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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 13 — Jun. 25, 2007
  • pp: 8094–8103
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Performance improvement of DPSK signal transmission by a phase-preserving amplitude limiter

Masayuki Matsumoto and Kenichi Sanuki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 13, pp. 8094-8103 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.008094


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Abstract

It is theoretically and experimentally shown that phase-preserving amplitude regeneration by an all-optical amplitude limiter using saturation of four-wave mixing in a nonlinear fiber can enhance DPSK transmission performance. The limiter suppresses amplitude fluctuations of the signal, by which the nonlinear phase noise caused by self-phase modulation of the transmission fiber is reduced. A 10-Gbit/s short-pulse DPSK transmission experiment shows that the limiter inserted either after a transmitter or inside a recirculating transmission loop can enhance the performance. Theoretical expressions for the linear and nonlinear phase noise are derived, with which the influence of imperfections of the limiter is examined.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Phase modulation as a method for information encoding in optical fiber communications has attracted intense interest in recent years. Advantages of using phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation formats include higher receiver sensitivity over conventional on-off keying systems and suitability for multi-level signaling such as quadrature PSK (QPSK) or differential QPSK (DQPSK) formats [1

1. K. P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

]. Maximum transmission distance of the PSK signals is mainly determined by the phase noise imposed on the signal. In long-distance systems, nonlinear phase noise, which is caused by the translation of amplitude noise to phase noise through nonlinearity of the transmission fiber, contributes significantly [2

2. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Impairment by the nonlinear phase noise will become severer for higher-speed systems that require higher signal peak power.

The nonlinear phase noise can be reduced or compensated for by several means. Because the self-phase-modulation (SPM) induced phase shift is positively correlated to the peak power of the signal pulses at the receiver, it is possible to compensate for the nonlinear phase shift by giving each pulse a negative phase shift whose magnitude is proportional to the peak power of the pulse before detection [3–6

3. X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation,” Opt. Lett. 27,1616–1618 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. This can be realized by inserting an optical element having effective negative nonlinearity [3

3. X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation,” Opt. Lett. 27,1616–1618 (2002). [CrossRef]

] or a phase modulator driven by the received signal intensity [4–6

4. C. Xu and X. Liu, “Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift keying transmission,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1619–1621 (2002). [CrossRef]

] in front of the receiver. A phase conjugator followed by an additional nonlinear fiber offers the same effect [7

7. D. -S. Ly-Gagnon and K. Kikuchi, “Cancellation of nonlinear phase noise in DPSK transmission,” 2004 Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and International Conference on Optical Internet (OECC/COIN 2004), paper 14C3-3 (2004).

]. The correlation between the received power and the nonlinear phase shift can be exploited also in the electric domain after detection for the phase noise compensation using electric signal processing [8

8. K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 779–783 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The optical compensation can be distributed over the transmission system, which realizes better nonlinear phase noise suppression [9

9. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and C. Xie, “Reduction of soliton phase jitter by in-line phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1519–1521 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. K. P. Ho, “Mid-span compensation of nonlinear phase noise,” Opt. Commun. 245, 391–398 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Another approach to reduce the nonlinear phase noise is to suppress the amplitude noise that is the origin of the nonlinear phase noise. This can be achieved either passively by inserting narrow-band filters in soliton systems [11

11. M. Hanna, H. Porte, J. -P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, “Soliton optical phase control by use of in-line filters,” Opt. Lett. 24, 732–734 (1999). [CrossRef]

] or actively by inserting all-optical limiters whose response time is smaller than a symbol period [12–14

12. M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055–1057 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. We have shown that an optical limiter utilizing saturation of four-wave mixing (FWM) in a nonlinear fiber actually suppresses the amplitude noise leading to the reduction of SPM-induced nonlinear phase noise [15

15. M. Matsumoto, “Nonlinear phase noise reduction of DPSK signals by an all-optical amplitude limiter using FWM in a fiber,” 2006 European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu 1.3.5 (2006).

]. In this paper, we present a theoretical and experimental study of the reduction of nonlinear phase noise by an optical limiter based on the saturation of FWM. Phase noise in a multi-span system where the limiters are inserted is calculated with several imperfections of the limiter taken into consideration. A 10-Gbit/s short-pulse DPSK transmission experiment is performed and it is shown that the FWM-based limiter can enhance the transmission performance when the nonlinear phase noise is a dominant source of performance degradation.

2. Reduction of nonlinear phase noise by all-optical amplitude limiter

Figure 1 shows an optically-amplified transmission system consisting of M amplifier spans. In such a system, a major contribution of the phase noise comes from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from the inline amplifiers. The quadrature component of the ASE noise relative to the signal gives direct phase fluctuations whose variance accumulates proportionally to the number of amplification stages. The in-phase noise component, on the other hand, does not produce phase noise but amplitude noise at the amplifier. The amplitude noise is translated to phase noise after propagation over the transmission fiber, which is more or less nonlinear, through the effect of SPM of the fiber [2

2. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The nonlinearity-induced phase noise (nonlinear phase noise) dominates over the direct phase noise (linear phase noise) when transmission distance and/or the signal power in the fiber are large. The noise generated in the source also contributes to the linear and nonlinear phase noise at the receiver. The variance of the phase noise is given by

Fig.1. Amplified transmission system consisting of M spans. Effects of amplitude limiters inserted at either A or B are examined.
δφ2=NsB2Psig+2PsigNsB(γLeff)2M2+NaBM2Psig+2PsigNaB(γLeff)2M(M1)(2M1)6,
(1)

When an optical limiter that perfectly suppresses the amplitude noise is inserted after the transmitter (point A in Fig. 1), the nonlinear phase noise induced by the source noise, that is, the second term in (1), is eliminated and (1) becomes

δϕ2=NsB2Psig+NaBM2Psig+2PsigNaB(γLeff)2M(M1)(2M1)6+NrB2GrPsig,
(2)

where the ASE contribution from an additional amplifier with gain Gr located in front of the limiter is added as the last term. Such an amplifier is usually needed to boost the signal power to the saturation level of the limiter. Nr is given by hvnsp(Gr-1). The nonlinear phase noise originating from the inline amplifier noise, the third term in (2), is further eliminated when the optical limiters are inserted every span at point B in Fig. 1. The phase noise then becomes

δϕ2=NsB2Psig+NaBM2Psig+NrBM2GrPsig.
(3)

3. Amplitude limiter using saturation of FWM in a fiber

FWM in fibers has a response time as short as a few femtoseconds leading to its wide applications in ultra-high speed nonlinear signal processing. Saturation of FWM interaction caused by pump depletion and/or excitation of higher-order FWM components is also ultrafast. The FWM saturation can be used as an amplitude limiter that suppresses bit-to-bit amplitude fluctuations of signal pulses [16

16. K. Inoue, “Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1016–1017 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Since the saturation of FWM can take place at relatively small signal power, the input power required for amplitude limitation is smaller compared with other types of 2R (re-amplification and re-shaping) regenerators based entirely on SPM [12

12. M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055–1057 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. This has been previously shown both by numerical simulation and an experiment [12

12. M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055–1057 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. M. Matsumoto, “Phase-preservation capability of all-optical amplitude regenerators using fiber nonlinearity,” 2006 Optical Fiber Communication Conference and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, paper JThB18 (2006).

]. Smaller required input power leads to smaller additional phase noise generated by the limiter itself. In this paper we use the FWM-based amplitude limiter for the reduction of nonlinear phase noise. It is noted that the additional phase noise introduced by the limiter itself may be further suppressed by the use of limiters that have flatter output phase variation in response to the input power variation as proposed in [14

14. K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Onishchukov, B. Schmauss, and G. Leuchs, “2R-regeneration of a RZ-DPSK signal using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 146–148 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 2. All-optical amplitude limiter using FWM in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF).

A schematic of the FWM amplitude limiter is shown in Fig. 2. It consists of an EDFA, a continuous-wave pump source, a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), and an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) for the extraction of the signal wavelength component. Although not shown in Fig. 2, a polarization controller is inserted after the EDFA for the alignment of pump and signal polarizations in the experiment. The structure of the limiter is the same as that of a single-pump parametric amplifier. Because large parametric gain is not needed for the application to an amplitude limiter, a relatively small pump power of a few tens of milliwatts is sufficient. Fig. 3 shows an example of saturation behavior of the limiter obtained by numerical simulation for continuous-wave signals. The HNLF has zero-dispersion wavelength, dispersion slope, nonlinearity, loss, and length of λ0=1556nm, dD/dλ=0.026ps/nm2/km, γ=12/W/km, α=0.78dB/km, and L=1500m, respectively. Pump wavelength and power are 1561nm and 20mW, respectively. For this pump power the output power saturates at input powers ~ 50mW. The saturation input power becomes minimum for frequency separation between signal and pump 400~500GHz. It is noted that the unsaturated parametric gain takes a peak value approximately at a signal-pump separation Δv 0=(-2γPpump2)1/2/(2π) ≅ 270GHz, where β2=d2β/dω2 at the pump wavelength. The fact that the signal gain saturates at lower signal powers at signal-power separation a little larger than Δv 0 has been pointed out in [18

18. K. Inoue and T. Mukai, “Signal wavelength dependence of gain saturation in a fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 10–12 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. For the purpose of signal limiter, larger frequency separation between signal and pump (~ 600GHz) will be preferred because it gives better equalization of output power after saturation as shown by the dash-dotted curve in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Output versus input powers of the FWM-based limiter for different signal and pump frequency separations Δv.

Another imperfection of the limiter is the residual amplitude fluctuation at the output of the limiter. This can be quantified by a residual power fluctuation ratio r , where the input signal power with fluctuation Psat+δP leads to the output signal power Pout(1+rδP/Psat). r=0 corresponds to perfect amplitude limitation while r=1 corresponds to no amplitude limitation. The coefficient r is rather a qualitative parameter accounting for the residual amplitude noise of the limiter. Actual causes of the residual amplitude fluctuation include the curvature of the transfer function Pout(Pin) shown in Fig. 3 at the operation point where dPout/dPin=0. Although the curvature of the transfer function should be taken into account for the accurate estimation of the probability density of the phase fluctuations, such a second-order effect is difficult to be included in the simple estimation of the magnitude of phase noise. We, therefore, include the influence of the residual power fluctuation assuming that it is proportional to the input power fluctuation.

Inclusion of these imperfections modifies the variance of the phase noise (2) where the limiter is inserted at the output of the transmitter to

δϕ2=NsB2Psig+NaBM2Psig+2PsigNaB(γLeff)2M(M1)(2M1)6+NrBM2GrPsig+(k+PsigγLeffrM)2(2NsBPsig+2NrBGrPsig).
(4)

The variance of the phase noise (3) with the limiter inserted every span is similarly modified to

δϕ2={1+4(k+PsigγLeffr)2[(1rM)(1r)]2NsB2Psig}+{M+4(k+PsigγLeff)2i=1M[(1rMi+1)(1r)]2}NrBM2GrPsig+{M+4(k+PsigγLeff)2i=1M1[(1rMi)(1r)]2}NaB2Psig.
(5)

4. Phase noise variance with and without using amplitude limiters

Figure 4 assumes perfect suppression of the amplitude fluctuation by the limiter. Fig. 5 shows the amount of phase noise versus average signal power when an imperfect limiter (r≠0) is inserted after the transmitter. As the residual power fluctuation ratio r increases, the effectiveness of the limiter is gradually lost. The influence of the residual amplitude noise is even severer when the limiters are inserted every amplifier span as shown in Fig. 6. In this case with r greater than ~ 0.5, the phase noise is larger than that without limiters for Psig<0.7mW. This severe degradation comes from enhanced nonlinear phase noise induced by the HNLF in the limiter. The unsuppressed amplitude noise after a limiter induces large nonlinear phase noise in the HNLFs in the succeeding limiters in the system. Fig. 6 shows that the amplitude limitation should be as perfect as possible especially when multiple limiters are inserted in the system.

Fig. 4. Standard deviation of phase noise at the receiver versus signal power. Solid, dashed, and dash-dotted curves correspond to the cases where no amplitude limiters are used, an amplitude limiter is inserted at the output of the transmitter, and amplitude limiters are inserted every amplifier span, respectively.
Fig. 5. Standard deviation of phase noise at the receiver versus signal power. An amplitude limiter with imperfect noise suppression is inserted at the output of the transmitter.
Fig. 6. Standard deviation of phase noise at the receiver versus signal power. Amplitude limiters with imperfect noise suppression are inserted every amplifier span.

5. Experiment

Figure 7 shows the setup of a DPSK transmission experiment. 10GHz short pulses (1.5ps) at 1558nm are generated by a mode-locked semiconductor laser diode and their phase is modulated by a 256-bit pseudo-random programmed bit pattern. After addition of ASE noise, spectrum of the signal is narrowed by an optical bandpass filter (OBPF) with resultant pulse width of 6.8ps. Then the signal is launched into a recirculating fiber loop. The transmission fiber is a densely-dispersion managed (DDM) fiber consisting of alternating normal- and anomalous-dispersion (≅±3ps/nm/km) non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber sections. Length of each fiber section is 2km and the total length is 40km. The DDM fiber was originally designed and fabricated for DDM soliton transmission at 80Gbit/s [19

19. H. Toda, S. Kobayashi, and I. Akiyoshi, “Reduction of pulse-to-pulse interaction of optical RZ pulses in dispersion managed fiber,” 2002 Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications, paper 4906-54 (2002).

]. In such a fiber, dispersive pulse broadening is limited, which enhances the effect of SPM and consequently nonlinear phase noise. In the recirculating fiber loop, a manually controlled polarization controller and a polarizer are inserted. They stabilize the signal polarization in the loop and reject ASE noise whose polarization is orthogonal to that of the signal. The amplitude limiter based on saturation of FWM is inserted in the system either at the entrance of recirculating loop (point A) or inside the recirculating loop (point B). Effect of the amplitude limitation is observed by measuring the bit error rate (BER) with turning on and off the pump power in the limiter.

Fig. 7. Setup of 10Gbit/s short-pulse DPSK transmission. An amplitude limiter based on FWM in fiber is inserted at either A or B. MLLD: mode-locked diode laser, LNM: LiNbO3 modulator, SW1,2: acousto-optic switches, DI: delay interferometer, LPF: lowpass filter, ED: error detector.
Fig. 8. Power transfer function and Q factor for the FWM-based amplitude limiter. Solid and dashed curves correspond to the cases where pump power is on and off, respectively.

Figure 8 shows averaged output signal power versus input signal power to the HNLF when unmodulated 10GHz pulses (6.8ps) are launched into the amplitude limiter. Optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is 23dB with noise bandwidth 0.1nm. The HNLF has the same dispersion, nonlinearity, loss, and length as those used in the simulation in Section 3. Pump wavelength and power are 1561nm and 15mW, respectively. Q factor defined as μ/σ is also plotted where μ and σ are the mean value and standard deviation of the peak voltage of the detected electrical pulses after a lowpass filter with 3dB cutoff frequency 7.5GHz. Results with pump power on and off are compared in Fig. 8. When the pump is turned on, the output signal power shows saturation and the Q factor increases from 10 to 15 as the input power is increased.

Fig. 9. BER versus averaged signal power launched to the transmission fiber. An amplitude limiter is inserted at the output of the transmitter (point A in Fig. 7). Solid and dashed curves correspond to the cases where pump power is on and off, respectively.
Fig. 10. BER versus averaged signal power launched to the transmission fiber. Amplitude limiters are inserted in the recirculating loop (point B in Fig. 7). Solid and dashed curves correspond to the cases where pump power is on and off, respectively.

Figure 9 shows measured BER after transmission over 200km (M=5) when the limiter is inserted after the transmitter. OSNR of the input signal is 21.5dB including noise in both polarizations. We find that the BER is remarkably lowered by the amplitude limitation for large signal power. This is qualitatively consistent with the calculation of phase noise as shown in Fig. 4. The BER degrades, however, at averaged signal power larger than ~ 1mW even when pump is on. This is considered due to the residual unsuppressed amplitude noise after the limiter, see Fig. 5. The imperfectness of the amplitude-noise suppression is indicated by the finite, relatively low, Q value even at its maximum shown in Fig. 8, although some additional noise is added after the limiter in the Q-value measurement. It is also noted that quantitative difference exists between the behaviors of the BER and phase noise shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 5, respectively. The difference between the BERs with pump on and off at high signal power is decreasing in Fig. 9 while the difference of the phase noise with r<1 and r=1, corresponding to the cases with pump on and off, respectively, is increasing in Fig. 5. Quantitative discussion of the performance with and without amplitude limiters needs detailed BER analysis including non-Gaussian phase statistics and influence of amplitude noise. Such an analysis will be a subject of future study.

Figure 10 shows BER also after transmission of 200km when the limiter is inserted inside the recirculating loop. OSNR of the input signal is increased to 25.7dB in this experiment. Error-free transmission was not obtained even when the pump is on when the transmitter OSNR is lower at 21.5dB. It is considered that this is again because the residual amplitude noise after the limiter induce large nonlinear phase shift in the HNLF at each circulation. However, the range of usable signal power is extended when the limiter is inserted every amplifier span. The behavior can be qualitatively explained by the phase noise behavior shown in Fig. 6 with non-zero r.

6. Conclusion

In this paper we studied both theoretically and experimentally the reduction of nonlinear phase noise by an all-optical amplitude limiter using saturation of FWM in a fiber. Recirculating-loop transmission experiment of 10Gbit/s short-pulse DPSK signals showed that the limiter, which is inserted either at the output of transmitter or in the recirculating loop, can improve the performance at large signal powers where the nonlinear phase noise is significant.

In the present experiment, our main purpose was to show the effectiveness of the FWM-based amplitude limiter by comparing BERs with pump power to the limiter on and off. Significant performance improvement, however, could not be obtained by the limiter if we compare the BERs with the limiter inserted in the system to that with the limiter removed from the system. This is especially true when the limiter was inserted in the recirculating loop. We attribute this to imperfectness of the limiter. If the amplitude stabilization is not perfect, residual amplitude noise induces large nonlinear phase noise in the HNLF in succeeding limiters.

Theoretical expressions for the phase noise with the imperfect limiter inserted are derived, with which the influence of imperfections can be examined. It is shown that the residual amplitude noise after the limiter degrades severely the effectiveness of the limiter in suppressing the nonlinear phase noise. The residual power fluctuation should be as small as possible especially when multiple limiters are inserted in the system.

Finally it is noted that the single-pump FWM-based limiter is polarization sensitive. For the limiter to be used in real systems as inline devices, this issue should be solved, for example, by the use of orthogonally-polarized dual-pump scheme [20

20. K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 911–913 (2002). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas.

References

1.

K. P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

2.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, “Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation,” Opt. Lett. 27,1616–1618 (2002). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Xu and X. Liu, “Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift keying transmission,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1619–1621 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Xu, L. Mollenauer, and X. Liu, “Compensation of nonlinear self-phase modulation with phase modulators,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1578–1579 (2002). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, and C. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 232–234 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

D. -S. Ly-Gagnon and K. Kikuchi, “Cancellation of nonlinear phase noise in DPSK transmission,” 2004 Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and International Conference on Optical Internet (OECC/COIN 2004), paper 14C3-3 (2004).

8.

K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 779–783 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and C. Xie, “Reduction of soliton phase jitter by in-line phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1519–1521 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

K. P. Ho, “Mid-span compensation of nonlinear phase noise,” Opt. Commun. 245, 391–398 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Hanna, H. Porte, J. -P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, “Soliton optical phase control by use of in-line filters,” Opt. Lett. 24, 732–734 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

M. Matsumoto, “Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055–1057 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Matsumoto, “Performance improvement of phase-shift-keying signal transmission by means of optical limiters using four-wave mixing in fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2696–2701 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Onishchukov, B. Schmauss, and G. Leuchs, “2R-regeneration of a RZ-DPSK signal using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 146–148 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Matsumoto, “Nonlinear phase noise reduction of DPSK signals by an all-optical amplitude limiter using FWM in a fiber,” 2006 European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu 1.3.5 (2006).

16.

K. Inoue, “Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1016–1017 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Matsumoto, “Phase-preservation capability of all-optical amplitude regenerators using fiber nonlinearity,” 2006 Optical Fiber Communication Conference and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, paper JThB18 (2006).

18.

K. Inoue and T. Mukai, “Signal wavelength dependence of gain saturation in a fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26, 10–12 (2001). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Toda, S. Kobayashi, and I. Akiyoshi, “Reduction of pulse-to-pulse interaction of optical RZ pulses in dispersion managed fiber,” 2002 Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications, paper 4906-54 (2002).

20.

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Polarization-independent two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 911–913 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: March 5, 2007
Revised Manuscript: May 16, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: June 10, 2007
Published: June 13, 2007

Citation
Masayuki Matsumoto and Kenichi Sanuki, "Performance improvement of DPSK signal transmission by a phase-preserving amplitude limiter," Opt. Express 15, 8094-8103 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-13-8094


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References

  1. K. P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).
  2. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher, and C. J. McKinstrie, "Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation," Opt. Lett. 27,1616-1618 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Xu and X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift keying transmission," Opt. Lett. 27, 1619-1621 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Xu, L. Mollenauer, and X. Liu, "Compensation of nonlinear self-phase modulation with phase modulators," Electron. Lett. 38, 1578-1579 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, and C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 232-234 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. D. -S. Ly-Gagnon and K. Kikuchi, "Cancellation of nonlinear phase noise in DPSK transmission," 2004 Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and International Conference on Optical Internet (OECC/COIN 2004), paper 14C3-3 (2004).
  8. K. P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and C. Xie, "Reduction of soliton phase jitter by in-line phase conjugation," Opt. Lett. 28, 1519-1521 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. P. Ho, "Mid-span compensation of nonlinear phase noise," Opt. Commun. 245, 391-398 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hanna, H. Porte, J. -P. Goedgebuer, and W. T. Rhodes, "Soliton optical phase control by use of in-line filters," Opt. Lett. 24, 732-734 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055-1057 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Matsumoto, " Performance improvement of phase-shift-keying signal transmission by means of optical limiters using four-wave mixing in fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2696-2701 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Onishchukov, B. Schmauss, and G. Leuchs, "2R-regeneration of a RZ-DPSK signal using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 146-148 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Matsumoto, "Nonlinear phase noise reduction of DPSK signals by an all-optical amplitude limiter using FWM in a fiber," 2006 European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu 1.3.5 (2006).
  16. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000). [CrossRef]
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