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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 11 — May. 28, 2007
  • pp: 6982–6987
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Near-infrared femtosecond laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors

Yi-Chao Wang, Jia-Min Shieh, Hsiao-Wen Zan, and Ci-Ling Pan  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 11, pp. 6982-6987 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.006982


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Abstract

Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by near-infrared femtosecond laser annealing (FLA) are demonstrated. The FLA-annealed poly-Si channels exhibit low tail-state, deep-state, and midgap-state densities of grain traps. Characteristics such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and subthreshold slope for FLA-annealed poly-TFTs are comparable to those of conventional approaches. A wide process window for annealing laser fluences was confirmed by examining the changes in electrical parameters for transistors with various channel dimensions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Laser-induced crystallization and activation are now widely recognized as useful techniques for fabrication of various devices [1–6

1. J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, “Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films,“ Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969–1971 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. Important applications include formation of polycrystalline channels in thin film transistor (TFTs) on glass substrates for displays and shallow junction formation in silicon nanoelectronics [2–6

2. S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, “Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors,“ J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086–4094 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 7–8

7. Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, and L. H. Chua, “Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197–3199 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, the excimer laser has been proved to be a powerful tool for annealing of amorphous silicon layers, activation of shallow junctions and fabrication of TFTs [9–12

9. G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunáa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magríd, D. Salinasd, and F. Simone, “Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices,” Thin Solid Films, 504, 2–6 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, we reported near-infrared (λ= 800 nm) femtosecond laser annealing (FLA) for crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and activation of dopant atoms confined in ultra shallow junction regions [13–14

13. J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Unlike continuous-wave laser annealing and excimer laser annealing (ELA), the low fluence (∼ 45mJ/cm2) required for FLA suggests that ultrafast or non-thermal melting of semiconductors is the dominant mechanism [1–6

1. J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, “Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films,“ Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969–1971 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 15–17

15. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,“ IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Femtosecond optical pulses can excite significant numbers of the valance electrons in the semiconductor through nonlinear absorption. The photoexcited electron systems then weaken the lattice and lead to structural transformation such as re-crystallization. This can occur while the electronic system and lattice are not in a thermal equilibrium [16

16. S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,“ Nature Mater . 1, 217–224 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Grains as large as ∼800 nm were obtained using laser fluence as low as ∼ 45 mJ/cm2 [13

13. J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, the optimal annealing conditions are observed with a relatively broad laser-fluence window for which the grain size variation of the annealed samples are in less than ∼30%. On the other hand, we found dopant diffusion in silicon substrates implanted with boron or phosphorous was negligible after FLA-activation. The activation efficiencies were as high as 28–35% [14

14. Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, “Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104–131106 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In this letter, we report thin film transistors fabricated on channels crystallized by FLA for the first time. Good transistor characteristics, as confirmed by measurements of electrical parameters and grain trap-state densities were obtained for a wide process window of annealing laser fluences.

2. Experimental methods

Amorphous Si layers of 100 nm were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) at 550 °C on 500 nm-SiO2-coated silicon wafers. The active layers for the TFTs were crystallized by line-scanning irradiation of twenty ultrafast (∼ 50 fs) near-infrared (λ = 800 nm) laser pulses with fluences of 34–50 mJ/cm2 (or total laser fluences of 0.68–1.0 J/cm2). The beam spot size was 8mm×110μm. During the scanning process, the overlapping of neighboring pulses was fixed at 95%. FLA was conduced on a substrate heated at 400 °C in a vacuum chamber. A [Movie 1 of the annealing process is available online. FLA-crystallized layers were then defined into active regions for transistors with channel length (L)/ channel width (W) of 2μm/2μm, 3μm/3μm, 5μm/5μm, and 10μm/10μm. A SiO2 gate dielectric layer of 50 nm and polycrystalline silicon gate layer of 150 nm were then grown by LPCVD and patterned for self-aligned phosphorous implantation with dosage of 5×1015 cm-2, and energy of 53 keV. After thermal activation and metal connection were performed, n-type transistors were completed. For comparison, TFTs with channels crystallized by furnace annealing (solid phase crystallization, SPC) in nitrogen ambient at 600 °C for 24 hours were also processed on the same run. The transfer characteristics (drain current Id versus gate voltage Vg) of the devices were measured at a drain voltage Vd = 0.1 V, to extract electrical parameters. Grain trap-state densities, nGT, for all TFTs were also examined using the field-effect conductance method [18

18. G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, “Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025–1027 (1986). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results and discussions

In Fig. 1, we have plotted logarithmic transfer characteristics and linear transconductance (Gm) curves for some representative TFTs fabricated by FLA and SPC.

Fig. 1. Transfer characteristics and transconductance versus gate voltage for FLA and SPC processed TFTs with channel dimensions of (a) W = L= 2 μm and (b) W = L= 10 μm.

For TFTs with channel dimensions of W = L = 10 μm and W = L = 2 μm, the on/off current ratio was better than 107. As the laser fluence decreased from 51 to 34 mJ/cm2, significant decrease of Gm was observed due to the deterioration of crystallinity. Even at the lowest fluence we employed, the maximum Gm of TFTs fabricated by SPC was lower than that of TFTs annealed by FLA. The maximum values of Gm were analyzed to yield the field-effect electron mobility (μfe). The threshold voltage (Vth) and the subthreshold slope (S) were then extracted using the procedure described in reference 19

19. S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices Physics and Technology (Academic, 1985)

. Electrical parameters of FLA-processed TFTs are presented as functions of channel sizes and laser energy in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a). Threshold voltages, (b) subthreshold slopes and (c) mobilities for TFTs annealed by FLA with different fluences and the SPC process.

It is well-known that the tail-state density of grain traps, NG closely correlates with channel crystallinity [20

20. M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, “Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556–5565 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. We find the values of NG at an energy (E) ∼ 0.5 eV above the Fermi level (EF), for transistors with channels of 5μm/5μm, decrease from ∼3.5×1021 to 1.5×1021eV-1 cm-3 as the laser fluence increases from 37mJ/cm2 to 50mJ/cm2. This is shown in Fig. 3. Clearly, larger grains with fewer associated defects were obtained at increasing laser fluence up to 50mJ/cm2. This reduces considerably the height of the barrier to carrier transportation in the channels. As a result, higher Gm values are obtained (see Fig. 1). Similar trend for μFE can be observed in Fig. 2, regardless of channel sizes.

Increasing channel crystallinity normally reduces the density of the grain defects, including deep-states defects. Increasing laser fluences, we find that deep-state and midgap-state densities of grain traps decrease for the device with channels of 5μm/5μm, to 4×1018 cm-3 (at E-Ef = ∆E= 0.25 eV), and 1×1018 eV-1cm-3 (at ∆E∼ 0 eV), respectively (See Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Grain trap-state density in the energy bandgap of the poly-Si channels of TFTs with different channel dimensions processed by SPC and FLA at various fluences.

Area densities of grain trap-states, NG, at ∆E = 0 eV for devices in Fig. 3, are estimated from NGnGT∙tCLC where tCLC represents the thickness of FLA-crystallized polycrystalline silicon. For the same TFT, we find the values of NG are in a good agreement with those of the effective trap state densities Nt calculated from subthreshold slope.

The deep-state dominated subthreshold slope and threshold voltage both follow the trend of reduction in grain deep-states densities with laser fluence (See also Figs. 2 and 3). Similar trend was also observed in ELA-processed devices [20

20. M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, “Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556–5565 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The grain trap-state densities in Fig. 3 also show that the FLA-annealed TFTs are superior to SPC-annealed TFTs, consistent with that of the electrical parameters presented in Fig. 2.

4. Conclusion

In summary, polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) transistors fabricated by near-infrared femtosecond laser annealing were demonstrated for the first time. The FLA-annealed poly-Si channels exhibit low tail-state, deep-state, and midgap-state densities of grain traps of ∼1×1021, ∼5×1018, and ∼9∼1017 eV-1cm-3. Field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and subthreshold slope for transistors fabricated on poly-Si annealed with a total fluence of 0.9 J/cm2 in a line-scan mode were measured to be 80-160 cm2/Vs, 1-3 V, and 0.4-0.8 V/dec, respectively. These parameters are superior to those of SPC-processed while comparable to those of ELA-fabricated transistors. On the other hand, a much wider FLA process window than ELA was observed. We also show that channel crystallinity rather than channel roughness in such FLA-crystallized polycrystalline silicon layers, which exhibit sub-micro grains and smooth surfaces with roughness of ∼ 4–9 nm, dominates electrical characteristics of fabricated transistors.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the National Science Council (NSC) through various grants including PP AEU-II and the ATU program of the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, R. O. C. The authors also acknowledge able technical assistance by Mr. Zhi-Hong Wang.

References and links

1.

J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, “Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films,“ Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969–1971 (1993). [CrossRef]

2.

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, “Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors,“ J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086–4094 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, “Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications,” Solid State Phen. 67–68, 193–198 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

A. Hara, F. Takeuchi, and N. Sasaki, “Selective single-crystalline-silicon growth at the pre-defined active regions of TFTs on a glass by a scanning CW laser irradiation,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2000), pp. 209–212

5.

Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva, and M. J. Rose, “Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186–188 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng, and C. W. Chao, “Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511–233513 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song, and L. H. Chua, “Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197–3199 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See, and M. Bhat, “Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80–G83 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunáa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magríd, D. Salinasd, and F. Simone, “Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices,” Thin Solid Films, 504, 2–6 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Vikas, R. Ishihara, Y. Hiroshima, D. Abe, S. Inoue, T. Shimoda, J. W. Metselaar, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “High Performance Single Grain Si TFTs Inside a Location-Controlled Grain by 㮼-Czochralski Process with Capping Layer,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, 2005IEDM Technical Digest , 919–922, 5–7 Dec. 2005.

11.

A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, and C. I. M. Beenakker, “Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser,” Thin Solid Films 419, 199–206 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Ishihara, P. Ch van der Wilt, B. D. van Dijk, A. Burtsev, and J. W. Metselaar, “Advanced excimer-laser crystallization process for single-crystalline thin film transistors,“ Thin Solid Films 427, 77–85 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, “Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104–131106 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,“ IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,“ Nature Mater . 1, 217–224 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, “Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution,” Nature 410, 65–68 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, “Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025–1027 (1986). [CrossRef]

19.

S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices Physics and Technology (Academic, 1985)

20.

M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, “Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556–5565 (1999). [CrossRef]

21.

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, “A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs,” IEEE Electron Devices Lett. 26, 372–374(2005). [CrossRef]

22.

A. T. Voutsas, “A new era of crystallization: advances in polysilicon crystallization and crystal engineering,” Appl. Surface Science 208, 250–262 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara, and N. Sasaki, “Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850–7855 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar, and R. Reif, “Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices , 38, 55–60(1991). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization
(320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors
(350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 26, 2007
Revised Manuscript: May 11, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: May 20, 2007
Published: May 22, 2007

Citation
Yi-Chao Wang, Jia-Min Shieh, Hsiao-Wen Zan, and Ci-Ling Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," Opt. Express 15, 6982-6987 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-11-6982


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References

  1. J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, "Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969-1971 (1993). [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Hara, F. Takeuchi, and N. Sasaki, "Selective single-crystalline-silicon growth at the pre-defined active regions of TFTs on a glass by a scanning CW laser irradiation," in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2000), pp. 209-212
  5. Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva and M. J. Rose, "Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186-188 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Vikas, R. Ishihara, Y. Hiroshima, D. Abe, S. Inoue, T. Shimoda, J. W. Metselaar and C. I. M. Beenakker, "High Performance Single Grain Si TFTs Inside a Location-Controlled Grain by µ-Czochralski Process with Capping Layer," IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, 2005. IEDM Technical Digest, 919 - 922, 5-7 Dec. 2005.
  11. A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, C. I. M. Beenakker, "Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser," Thin Solid Films 419, 199-206 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Ishihara, P. Ch van der Wilt, B. D. van Dijk, A. Burtsev, and J. W. Metselaar, "Advanced excimer-laser crystallization process for single-crystalline thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 427, 77-85 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, "Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses," Nature Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, "Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025-1027 (1986). [CrossRef]
  19. S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices Physics and Technology (Academic, 1985)
  20. M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, "Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556-5565 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. A. T. Voutsas, "A new era of crystallization: advances in polysilicon crystallization and crystal engineering," Appl. Surface Science 208, 250-262 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991). [CrossRef]

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