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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 10 — May. 14, 2007
  • pp: 6241–6250
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Non-Bloch plasmonic stop-band in real-metal gratings

Evgeny Popov, Nicolas Bonod, and Stefan Enoch  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 10, pp. 6241-6250 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.006241


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Abstract

Recent studies of plasmon surface wave (PSW) propagation in short-period perfectly conducting gratings have shown formation of stop-band that are not linked to the interaction between two (counter) propagating surface waves. We study the properties of this stop-band in real metals. While for both perfectly conducting and real metals the propagation constant of PSW grows with the groove height, the stop-band in real metals appears for groove heights significantly smaller than in perfect metals. A physical explanation of the formation of the stop-band is proposed both by using a homogenisation of the corrugated layer and by analysis of the tangential electric field component.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Introduction

Our aim is to extend the work made in [1

1. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

] to real-metal gratings in order to investigate the similarities and the differences from the perfectly conducting case. In particular, the stop band for real metals appears for groove height values significantly smaller than for perfectly conducting metals. The other difference is that, contrary to perfect metals, the stop-band height for real metals decreases with the grating period. An increase of the propagation constant of the surface mode with the groove height is observed in both cases. We give physical insight thanks to homogenization of the corrugated layer and observation of field maps.

Stop bands in corrugated perfectly conducting metals

Plasmon-like surface wave can propagate on the surface of a corrugated perfectly conducting metal. Periodic perturbation of the surface (having a period d) can couple the counter propagating modes, modifying their propagation constants (denoted as kx) in the regions close to the boundaries of the Brillouin zone. The results presented in this section are already known, but they are necessary for making the comparison with the real-metal case.

Fig. 1. Dispersion curves of plasmon-like surface waves in a lamellar grating made of perfectly conducting metal. Dotted lines present Brillouin zone boundaries (kx = π/d), dashed lines indicate lower boundary of the forbidden zone created by the interaction between counter propagating surface waves.

Figure 1 presents the dispersion curves in the case of lamellar metallic gratings for several values of the grating period d. The period d and the incident wavelength λ are in μm. The dotted lines indicate the Brillouin zone boundaries:

kx,max=πd
(1)

and the dashed lines indicate the lower boundary of the forbidden zone created by the interaction between the counter-propagating waves. For very small groove depth values (weak counter-propagating interaction), the two boundaries are linked through the free-space relation:

ωmaxc=kx,max,h0
(2)

These boundaries increase with the period reduction, as observed in Fig. 1. It can be expected from Eq. (2) that ωmax grows to infinity when d is reduced. However, as shown in [1

1. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

], there is an upper limit reached asymptotically when d → 0, a limit which depends on the groove depth h through the simple relation λ = 4h, as shown by the blue line in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Normalized propagation constant of the plasmon-like surface wave as a function of the groove height of the grating for 3 values of the period and wavelength λ = 0.6 μm. In the limit d→0, the cut-off height is equal to λ/4.

Stop bands in real metals

Plasmon surface wave along real-metal grating has absorption losses, and Fig. 3 represents the real and imaginary part of the propagation constant of the eigenmode kx as a function of the groove height in the case of an aluminium grating illuminated in the visible (wavelength λ = 0.6 μm and refractive index n = 1.378 + i 7.616). Qualitatively, the effect is similar to that one observed in Fig. 2, but several important differences must be evidenced. First, close to the cutoff, the imaginary part of the plasmon propagation constant starts to grow rapidly, accompanied by a maximum of its real part. This behavior is quite typical to the modes of lossy systems close to their cut-off [12

12. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), sec. 8.5.

, 13

13. E. Popov, M. Nevière, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne , H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342–2348 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 3. Same as in Fig. 2 but for a real metal (aluminum in visible). Cut-off is characterized by the sharp increase of the imaginary part of the propagation constant. As for perfect metals, the real part of kx increases at the cut-off.

Second, the decrease of the period for real metal case (Fig. 3) moves the cut-off towards smaller groove depth values, contrary to the perfectly conducting case (Fig. 2). Third, although contrary to perfectly conducting metal in Figs. 1 and 2, the position of the cut-off is not quite well defined, its values for real metals are much lower than for the perfectly conducting case. Whether this is due to the penetration of the electromagnetic field inside the substrate, which increases the visible groove depth, is a question that can partially explain this difference, by taking into account that the skin depth is approximately equal to 12 nm. However, this reason does not provide a complete explanation, as shown in Fig. 4, where the PSW propagating constants are presented as a function of the groove depth for a very short-period grating (d = 0.0015 μm) having aluminium lamellae and, respectively, aluminium or perfectly conducting substrates. As observed, even in the case of perfectly conducting substrate and lossy lamellae, the cut-off height is almost twice smaller than in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Same as in Figs. 2 and 3 but for two different gratings. Lamellae and substrate made of aluminum (black and red lines), and lamellae made of aluminum and substrate made of perfect metal (green and blue lines). Wavelength λ = 0.6 μm.

Homogenized corrugated layer for perfect and real metals

As discussed in detail in [1

1. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

], the perfectly conducting lamellar grating behaves, in the limit of d → 0 as an anisotropic waveguide with both relative permittivity and relative permeability being tensors:

εxx=1ε1,εyy=εzz=
(3)
μxx=1,μyy=μzz=1εxx
(4)

where the angular brackets stay for the mean value. When d → 0, both the spectral and the groove-depth dependency, as presented in Figs. 1 and 2, approach the characteristics of a planar anisotropic waveguide. While the anisotropic homogenized tensor <ε> is quite well known since long time [14

14. R. McPhedran, L. Boteen, M. Craig, M. Nevière, and D. Maystre, “Lossy lamellar gratings in the quasistatic limit,” Opt. Acta 29, 289–312 (1982). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. G. Bouchitte and R. Petit, “Homogenization techniques as applied in the electromagnetic theory of gratings,” Electromagnetics 5, 17–36 (1985). [CrossRef]

], the anisotropic homogenized tensor <μ> depicted by Eq. (2) is necessary only for perfectly conducting lamellae in order to ensure that the electromagnetic waves travelling inside the grooves in direction of either y and z have, correspondingly, the wavevector components equal to ky/k0 = 1 and kz/k0 = 1. This is due to the fact that for small groove width, the only propagating mode inside the grooves is the fundamental TEM mode. And indeed, when observing the black curve in Fig. 5, which gives the vertical distribution of |Ex| inside the groove for an almost infinitely conducting material (made with εmetal = -104 + i 107, corresponding to Al in the microwave domain), one observes that |Ex| reaches from a minimum at the groove bottom to a maximum at the groove opening at a distance along the y-axis exactly equal to a quarter-wavelength. This result shows that the component ky of the fundamental mode inside the groove (which determines the y-dependence of the field) is equal to the free space constant k0, i.e. ky= k0.

Fig. 5. Vertical distribution of |Ex| inside the groove with depth h = 0.13 μm for a perfect (black line) and real-metal (red line) case. Incident electric field modulus is equal to 1.

On the other hand, finitely conducting gratings have equivalent homogenized presentation, which represents a waveguide, anisotropic in its dielectric permittivity whereas its magnetic permeability is isotropic:

εxx=1ε1,εyy=εzz=ε,
(5)
μxx=μyy=μzz=1,
(6)

And indeed, numerical results show that when d → 0 , the curves presented in Fig. 3 for d ≠ 0 tend towards the curve for an anisotropic waveguide with permittivity given by Eq. (5) similar to Eq. (3), but with isotropic permeability presented by Eq. (6). The discontinuity in the transition between highly but finitely conducting metals to a perfectly conducting material in the homogenization procedure is known since more than 20 years [14–16

14. R. McPhedran, L. Boteen, M. Craig, M. Nevière, and D. Maystre, “Lossy lamellar gratings in the quasistatic limit,” Opt. Acta 29, 289–312 (1982). [CrossRef]

] and is still waiting for a satisfactory explanation. Anyway, the main difference is that in the case of a finite conductivity, the propagation constant in y-direction inside the homogenized anisotropic waveguide becomes different from k0:

kyk0=1ε12.
(7)

If we consider a highly conducting grating with filling ratio of 0.5, then kyk0=2, i.e., the electromagnetic field components vary inside the equivalent anisotropic waveguide more rapidly than for perfect metals. This can be observed in Fig. 5, where the second curve is for a grating made of Al illuminated in the visible. This more rapid variation explains why the surface wave cut-off appears at shallower grooves for lossy gratings when compared to lossless material. The increase of the mode propagation constant with the groove depth can be understood from the analogy with an equivalent waveguide. Plasmon-like surface wave in real but highly conducting metals is characterized by a propagation constant almost equal to the free-space wavenumber, with a slightly greater real part and small positive imaginary part. When a dielectric layer with εx = 1/〈1/ε〉 (≈ 2 for filling ratio of 0.5) is deposited on the metallic surface, the propagation constant of the PSW increases its values, the increase being larger when the layer thickness grows up. Moreover, unlike the isotropic waveguide, the anisotropic waveguide has an upper cut-off thickness, which explains the PSW cut-off observed in Figs. 2 and 3.

These numerical results are obtained using the differential theory of gratings [17

17. E. Popov and M. Nevière: “Maxwell equations in Fourier space: fast converging formulation for diffraction by arbitrary shaped, periodic, anisotropic media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1773 (2001). [CrossRef]

] in its rigorous coupled-wave version [18–20

18. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982) [CrossRef]

]. The method is based on a projection of Maxwell equations of a Fourier basis and thus reducing them to a set of ordinary differential equations, by playing special attention to the factorization rules used in a truncated basis of functions [19

19. P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Highly improved convergence of the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 779–784 (1996) [CrossRef]

, 20

20. G. Granet and B. Guizal, “Efficient implementation of the coupled-wave method for metallic gratings in TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1019–1023 (1996) [CrossRef]

]. In the case of lamellar groove profile, the set of equations is solved using eigenvalue-eigenvector technique [18

18. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982) [CrossRef]

], which increases significantly the computation speed. The numerical results are supported by analytical analysis of the guided wave propagation in an anisotropic waveguide, made in the Appendix. The result, described by Eq. (15

15. G. Bouchitte and R. Petit, “Homogenization techniques as applied in the electromagnetic theory of gratings,” Electromagnetics 5, 17–36 (1985). [CrossRef]

) in the case of highly (or perfectly, as discussed in Ref. [1

1. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

]) conducting substrate and lamellae confirm the behavior of the mode propagating constant kx, presented in Figs. 2 and 3. With the increase of the groove depth, kx increases as tg(ky,2h), i.e., there is a cut-off situated at h = π/2ky,2. This formula explains, as well, the difference between the perfectly conducting and real-metal case, when taking into account the couples of Eqs. (3) and (4) or (5) and (6):

hcut=π2ky,2=λ4μzzεxx={λ4,p.cλ4f,f.c
(8)

where p.c. and f.c. stand for perfect or finite conductivity and f is the ratio between the groove width and period.

In addition, Eq. (15) contains a second (or higher) branch of the surface plasmon, existing in deep gratings (h ∼ λ/2), shown in the right-hand side of Fig. 3 and discussed in detail in Ref. [7

7. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, A. Dechelette, E. Bustarret, T. López-Rios, T. Fournier, and B. Pannetier, “Localized surface plasmons in lamellar metallic gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2191–2195 (1999). [CrossRef]

] for lamellar grooves and in Ref. [21

21. E. Popov, L. Tsonev, and D. Maystre, “Losses of plasmon surface wave on metallic grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 379–387 (1990) [CrossRef]

] for sinusoidal gratings.

Local field analysis

As expected for highly conducting metals, the PSW wave has an almost vanishing electric field component Ex tangential to the metal surface. When a surface corrugation is introduced, the same condition is fulfilled on both the lamella top and the groove bottom.

Fig. 6. Map of |Ex| within one period of the grating with h = λ/4. Wavelength λ = 0.6 μm, period d = 0.01 μm, and εmetal = -104 + i 107. |Ex| vanishes on the top of the lamella and at the bottom of the groove, and has a maximum at the groove opening.

When considering a flat surface of a perfect metal, the propagation constant of the surface wave kx is equal to k0, and the tangential component of the electric field Ex is null. With the presence of a grating, the electric field component Ex is not null at the surface of the vertical walls, because it represents the normal component to the wall (Ey is then null). As a consequence, the propagation constant of the surface mode must be different from k0 (otherwise Ex ≡ 0 everywhere), and only the condition kx > k0 corresponds to a surface wave. This analysis explains why, if the PSW exists on a corrugated surface, its propagating constant is greater than for the wave on a flat surface.

In addition, when going up from the metal surface into the cover (vacuum or dielectric), |Ex| increases (at least up to a given height), because kx ≠ k0. Thus even for very shallow grooves, the condition:

Ex0aty=0,
(9)

i.e. on the straight line lying on the lamella surface is not fulfilled over the groove openings, while still holding on the lamellae tops. Thus the condition (9) necessary for the ‘ideal’ surface wave propagation along a highly conducting metal-dielectric interface is perturbed, as shown in Fig. 6, a perturbation resulting in slowing down the plasmon, i.e. in increasing its propagation constant kx.

Fig. 7. Comparison of the values of |Ex| at the top of the lamellae (black line) and at the groove opening (red line) as a function of the height of the groove. λ = 0.6 μm, d = 0.01 μm, and aluminium in the microwave domain, εmetal = -104 + i 107.

The perturbation grows with the groove depth, as observed in Fig. 7, which shows the values of |Ex| on the lamellae top and in the middle of the groove opening for different groove depths of a very short-period lamellar grating (λ/d = 60) made of very highly conducting material. It is observed that |Ex| (normalized so that |E| = 1) exhibits a sharp jump from lamellae top to groove opening, a jump which grows with h and perturbs the propagation of the plasmon surface waves thus reducing its speed for deeper grooves.

The fundamental TEM mode inside the grooves forms a standing wave with a period equal to λ/2. When the groove depth approaches a quarter-wavelength, |Ex| reaches a maximum at the groove openings (see Fig. 7) and the surface plasmon is so perturbed that it cannot propagate (its velocity becomes zero and its propagation constant tends toward infinity), i.e., the mode is cut-off.

Similar is the behavior when lossy grating material is considered. The difference lies in the fact that when kx increases (i.e., when the plasmon velocity diminishes), the absorption losses increase [3

3. R. W. Wood: “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Phylos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

]. This phenomenon has already been observed in Fig. 3 with the sharp increase of the imaginary part of the propagation constant close to the cut-off, i.e., when the |Ex| component at the top of the groove is maximum. A second difference lies in the fact that in lossy metals, the propagation constant of the fundamental mode inside the groove is larger than k0. As a consequence, the variation in y-direction of the electric field components is faster than for perfectly conducting gratings. Thus when increasing the groove height, |Ex| will reach its maximum value at a groove height h smaller than λ/4.

Conclusion

It is shown that gratings with very short period made of real metals support plasmon-like surface wave in the same way as it has been recently shown with perfect metals. These surface wave present a cut-off groove height value. A thorough comparison between perfect and real metals has been carried out and important differences have been pointed out. First, for real metals, the cut-off height diminishes with the period d, while for perfectly conducting gratings the tendency is the opposite. Second, the cut-off height is smaller for real metals. Third, with real metals, the cut-off is accompanied by a sharp increase of the imaginary part of the propagation constant. In all cases, the propagation constant increases with the groove height. We present two approaches to explain these phenomenon. The first one is based on the homogenization of the corrugated layer, as it has been proposed in Refs. [1

1. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for perfectly conducting gratings. In both cases (real and perfect metals), the equivalent homogenized layer presents an anisotropic dielectric permittivity, which explains why the propagation constant of the surface mode increases with the groove height. On the other hand, the homogenized layer presents an anisotropic magnetic permeability only in the case of perfect metals, a permeability remaining scalar in the real-metal case. This difference explains why the cut-off height is smaller in the latter case, as the variation of the electric field components inside the grooves is more rapid.

Another explanation of these peculiarities is given by analyzing the behavior of the tangential component of the electric field above and inside the grooves of the grating.

Appendix

The behavior of the anisotropic waveguide equivalent to the lamellar metallic grating is quite different from the well-known behavior of isotropic dielectric or metallic waveguides. In particular, the anisotropic waveguide is characterized by the existence of an upper cut-off thickness, which explains the cut-off of the PSW for larger groove depths, observed in Figs. 3 and 4. Let us consider a waveguide with anisotropic relative permittivity and permittivity:

ε=(εxx000εyy000εzz),μ=(μxx000μyy000μzz)
(10)

It can be easily found from the Maxwell equations that for diagonal form of anisotropy, it is possible to separate the two fundamental case of transverse electric (TE) and magnetic (TM) polarization. The propagation equation for Hz in the TM case is similar to the isotropic case:

d2Hzdy2+(k02εxxμzzkx2εxxεyy)Hz=0
(11)

assuming an exp(ikxx) variation. The boundary conditions at the waveguide surfaces lead to the well-known characteristic equation for the mode propagation constant kx, which has the same form as for isotropic media:

(β+α)(β+γ)exp(iky,2h)=(βα)(βγ)exp(iky,2h)
(12)

where α = k1,y1 characterizes the cladding with relative permittivity ε1, γ = k3,y3 characterizes the substrate having permittivity ε3, and β = k2,yxx with

ky,2=k02εxxμzzkx2εxxεyy
(13)

as found from Eq. (11).

Let us consider highly conducting substrate, so that γ ≪ β and Eq. (12) is simplified to take the form:

α=tg(ky,2h).
(14)

For isotropic waveguides, both α and β are functions of kx. However, Eq. (5) shows that εyy is equal to the arithmetic mean permittivity in the grating region, which is much larger in value than the mean harmonic permittivity εxx, for highly conducting lamellae. By taking this into account, the characteristic equation is drastically simplified:

α=iky,2tg(k2h)εxx,ky,2k0εxxμzz.
(15)

Acknowledgements

The support of EC-funded project PHOREMOST (FP6/2003/IST/2-511616) is gratefully acknowledged.

References and links

1.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

R. W. Wood: “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Phylos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

4.

D. Maystre, “General study of grating anomalies from electromagnetic surface modes,” in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley, 1982), ch.17.

5.

E. Popov, “Light diffraction by relief gratings: a microscopic and macroscopic view,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed., (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993) Vol. 31, pp. 139–187.

6.

E. Popov, L. Tsonev, and D. Maystre, “Losses of plasmon surface wave on metallic grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 379–387 (1990). [CrossRef]

7.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, A. Dechelette, E. Bustarret, T. López-Rios, T. Fournier, and B. Pannetier, “Localized surface plasmons in lamellar metallic gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2191–2195 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and N. P. Wanstall, “Flat surface-plasmon-polariton bands and resonant optical absorption on short-pitch metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 12661 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 205408 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165432-1 – 9 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Maier, S. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805-1 – 4 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), sec. 8.5.

13.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne , H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342–2348 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

R. McPhedran, L. Boteen, M. Craig, M. Nevière, and D. Maystre, “Lossy lamellar gratings in the quasistatic limit,” Opt. Acta 29, 289–312 (1982). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Bouchitte and R. Petit, “Homogenization techniques as applied in the electromagnetic theory of gratings,” Electromagnetics 5, 17–36 (1985). [CrossRef]

16.

P. Yeh, “A new optical model for wire grid polarizers,” Opt. Commun. 26, 289–292 (1978). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Popov and M. Nevière: “Maxwell equations in Fourier space: fast converging formulation for diffraction by arbitrary shaped, periodic, anisotropic media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1773 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982) [CrossRef]

19.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Highly improved convergence of the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 779–784 (1996) [CrossRef]

20.

G. Granet and B. Guizal, “Efficient implementation of the coupled-wave method for metallic gratings in TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1019–1023 (1996) [CrossRef]

21.

E. Popov, L. Tsonev, and D. Maystre, “Losses of plasmon surface wave on metallic grating,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 379–387 (1990) [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: February 2, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 20, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 9, 2007
Published: May 7, 2007

Citation
Evgeny Popov, Nicolas Bonod, and Stefan Enoch, "Non-Bloch plasmonic stop-band in real-metal gratings," Opt. Express 15, 6241-6250 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-10-6241


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References

  1. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. W. Wood: "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Phylos. Mag. 4, 396-402 (1902).
  4. D. Maystre, "General study of grating anomalies from electromagnetic surface modes," in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley, 1982), ch.17.
  5. E. Popov, "Light diffraction by relief gratings: a microscopic and macroscopic view," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed., (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993) Vol. 31, pp. 139-187.
  6. E. Popov, L. Tsonev, and D. Maystre, "Losses of plasmon surface wave on metallic grating," J. Mod. Opt. 37, 379-387 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, A. Dechelette, E. Bustarret, T. López-Rios, T. Fournier, and B. Pannetier, "Localized surface plasmons in lamellar metallic gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2191-2195 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. W.-C. Tan, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and N. P. Wanstall, "Flat surface-plasmon-polariton bands and resonant optical absorption on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 59, 12661 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205408 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165432-1-9 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Maier, S. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805-1-4 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), sec. 8.5.
  13. E. Popov, M. Nevière, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne, H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, "Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342-2348 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. R. McPhedran, L. Boteen, M. Craig, M. Nevière, and D. Maystre, "Lossy lamellar gratings in the quasistatic limit," Opt. Acta 29, 289-312 (1982). [CrossRef]
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