000:1 and the spectral resolution is better than 40 GHz in the 0.2–2.5 THz region.

2.2 Sample preparation

The γ-HNIW sample (purity > 98%) was provided by the State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology at Beijing Institute of Technology, China. To reduce the scattering effect of the sample, it was ground into fine particles and then pressed into 1.6 mm-thick pellet.

3. Results and discussions

3.1 Experimental results

Fig. 1. Frequency-dependent refraction index n(v) and absorption coefficient α(v) of γ-HNIW.
Fig. 2. Frequency-dependent complex dielectric function of γ-HNIW. ε1 and ε2 are the real part and imaginary part of the dielectric function.

3.2 DFT calculation and analyses

In order to better understand the absorption spectrum, we did a theoretical calculation using Gaussian 03 package [16

16. M. J. Frisch, M. Klene, M. A. Robb, and L. Blancafort, 2003 GAUSSIAN 03 (Revision B.05), Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.

]. This calculation was performed using the Becke-3–Lee–Yang–Parr (B3LYP) functional and the 6-311G (d, p) basis set [17

17. A. D. McLean and G. S. Chandler, “Contracted Gaussian basis sets for molecular. calculations. I. Second row atoms, Z=11-18,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5639–5648 (1980). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. R. Krishnan, J. S. Binkley, R. Seeger, and J. A. Pople, “Self-consistent molecular orbital methods. XX. A basis set for correlated wave functions,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 650–654 (1980). [CrossRef]

]. The initial geometry was adapted from x-ray crystallographic data, and subsequently optimized to find the minimum energy. It was confirmed by the vibrational analysis since no negative frequencies were found. The calculated vibration frequencies of one single γ-HNIW molecule agree well with the experimental FTIR data beyond 120 cm-1 [10

10. T. P. Russell, P. J. Miller, G. J. Piermarini, and S. Block, “High-pressure phase transition in γ-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 5509–5512 (1992). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. J. L. Wang, Y. X. Ou, B. R. Chen, J. Q. Liu, L. Y. Lü, and W. R. Han, “The FIR and LR spectra of four polymorphs of Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane,” Energetic Materials 11, 144–146 (2003).

].

The predicted molecular structure of γ-HNIW is shown in Fig. 3. The skeleton of HNIW consists of two five-membered rings (1, 3-dinitro-1,3-dinitric-heterocyclic-pentane) and an six-membered ring (1,4-dinitro-1,4-dinitric-heterocyclichexane). Each five-membered ring is formed by two nitrogen and three carbon atoms. The optimized parameters agree well with those reported by Zhou et al [19

19. G. Zhou, J. Wang, W. He, N. Wong, A. Tian, and W. Li, “Theoretical investigation of four conformations of HNIW by B3LYP method,” J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 589–590, 273–280 (2002).

] at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level. The calculated geometrical parameters, total dipole moments, total energies, and literature values are tabulated in Table 1. It can be seen that the C25-C26, C27-C28 and C29-C30 bonds are 1.590, 1.595, and 1.585 Å, respectively, longer than the standard C-C bond (about 1.54 Å). All the N-N bonds ranging from 1.396 Å to 1.445 Å are larger than the standard N-N bond (about 1.36 Å). Consequently, N–N bonds are more fragile than the other bonds of γ-HNIW. The dihedral angles of five-membered rings which taken from τ(N13-C27-N14-C26), τ(N14-C27-N13-C25), τ(N16-C28-N18-C29), and τ(N18-C28-N16-C30) are 35.1, 35.7, 38.8, and 42.3, respectively. These dihedral angles are far from those of an ordinary pentagon ring (e.g. cyclopentane, <10°), which are caused by C27–C28 at the top of the five-membered rings.

Table. 1. Comparison of selected structural parameters for γ-HNIW at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level with the literature values19; bond distances r in (Å), bond angles ∠ (in degree) and dihedral angles τ(in degree), dipole moment (in Debye), and total energies (in Hartrees).

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3.3. Calculation and assignments of vibrational frequencies

The calculated frequencies as well as experimental results are plotted in Fig. 4. We use a Lorentzian shape with Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of 3 cm-1. The frequencies listed on Table 2 were not scaled since no scale factor is available for the B3LYP functional with the 6-311 G (d, p) basis set.

Fig. 3. Molecular structure and serial number of atoms in γ-HNIW.
Fig. 4. Comparison of absorption spectra between the experiment and the simulation

It can be seen from Fig. 4 that the calculated absorption peaks which located at 0.97, 1.70 and 1.88 THz fit well with the experimental absorption bands peaked at 1.05, 1.67 and 1.90 THz except some frequency shift. The discrepancy of vibrational frequencies between the calculation and experiment can be ascribed to the solid effect and the influence of the temperature. Based on the calculated results at the B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) level and with the aid of visualization of Gaussian View 3.09, the absorption bands at 1.05, 1.67 and 1.90 THz are tentatively assigned to intra-molecular modes of γ-HNIW. They are correlated to vibration of NO2 groups (see Table 2). The frequency differences between the experiment and the simulation are 0.08, 0.03 and 0.02 THz at 1.05, 1.67 and 1.90 THz respectively. The peak position of the band at 1.52 is absent in the calculated spectrum. It can possibly be attributed to a phonon or intermolecular mode other than an isolated-molecular vibration. The more precise calculation including inter-molecular force field will be done in future. The calculated absorption peaks located at 2.33 THz is absent in the experimental results. The reason might be we model the normal vibration modes of single molecule in gas phase at zero Kelvin while our experiment was performed at room temperature. The fine structure of the spectrum cannot be seen because room temperature spectrum possibly is a superposition of transition from the excited vibrational states. Shen et al. studied the temperature-dependent THz spectrum of biological molecules. More absorption peaks appeared at very low temperatures, and their intensities became stronger with the decrease of temperature [20

20. Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Temperature-dependent low-frequency vibrational spectra of purine and adenine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2350–2352 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. We will re-do the experiment in the future when the low-temperature device is available.

Table. 2. Assignments of observed vibrational frequencies for γ-HNIW

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4. Conclusion

The experimental and simulated THz spectra of γ-HNIW in the region of 0.2–2.5 THz were presented. Frequency-dependent absorption coefficient, refraction index and complex dielectric function were obtained by THz-TDS. Theoretical simulation shows that the distinct features of the spectrum originated from low-frequency vibrational modes caused by intramolecular collective motion and phonon/intermolecular vibration. These THz fingerprints could be useful for explosive identification.

Acknowledgments

We gratefully thank Prof. Xun Wang, Prof. Fuhe Wang, Prof. Guozhong Zhao, Guanping Yu and Ning Li for their help in improving this manuscript. This project is supported by the Science Foundation of Education Commission of Beijing, China (Grant No. KM200310028115), Beijing Science Nova Program (No. 2004B35), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10390160), and the Beijing Key Lab for Nano-photonics and Nano-structure.

References and links

1.

F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen, and D. B. Tanner, “Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535–5537 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X.-C. Zhang, “THz spectroscopic investigation of 2, 4-dinitrotoluene,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357–361 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

D. J. Funk, F. Calgaro, R. D. Averitt, M. L. T. Asaki, and A. J. Taylor, “THz transmission spectroscopy and imaging: application to the energetic materials PBX 9501 and PBX 9502,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 428–431 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno, and Y. Minami, “Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414–L417 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, and D. Babikov, “Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501–3505 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116–241118 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2477–2479 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” in Infrared Components and Their Applications, H. Gong, Y. Cai, and J. Chatard, eds., Proc. SPIE. 5070, 44–52 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova, and T. M. Korter, “Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX,” J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951–1959 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. P. Russell, P. J. Miller, G. J. Piermarini, and S. Block, “High-pressure phase transition in γ-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 5509–5512 (1992). [CrossRef]

11.

J. L. Wang, Y. X. Ou, B. R. Chen, J. Q. Liu, L. Y. Lü, and W. R. Han, “The FIR and LR spectra of four polymorphs of Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane,” Energetic Materials 11, 144–146 (2003).

12.

K. L. McNesby, J. E. Wolfe, J. B. Morris, and R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, “Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of some energetic materials and propellant formulations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 75–87 (1994). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Walther, B. Fischer, M. Schall, H. Helm, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational spectra of all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis retinal measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 332, 389–395 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42–48 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

N. Li, J. L. Shen, J. H. Sun, L. S. Liang, X. Y. Xu, M. H. Lu, and Y. Jia, “Study on THz spectrum of Methamphetamine,” Opt. Express 13, 6750–6755 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6750. [CrossRef]

16.

M. J. Frisch, M. Klene, M. A. Robb, and L. Blancafort, 2003 GAUSSIAN 03 (Revision B.05), Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.

17.

A. D. McLean and G. S. Chandler, “Contracted Gaussian basis sets for molecular. calculations. I. Second row atoms, Z=11-18,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5639–5648 (1980). [CrossRef]

18.

R. Krishnan, J. S. Binkley, R. Seeger, and J. A. Pople, “Self-consistent molecular orbital methods. XX. A basis set for correlated wave functions,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 650–654 (1980). [CrossRef]

19.

G. Zhou, J. Wang, W. He, N. Wong, A. Tian, and W. Li, “Theoretical investigation of four conformations of HNIW by B3LYP method,” J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 589–590, 273–280 (2002).

20.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Temperature-dependent low-frequency vibrational spectra of purine and adenine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2350–2352 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.4530) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical constants
(120.7280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Vibration analysis
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
(300.6270) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, far infrared

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: January 3, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 30, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: April 4, 2006
Published: April 17, 2006

Citation
Lantao Guo, Ying Hu, Yan Zhang, Cunlin Zhang, Yunqing Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Vibrational spectrum of γ-HNIW investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3654-3659 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3654


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References

  1. F. Huang, B. Schulkin, H. Altan, J. F. Federici, D. Gary, R. Barat, D. Zimdars, M. Chen and D. B. Tanner, "Terahertz study of 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine by time-domain and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5535-5537 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur and X.-C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2, 4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400, 357-361 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Funk, F. Calgaro, R. D. Averitt, M. L. T. Asaki and A. J. Taylor, "THz transmission spectroscopy and imaging: application to the energetic materials PBX 9501 and PBX 9502," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 428-431 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, T. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, K. Koide, M. Tatsuno and Y. Minami, "Noninvasive inspection of C-4 explosive in mails by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L414-L417 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Barber, D. E. Hooks, D. J. Funk, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor and D. Babikov, "Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra of single crystals of high explosives using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 3501-3505 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116-241118 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Federici, D. Gary, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, H. Altan, R. Barat, and D. Zimdars, "Terahertz imaging using an interferometric array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,2477-2479 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, J. A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, "Security applications of terahertz technology," in Infrared Components and Their Applications, H. Gong, Y. Cai, J. Chatard, eds., Proc. SPIE. 5070, 44-52 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. D. G. Allis, D. A. Prokhorova and T. M. Korter, "Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX," J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1951-1959 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. P. Russell, P. J. Miller, G. J. Piermarini and S. Block, "High-pressure phase transition in γ-Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 5509-5512 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. J. L. Wang, Y. X. Ou, B. R. Chen, J. Q. Liu, L. Y. Lü, and W. R. Han, "The FIR and LR spectra of four polymorphs of Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane," Energetic Materials 11, 144-146 (2003).
  12. K. L. McNesby, J. E. Wolfe, J. B. Morris, and R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, "Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of some energetic materials and propellant formulations," J. Raman Spectrosc. 25, 75-87 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Walther, B. Fischer, M. Schall, H. Helm and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Far-infrared vibrational spectra of all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis retinal measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 332, 389-395 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg and E. J. Heilweil, "Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz," Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42-48 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Li, J. L. Shen, J. H. Sun, L. S. Liang, X. Y. Xu, M. H. Lu and Y. Jia, "Study on THz spectrum of Methamphetamine," Opt. Express 13, 6750-6755 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6750. [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Frisch M. Klene, M. A. Robb, and L. Blancafort, 2003 GAUSSIAN 03 (Revision B.05), Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.
  17. A. D. McLean and G. S. Chandler, "Contracted Gaussian basis sets for molecular. calculations. I. Second row atoms, Z=11-18," J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5639-5648 (1980). [CrossRef]
  18. R. Krishnan, J. S. Binkley, R. Seeger, and J. A. Pople, "Self-consistent molecular orbital methods. XX. A basis set for correlated wave functions," J. Chem. Phys. 72, 650-654 (1980). [CrossRef]
  19. G. Zhou, J. Wang, W. He, N. Wong, A. Tian and W. Li, "Theoretical investigation of four conformations of HNIW by B3LYP method," J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 589-590, 273-280 (2002).
  20. Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield and A. G. Davies, "Temperature-dependent low-frequency vibrational spectra of purine and adenine," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2350-2352 (2003). [CrossRef]

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