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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 11 — May. 28, 2007
  • pp: 6727–6733
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Point defect engineered Si sub-bandgap light-emitting diode

Jiming Bao, Malek Tabbal, Taegon Kim, Supakit Charnvanichborikarn, James S. Williams, Michael. J. Aziz, and Federico Capasso  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 11, pp. 6727-6733 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.006727


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Abstract

We present a novel approach to enhance light emission in Si and demonstrate a sub-bandgap light emitting diode based on the introduction of point defects that enhance the radiative recombination rate. Ion implantation, pulsed laser melting and rapid thermal annealing were used to create a diode containing a self-interstitial-rich optically active region from which the zero-phonon emission line at 1218 nm originates.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Significant effort has been devoted to the development of light emitters based on Si. However, because Si is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, it still remains a challenge to create an efficient Si light-emitting diode (LED) [1

1. S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light Emitting Si for Microphotonics, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics Vol. 194. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003). [CrossRef]

]. Si-based LEDs emitting near and above the band gap have been extensively investigated [2–6

2. K. D. Hirschman, L. Tsybeskov, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, “Si-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronic circuits,” Nature 384, 338 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Sub-bandgap LEDs have also been reported mostly using deep-level impurities [8–10

8. P. L Bradfield, T. G. Brown, and D. G. Hall, “Electroluminescence from sulfur impurities in a p-n junction formed in epitaxial silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 100–102 (1989). [CrossRef]

] as light-emitting “centers”, with some reports of emission from line defects such as dislocations [7

7. E. Ö. Sveinbjörnsson and J. Weber, “Room temperature electroluminescence from dislocation-rich silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2686–2688 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Such sub-bandgap emission in silicon is particularly important to address the wavelength range of optical communications in a way compatible with on-chip silicon electronics [1

1. S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light Emitting Si for Microphotonics, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics Vol. 194. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003). [CrossRef]

]. Optically pumped lasing has been reported [11–13

11. S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline Si,” Nat. Mater. 4, 887–891 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but an electrically driven silicon laser remains elusive.

In this paper we present a new approach to sub-bandgap light emitting diodes in silicon based on point defect engineering. Our method represents an alternative to the introduction of deep-level impurities or line defects. The control and utilization of point defects that enhance radiative recombination represents a new approach toward creating Si in a stable, optically active form for Si-based optoelectronics [1

1. S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light Emitting Si for Microphotonics, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics Vol. 194. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003). [CrossRef]

]. Our materials processing technique, combining ion implantation and pulsed laser melting (PLM), permits the fabrication and retention of high concentrations of optically active point defects and is compatible with existing silicon technology.

2. Sample fabrication and experimental results

The emission from our Si LED at wavelength λ = 1.218 μm is a narrow line originating from a direct electronic transition, i.e. a so-called zero-phonon line, in a complex point defect believed to involve mainly silicon self interstitials resulting from ion implantation [14–22

14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. The inset of Fig. 1 shows a schematic cross section of the LED, consisting of an optically active region where point defects are concentrated, an n+ top layer and a p-type substrate. Our device was fabricated on a Si(001) p-type (5 Ω.cm) wafer, which was ion implanted at 77 K with 80 keV 28Si+ to a dose of 1015/cm2 and subsequently with 80 keV 34S+ to a dose of 1014/cm2. All implantations were carried out at 7° from normal to avoid channeling effects. Samples were subsequently irradiated by a single 1.4 J/cm2 pulse from a spatially homogenized pulsed XeCl+ excimer laser (308 nm wavelength, 25 ns full width at half maximum, 50 ns total pulse duration). A 2.8 μm deep, 120 μm × 3 mm ridge structure was then defined on the wafer by photolithography, reactive ion etching and mechanical cleaving. The metallic contacts (back contact Al, 1500 nm; front contact Ti, 5 nm followed by Au, 100 nm) were fabricated using electron-beam evaporation. Finally, the device was processed with rapid thermal annealing for two minutes at 275°C.

Fig. 1. Surface-emission photoluminescence spectrum of a sample without contacts at 7 K. The inset show the schematic of a Si light emitting diode (not to scale).

The 1.218 μm zero-phonon emission called the W-line [14–20

14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

] is commonly observed in irradiated or implanted Si. It is generally understood that clusters of Si self-interstitials are responsible for the W-line emission [14–22

14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

], however the exact structure of W-line defects is still under investigation [21

21. G. M. Lopez and V. Fiorentini, “Structure, energetics and extrinsic levels of small self-interstitials clusters in Si,” Phys. Rev. B, 69, 155206–155213 (2004). [CrossRef]

,22

22. C. R. Jones, J. Coutinho, and P. R. Briddon, “Density-functional study of small interstitial clusters in Si: Comparison with experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155208–155212 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The W-line is initially very weak if it is observed at all from ion implanted Si at low or room temperature. Several methods of thermal treatment have been used to activate W-line luminescence [14–20

14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. The mechanism for generation and activation of the point defects associated with the W-line appears to be as follows [14–22

14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. The projected range (i.e. average depth at which ion implanted sulfur and silicon come to rest) is about 110 nm in our samples, with the concentration of the implanted species dropping well below 0.1% of the peak value by a depth of 300 nm. Many lattice vacancies and self-interstitials (i.e. interstitial Si atoms) are generated along the individual paths of implanted ions due to a number of collisions with the lattice atoms. Some of the Si atoms of the lattice are recoiled well beyond the projected range and come to rest as Si interstitials lacking nearby vacancies with which they can recombine. During thermal annealing, these isolated interstitials migrate and associate to form clusters, e.g. Si bi-interstitials or tri-interstitials.

Photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements were performed in a continuous flow optical cryostat at various temperatures. The 458 nm line from an argon ion laser was used to optically excite samples, and luminescence was collected and analyzed by a single grating spectrometer equipped with an InGaAs infrared detector.

Current (I) vs. voltage (V) characteristics at room and low temperature are shown in Fig. 2 (right). The I–V curves show a very good rectifying behavior. The increase of turn-on voltage at low temperature is attributed to the high resistance of the p-type substrate due to carrier freeze out effects.

Fig. 2. (right) Current –voltage curves at temperature 290 K, 80 K and 6 K. (left) Edge-emission electroluminescence spectra of the LED at a temperature of 80 K and 6 K. The black arrows indicate the position of the Si band-edge luminescence.

Figure 3 shows the temperature dependent emission intensity of the W-line. The W-line emission starts to drop significantly around 50 K. The linear fit from intensity versus reciprocal temperature gives us its deactivation energy, about 70 meV, which agrees well with the value reported from PL measurements18. The emission power of W-line versus injection current at 6 K is shown in the inset of Fig. 3. The intensity increases linearly at currents between 10 μA and 4 mA. Above 4 mA, the increase becomes sub-linear. At even larger current than shown, the intensity levels off and eventually decreases, possibly due to reversible heating effects. Our LED characteristics are very stable, showing no evidence of performance degradation after several thermal cycles between cryogenic and room temperature. The measured optical power at a current of 2 mA is about 1.8 nW, which corresponds to an estimated external quantum efficiency ~10-6. This small value results from the poor light collection efficiency (∼10-4-10-5) associated with the lack of waveguiding from the substrate side and other factors such as low numerical aperture of collection lens and the roughness of the etched ridge and cleavage surface. While a reliable value of the internal quantum efficiency is difficult to determine at this stage, we note that the intensity of the W line is about three orders of magnitude larger than the band-edge luminescence in the same samples. The W-line photoluminescence intensity is about 30 times the band-edge photoluminescence of the virgin substrate, but this comparison is not reliable either, because the absorption of the pump radiation is different in the two specimens.

4. Discussion and summary

Defects are normally associated with problems of device degradation and reliability. They often introduce states in the gap, which, for example, introduce non-radiative recombination in photonic devices through the well-known Shockley-Read-Hall mechanism [31

31. S. M. Sze, Physics of semiconductor devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981), p. 145.

]. Instead, in our device, highly localized point defects are used to create paths of enhanced radiative recombination. Extensive studies have shown that the W-line is a zero phonon line [14–22

14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

], which implies that no lattice relaxation is involved. The non-polar nature of optical phonons in silicon implies that the electrons and holes are not coupled to optical phonons by the Coulomb interaction, unlike in III–V semiconductors. Consequently the role of competing nonradiative channels is reduced.

Fig. 3. Temperature dependent intensity of W-line emission at a constant current of 5 mA. The red straight line is the best fit to the high temperature data points. The inset shows the W-line emission power as a function of injection current at 6 K. The line is a guide to the eye.

These results give grounds for optimism about the prospects for substantial improvement in the external quantum efficiency. For example, the defect populations can be engineered through optimized processing. A better optical cavity can be constructed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer to reduce optical losses. The most significant drawback of our device is that the W-line emission becomes very weak at higher temperature, vanishing near ∼100 K. Impurity gettering and hydrogen passivation are known to significantly reduce the temperature quenching of light emission from dislocations in silicon [32

32. V. Kveder, M. Badylevich, E. Steinman, A. Izotov, M. Seibt, and W. Schröter, “Room-temperature silicon light-emitting diodes based on dislocation luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2106–2108 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Additionally, Si point defects show rich spectra. Longer wavelength emission has been observed upon annealing interstitial-rich Si at higher temperature [17

17. S. Coffa, S. Libertino, and C. Spinella, “Transition from small interstitial clusters to extended {311} defects in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 321–323 (2000); P.K. Giri, S. Coffa, and E. Rimini, “Evidence for small interstitial clusters as the origin of photoluminescence W band in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 291–293 (2001). [CrossRef]

,18

18. P.K. Giri, “Photoluminescence signature of Si interstitial cluster evolution from compact to extended structures in ion-implanted Si,” Semiconductor science and technology 20, 638–644 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. These long wavelength emissions may show a weaker temperature quenching effect due to the deeper level involved in the optical transition and thus might be used to fabricate higher temperature optoelectronic devices.

In summary, we have engineered point defect concentrations in Si for enhanced radiative recombination and thereby demonstrated a sub-bandgap Si LED. Point defects in Si provide a new approach towards Si-based optoelectronic devices.

Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. G. D. Watkins, Prof. M. Loncar, Dr. M. Belkin, Dr. L. Diehl, Dr. C. Pflugl, Dr. J. Deng, M. Zimmler for helpful discussions and C. Madi for assistance in sample preparation. F.C. and J.M.B acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center under contract PHY0017795. The work of M.J.A. was supported by National Science Foundation grant DMR-0306997. The work of M.T. was supported by the Arab Fund Distinguished Scholar Award. The work of T.K. was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD, Basic Research Promotion Fund), KRF-2004-214-C00156. The support of the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS) at Harvard University is also gratefully acknowledged. CNS is a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN). JSW and SC acknowledge the Australian Research Council for financial support.

References and links

1.

S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light Emitting Si for Microphotonics, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics Vol. 194. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003). [CrossRef]

2.

K. D. Hirschman, L. Tsybeskov, S. P. Duttagupta, and P. M. Fauchet, “Si-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronic circuits,” Nature 384, 338 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in Si nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

Z. Lu, D. J. Lockwood, and J. Baribeau, “Quantum confinement and light emission in SiO2/Si superlattices,” Nature 378, 258–260 (1995). [CrossRef]

5.

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline Si,” Nature 353, 335–338 (1991). [CrossRef]

6.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature Si-based light-emitting diode,” Nature 410, 192–194 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

E. Ö. Sveinbjörnsson and J. Weber, “Room temperature electroluminescence from dislocation-rich silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2686–2688 (1996). [CrossRef]

8.

P. L Bradfield, T. G. Brown, and D. G. Hall, “Electroluminescence from sulfur impurities in a p-n junction formed in epitaxial silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 100–102 (1989). [CrossRef]

9.

B. Zheng, J. Michel, F. Y. G. Ren, L. C. Kimerling, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, “Room-temperature sharp line electroluminescence at λ= 1.54 μm from an erbium-doped Si light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2842–2844 (1994). [CrossRef]

10.

D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson, and K. P. Homewood, “A silicon/iron-disilicide light-emittingdiode operating at a wavelength of 1.5μm,” Nature 387,686–688 (1997). [CrossRef]

11.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline Si,” Nat. Mater. 4, 887–891 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-Si Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a Si Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis, and H. C. Webber, “Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464–466 (1981). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Götz, R. Nebelung, D. Stock, and W. Ziegler, “Photoluminescence investigation of defects after ion-implantation and laser annealing,” Nuclear Instruments and methods in physics research B2, 757–760 (1984).

16.

G. Davies, “The optical properties of luminescence centers in Si,” Phys. Rep. 176, 83–188 (1989). [CrossRef]

17.

S. Coffa, S. Libertino, and C. Spinella, “Transition from small interstitial clusters to extended {311} defects in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 321–323 (2000); P.K. Giri, S. Coffa, and E. Rimini, “Evidence for small interstitial clusters as the origin of photoluminescence W band in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 291–293 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

P.K. Giri, “Photoluminescence signature of Si interstitial cluster evolution from compact to extended structures in ion-implanted Si,” Semiconductor science and technology 20, 638–644 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

P. J. Schultz, T. D. Thompson, and R. G. Elliman, “Activation energy for the photoluminescence W center in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 59–61 (1992). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Nakamura, S. Nagai, Y. Aoki, and H. Naramoto, “Oxygen participation in the formation of the photoluminescence W center and the center’s origin in ion-implanted Si crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1347–1349 (1998). [CrossRef]

21.

G. M. Lopez and V. Fiorentini, “Structure, energetics and extrinsic levels of small self-interstitials clusters in Si,” Phys. Rev. B, 69, 155206–155213 (2004). [CrossRef]

22.

C. R. Jones, J. Coutinho, and P. R. Briddon, “Density-functional study of small interstitial clusters in Si: Comparison with experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155208–155212 (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

D. E. Hoglund, M. O. Thompson, and M. J. Aziz, “Experimental test of morphological stability theory for a planar interface during rapid solidification,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 189 (1998). [CrossRef]

24.

T.G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-bandgap infrared absorption in Si supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241902–241904 (2006). [CrossRef]

25.

M. J. Aziz, “Interface Attachment Kinetics in Alloy Solidification,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996); J.A. Kittl, P.G. Sanders, M.J. Aziz, D.P. Brunco, and M.O. Thompson, “Complete Experimental Test for Kinetic Models of Rapid Alloy Solidification,” Acta Mater. 48, 4797 (2000). [CrossRef]

26.

S. M. Sze, Physics of semiconductor devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981), p. 69.

27.

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, J.M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, B. L. Cardozo, and R. S. Goldman, Unpublished.

28.

T. G. Brown and D. G. Hall, “Optical emission at 1.32 μm from sulfur-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Let. 49, 245–247 (1986). [CrossRef]

29.

P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies, and E. C. Lightowlers, “Sulfur-related metastable luminescence center in Si,” Phys. Rev. B, 58, 7007–7019 (1998). [CrossRef]

30.

T. G. Brown, P. L. Bradfield, and D. G. Hall, “Concentration dependence of optical emission from sulfur-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1585–1587 (1987). [CrossRef]

31.

S. M. Sze, Physics of semiconductor devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981), p. 145.

32.

V. Kveder, M. Badylevich, E. Steinman, A. Izotov, M. Seibt, and W. Schröter, “Room-temperature silicon light-emitting diodes based on dislocation luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2106–2108 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 26, 2007
Revised Manuscript: May 8, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: May 11, 2007
Published: May 16, 2007

Citation
Jiming Bao, Malek Tabbal, Taegon Kim, Supakit Charnvanichborikarn, James S. Williams, Michael. J. Aziz, and Federico Capasso, "Point defect engineered Si sub-bandgap light-emitting diode," Opt. Express 15, 6727-6733 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6727


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References

  1. S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light Emitting Si for Microphotonics, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003) Vol. 194. [CrossRef]
  2. K. D. Hirschman, L. Tsybeskov, S. P. Duttagupta and P. M. Fauchet, "Si-based visible light-emitting devices integrated into microelectronic circuits," Nature 384, 338 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, "Optical gain in Si nanocrystals," Nature 408, 440-444 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Lu, D. J. Lockwood, and J. Baribeau, "Quantum confinement and light emission in SiO2/Si superlattices," Nature 378, 258-260 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, "Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline Si," Nature 353, 335-338 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenco, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao and K. P. Homewood, "An efficient room-temperature Si-based light-emitting diode," Nature 410, 192-194 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Ö. Sveinbjörnsson and J. Weber, "Room temperature electroluminescence from dislocation-rich silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2686-2688 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. P. L. Bradfield, T. G. Brown and D. G. Hall, "Electroluminescence from sulfur impurities in a p-n junction formed in epitaxial silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 100-102 (1989). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zheng, J. Michel, F. Y. G. Ren, L. C. Kimerling, D. C. Jacobson and J. M. Poate, "Room-temperature sharp line electroluminescence at ?= 1.54 ?m from an erbium-doped Si light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2842-2844 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Leong, M. Harry, K. J. Reeson and K. P. Homewood, "A silicon/iron-disilicide light-emittingdiode operating at a wavelength of 1.5?m," Nature 387, 686-688 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev and J. Xu, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline Si," Nat. Mater. 4, 887-891 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "An all-Si Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a Si Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. S. Skolnick, A. G. Cullis and H. C. Webber, "Defect photoluminescence from pulsed-laser-annealed ion-implanted Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 464-466 (1981). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Götz, R. Nebelung, D. Stock and W. Ziegler, "Photoluminescence investigation of defects after ion-implantation and laser annealing," Nuclear Instruments and methods in physics research B 2, 757-760 (1984).
  16. G. Davies, "The optical properties of luminescence centers in Si," Phys. Rep. 176, 83-188 (1989). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Coffa, S. Libertino and C. Spinella, "Transition from small interstitial clusters to extended {311} defects in ion-implanted Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 321-323 (2000); P. K. Giri, S. Coffa, and E. Rimini, "Evidence for small interstitial clusters as the origin of photoluminescence W band in ion-implanted Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 291-293 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. P.K. Giri, "Photoluminescence signature of Si interstitial cluster evolution from compact to extended structures in ion-implanted Si," Semiconductor science and technology  20, 638-644 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. P. J. Schultz, T. D. Thompson and R. G. Elliman, "Activation energy for the photoluminescence W center in Si," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 59-61 (1992). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Nakamura, S. Nagai, Y. Aoki and H. Naramoto, "Oxygen participation in the formation of the photoluminescence W center and the center's origin in ion-implanted Si crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1347-1349 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. G. M. Lopez and V. Fiorentini, "Structure, energetics and extrinsic levels of small self-interstitials clusters in Si," Phys. Rev. B,  69, 155206-155213 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. C. R. Jones, J. Coutinho and P. R. Briddon, "Density-functional study of small interstitial clusters in Si: Comparison with experiments," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155208-155212 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. D. E. Hoglund, M. O. Thompson and M. J. Aziz, "Experimental test of morphological stability theory for a planar interface during rapid solidification," Phys. Rev. B 58, 189 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender and M. J. Aziz, "Strong sub-bandgap infrared absorption in Si supersaturated with sulfur," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241902-241904 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. M. J. Aziz, "Interface Attachment Kinetics in Alloy Solidification," Metall. Mater. Trans. A 27, 671 (1996); J. A. Kittl, P. G. Sanders, M. J. Aziz, D. P. Brunco, and M. O. Thompson, "Complete Experimental Test for Kinetic Models of Rapid Alloy Solidification," Acta Mater. 48, 4797 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. S. M. Sze, Physics of semiconductor devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981), p. 69.
  27. M. Tabbal, T. Kim, J. M. Warrender, M. J. Aziz, B. L. Cardozo and R. S. Goldman, Unpublished.
  28. T. G. Brown and D. G. Hall, "Optical emission at 1.32 µm from sulfur-doped crystalline Si," Appl. Phys. Let. 49, 245-247 (1986). [CrossRef]
  29. P. W. Mason, H. J. Sun, B. Ittermann, S. S. Ostapenko, G. D. Watkins, L. Jeyanathan, M. Singh, G. Davies and E. C. Lightowlers, "Sulfur-related metastable luminescence center in Si," Phys. Rev. B  58, 7007-7019 (1998). [CrossRef]
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