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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 15 — Jul. 23, 2007
  • pp: 9107–9112
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Non-classical light emission from a single electrically driven quantum dot

M. Scholz, S. Büttner, O. Benson, A. I. Toropov, A. K. Bakarov, A. K. Kalagin, A. Lochmann, E. Stock, O. Schulz, F. Hopfer, V. A. Haisler, and D. Bimberg  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 15, pp. 9107-9112 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.009107


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Abstract

Easy to handle light sources with non-classical emission features are strongly demanded in the growing field of quantum communication. We report on single-photon emission from an electrically pumped quantum dot with unmatched spectral purity, making spatial or spectral filtering dispensable.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The development of quantum communication from toy model demonstrations to commercial applications and reliable quantum networks demands the fabrication and characterization of integrated and packaged light sources with non-classical emission characteristics. Most approaches in quantum communication still rely on the use of attenuated laser pulses or heralded photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion [1

1. T. Kimura, Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, A. Tomita, H. Kosaka, and K. Nakamura, “Single-Photon Interference over 150-km Transmission Using Silica-Based Integrated-Optic Interferometers for Quantum Cryptography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1109 (2004) [CrossRef]

, 2

2. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J.A.W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005) [CrossRef]

, 3

3. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002) [CrossRef]

]. But a true deterministic single-photon source is inevitable since security in long distance communication is crucially limited by Poisson statistics and is also a requisite for realizations of all-optical quantum computation [4

4. M. Scholz, T. Aichele, S. Ramelow, and O. Benson, “Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm Using Triggered Single Photons from a Single Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 180501 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Photoluminescence from single semiconductor quantum dots [5

5. D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N.N. Ledentsov, “Quantum Dot Heterostructures” (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1998)

] has become an important player in the field meeting the demanded deterministic emission of single-photon states [6

6. P. Michler, A. Imamoğlu, M.D. Mason, P.J. Carson, G.F. Strouse, and S.K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406, 968 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2000) [CrossRef]

] and even opening the gates to coherent mapping of information onto stationary solid-state quantum bit systems for information processing [8

8. L.-M. Duan, M.D. Lukin, J.I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413 (2001) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] due to its narrow linewidth.

The standard procedure for single-photon generation from single quantum dots is selective optical excitation via a microscope objective with high numerical aperture [9

9. V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, W. Seifert, J. Persson, and O. Benson, “Generating visible single photons on demand with single InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1509(2003) [CrossRef]

]. However, electrical excitation is required to allow for the fabrication of integrated compact devices and to avoid large-scale external pump sources. Early schemes utilized a simultaneous Coulomb-blockade for electrons and holes in a semiconductor triple quantum well nanostructure [10

10. J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, “A single-photon turnstile device,” Nature 397, 500 (1999) [CrossRef]

]. Other realizations embedded single self-organized quantum dots in pin-diode structures [11

11. Z. Yuan, B. Kardynal, R.M. Stevenson, A.J. Shields, C. Lobo, K. Cooper, N.S. Beattie, D.A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically Driven Single-Photon Source,” Science 295, 102 (2002) [CrossRef]

, 12

12. A. Fiore, J.X. Chen, and M. Ilegems, “Scaling quantum-dot light-emitting diodes to submicrometer sizes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1756 (2002) [CrossRef]

, 13

13. C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Paranthoen, and A. Fiore, “Three-dimensional wavelength-scale confinement in quantum dot microcavity light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2178 (2004) [CrossRef]

, 14

14. D.J.P. Ellis, A.J. Bennett, A.J. Shields, P. Atkinson, and D.A. Ritchie, “Electrically addressing a single selfassembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133509 (2006) [CrossRef]

, 15

15. R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M.C. Hubner, and S. Stufler, et al., “Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121115 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. Their emission can be enhanced and directed into distinctive modes by the growth of Bragg reflectors [16

16. C. Monat, B. Alloing, C. Zinoni, L.H. Li, and A. Fiore, “Nanostructured Current-Donfined Single Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode at 1300 nm,” Nano Lett. 6, 1464 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. But the desired ultimate control in integrated ready-to-go single-photon sources for quantum communication includes the deterministic injection of a single electron and a single hole into a quantum dot since it avoids the need for spectral or spatial filtering of the emission. Recently, it was shown [17

17. A. Lochmann, E. Stock, O. Schulz, F. Hopfer, D. Bimberg, V.A. Haisler, A.I. Totopov, A.K. Bakarov, and A.K. Kalagin, “Electrically driven single quantum dot polarised single photon emitter,” Electron. Lett. 42, 774 (2006) [CrossRef]

] that it is possible to selectively pump a single QD in a pin-diode and to obtain a pure emission spectrum with only a single exciton line. Here, we report for the first time on non-classical photon statistics from such a device.

2. Sample fabrication

A promising approach for single-photon generation based on electrical pumping uses a micron-size aluminum oxide aperture to restrict the current flow to a single dot [13

13. C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Paranthoen, and A. Fiore, “Three-dimensional wavelength-scale confinement in quantum dot microcavity light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2178 (2004) [CrossRef]

, 14

14. D.J.P. Ellis, A.J. Bennett, A.J. Shields, P. Atkinson, and D.A. Ritchie, “Electrically addressing a single selfassembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133509 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. Thus, electrical excitation of more than one dot was significantly suppressed, and non-classical statistics of the electroluminescence was measured. But that work could not finally prove the injection of a single electron and a single hole into the pin-junction that generates sub-Poissonian statistics without external filtering. The structure of our device has been described elsewhere [17

17. A. Lochmann, E. Stock, O. Schulz, F. Hopfer, D. Bimberg, V.A. Haisler, A.I. Totopov, A.K. Bakarov, and A.K. Kalagin, “Electrically driven single quantum dot polarised single photon emitter,” Electron. Lett. 42, 774 (2006) [CrossRef]

, 18

18. V.A. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R.L. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N.N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2544 (2002) [CrossRef]

] and will be sketched only shortly (Fig. 1). It is grown on semi-insulating (100) epi-ready GaAs substrates using a Riber-32P MBE system. The light emitting diode (LED) consists of an un-doped GaAs layer with InAs quantum dots of low density inserted, a 60 nm thick aperture layer of high aluminum content AlGaAs, and p- and n-type GaAs electrical contact layers. The low quantum dot density of 108 cm-2 was obtained in the Stranski-Krastanow mode by deposition of 1.8 ML of InAs. Cylindrical mesas were processed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, and selective oxidation of the high aluminum content AlGaAs layers led to submicron-size oxide current apertures. Subsequent Si 3N4 deposition allowed Au/Pt/Ti and Au/Au-Ge/Ni metallization to form p- and n-contacts, respectively.

Fig. 1. Schematic cross section of the device structure.

3. Measurements

Fig. 2. (a) Electroluminscence spectrum at a current of 870 pA and 1.65 V bias voltage (b) Micro-photoluminescence with a laser spot size of 2 µm.

In Fig. 3, six electroluminescence spectra are depicted to further characterize the emission of our device at increasing injection current. At around 1 nA, corresponding to an injection of 5 electrons/ns, the exciton intensity saturates. With the typical exciton lifetime of 1 ns [19

19. P. Michler, “Single Quantum Dots” (Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2003)

, 21

21. R. Heitz, A. Kalburge, Q. Xie, M. Grundmann, P. Chen, A. Hoffmann, A. Madhukar, and D. Bimberg, “Excited states and energy relaxation in stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 9050 (1998) [CrossRef]

, 22

22. R.M. Thompson, R.M. Stevenson, A.J. Shields, I. Farrer, C.J. Lobo, D.A. Ritchie, M.L. Leadbeater, and M. Pepper, “Single-photon emission from exciton complexes in individual quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 201302 (2001) [CrossRef]

] and an internal quantum efficiency of about unity [5

5. D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N.N. Ledentsov, “Quantum Dot Heterostructures” (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1998)

, 23

23. P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W.V. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282 (2000); [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 24

24. C. Becher, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, W.V. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon source,” Physica E 13, 412 (2002) [CrossRef]

], this gives a remarkable injection efficiency of about 20% since the capture time for carriers is in the picosecond regime. This is two orders of magnitude better than in previously reported structures [11

11. Z. Yuan, B. Kardynal, R.M. Stevenson, A.J. Shields, C. Lobo, K. Cooper, N.S. Beattie, D.A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically Driven Single-Photon Source,” Science 295, 102 (2002) [CrossRef]

, 12

12. A. Fiore, J.X. Chen, and M. Ilegems, “Scaling quantum-dot light-emitting diodes to submicrometer sizes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1756 (2002) [CrossRef]

, 13

13. C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Paranthoen, and A. Fiore, “Three-dimensional wavelength-scale confinement in quantum dot microcavity light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2178 (2004) [CrossRef]

, 14

14. D.J.P. Ellis, A.J. Bennett, A.J. Shields, P. Atkinson, and D.A. Ritchie, “Electrically addressing a single selfassembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133509 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. At higher currents, two additional lines appear. They both originate from the same dot since they obey the same spectral jitter. The high-energy peak is assigned to the biexciton decay due to its super-linear dependence on the injection current. The third line is unpolarized and does not show any splitting; thus, it can be attributed to the trion. As already mentioned, the emission from uncharged dots paves the way for on-demand generation of entangled photon pairs from our device which was not possible in earlier realizations [14

14. D.J.P. Ellis, A.J. Bennett, A.J. Shields, P. Atkinson, and D.A. Ritchie, “Electrically addressing a single selfassembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133509 (2006) [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 3. Electroluminescence spectra at different current injection. For clarity an offset is added to each spectrum.
Fig. 4. Autocorrelation measurement under continuous wave current injection (0.9 nA, 1.65 V) at 10 K. No spectral filtering was used to isolate a single transition in a single quantum dot. The dashed line shows a fit function as described in the text.

The result of our autocorrelation measurement is depicted in Fig. 4. In order to interpret our experimental data, we use the rate model described in [26

26. T. Aichele, “Detection and Generation of Non-Classical Light States from Single Quantum Emitters,” Ph.D. thesis, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (2005)

]. While an ideal single-photon source shows an antibunching dip of the correlation function down to zero, the limited time resolution of our HBT setup must be taken into account. Thus, the ideal function g (2)t)=1−exp(−Δt/τ) was convoluted with a Gaussian (FWHM: 800 ps) and yields a dip depth of around 65 %. The time resolution of 800 ps was independently determined by an autocorrelation measurement of ultra-short laser pulses. The convoluted fit shown in Fig. 4 agrees well with our experimental data and proves that our quantum dot LED represents indeed an ideal electrically pumped single-photon source.

4. Conclusion

In summary, the measurements characterize our quantum dot LEDs with submicron-size aperture as highly efficient light sources that allows the controlled injection of a single electron and a single hole into a single quantum dot. Photons from uncharged dots can be extracted in well-defined polarization modes. Photon statistics exhibits strong antibunching. Together with its high efficiency and unmatched spectral purity, our structure is predestined for the generation of single-photon states as required for numerous applications in quantum communication. Tuning the fine structure splitting to zero [27

27. R. Seguin, A. Schliwa, S. Rodt, K. Pötschke, U.W. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Size-Dependent Fine-Structure Splitting in Self-Organized InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257402 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] would allow to implement the method of cascaded decay of a biexciton proposed in [20

20. O. Benson, C. Santori, M. Pelton, and Y. Yamamoto, “Regulated and Entangled Photons from a Single Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2513 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to generate polarization entangled photon pairs from an electrically pumped device. Similar as in the case of recently demonstrated polarization entangled photon pair generation from optically excited quantum dots [28

28. R.M. Stevenson, R.J. Young, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D.A. Ritchie, and A.J. Shields, “A semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs,” Nature 439, 179 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. N. Akopian, N.H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B.D. Gerardot, and P.M. Petroff, “Entangled Photon Pairs from Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a quantum state tomography by a linear combination of cross correlation measurements using 16 different polarization combinations could be performed with our setup. A source of entangled photon pairs on demand should allow the usage for various experiments in quantum information processing where resources of single photons and entangled photon pairs are needed. Although the purity of state generation by parametric down-conversion has not been obtained yet, first results based on single quantum dots [28

28. R.M. Stevenson, R.J. Young, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D.A. Ritchie, and A.J. Shields, “A semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs,” Nature 439, 179 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. N. Akopian, N.H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B.D. Gerardot, and P.M. Petroff, “Entangled Photon Pairs from Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are very promising. As an add-on to optically excited on-demand sources, electrical excitation provides the potential for future easy to use as well as highly integrated real devices.

Acknowledgements

This work was partly funded by the SANDiE Network of Excellence of the European Commission, contract number NMP4-CT-2004-500101, DLR (Rus 05/007), and SFB 296 of DFG. V.H. acknowledged financial support by DLR/bmbf and TUB, and M.S. acknowledged financial support by Ev. Studienwerk Villigst and Deutsche Telekom Stiftung.

References and links

1.

T. Kimura, Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, A. Tomita, H. Kosaka, and K. Nakamura, “Single-Photon Interference over 150-km Transmission Using Silica-Based Integrated-Optic Interferometers for Quantum Cryptography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1109 (2004) [CrossRef]

2.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J.A.W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005) [CrossRef]

3.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum Cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002) [CrossRef]

4.

M. Scholz, T. Aichele, S. Ramelow, and O. Benson, “Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm Using Triggered Single Photons from a Single Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 180501 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N.N. Ledentsov, “Quantum Dot Heterostructures” (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1998)

6.

P. Michler, A. Imamoğlu, M.D. Mason, P.J. Carson, G.F. Strouse, and S.K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406, 968 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2000) [CrossRef]

8.

L.-M. Duan, M.D. Lukin, J.I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413 (2001) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, W. Seifert, J. Persson, and O. Benson, “Generating visible single photons on demand with single InP quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1509(2003) [CrossRef]

10.

J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, “A single-photon turnstile device,” Nature 397, 500 (1999) [CrossRef]

11.

Z. Yuan, B. Kardynal, R.M. Stevenson, A.J. Shields, C. Lobo, K. Cooper, N.S. Beattie, D.A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically Driven Single-Photon Source,” Science 295, 102 (2002) [CrossRef]

12.

A. Fiore, J.X. Chen, and M. Ilegems, “Scaling quantum-dot light-emitting diodes to submicrometer sizes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1756 (2002) [CrossRef]

13.

C. Zinoni, B. Alloing, C. Paranthoen, and A. Fiore, “Three-dimensional wavelength-scale confinement in quantum dot microcavity light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2178 (2004) [CrossRef]

14.

D.J.P. Ellis, A.J. Bennett, A.J. Shields, P. Atkinson, and D.A. Ritchie, “Electrically addressing a single selfassembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 133509 (2006) [CrossRef]

15.

R. Schmidt, U. Scholz, M. Vitzethum, R. Fix, C. Metzner, P. Kailuweit, D. Reuter, A. Wieck, M.C. Hubner, and S. Stufler, et al., “Fabrication of genuine single-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121115 (2006) [CrossRef]

16.

C. Monat, B. Alloing, C. Zinoni, L.H. Li, and A. Fiore, “Nanostructured Current-Donfined Single Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode at 1300 nm,” Nano Lett. 6, 1464 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. Lochmann, E. Stock, O. Schulz, F. Hopfer, D. Bimberg, V.A. Haisler, A.I. Totopov, A.K. Bakarov, and A.K. Kalagin, “Electrically driven single quantum dot polarised single photon emitter,” Electron. Lett. 42, 774 (2006) [CrossRef]

18.

V.A. Haisler, F. Hopfer, R.L. Sellin, A. Lochmann, K. Fleischer, N. Esser, W. Richter, N.N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, C. Möller, and N. Grote, “Micro-Raman studies of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with AlxOy/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2544 (2002) [CrossRef]

19.

P. Michler, “Single Quantum Dots” (Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2003)

20.

O. Benson, C. Santori, M. Pelton, and Y. Yamamoto, “Regulated and Entangled Photons from a Single Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2513 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. Heitz, A. Kalburge, Q. Xie, M. Grundmann, P. Chen, A. Hoffmann, A. Madhukar, and D. Bimberg, “Excited states and energy relaxation in stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 9050 (1998) [CrossRef]

22.

R.M. Thompson, R.M. Stevenson, A.J. Shields, I. Farrer, C.J. Lobo, D.A. Ritchie, M.L. Leadbeater, and M. Pepper, “Single-photon emission from exciton complexes in individual quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 201302 (2001) [CrossRef]

23.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W.V. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282 (2000); [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. Becher, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, W.V. Schoenfeld, P.M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon source,” Physica E 13, 412 (2002) [CrossRef]

25.

R.H. Brown and R.Q. Twiss, “A Test of a New Type of Stellar Interferometer on Sirius,” Nature 178, 1046 (1956) [CrossRef]

26.

T. Aichele, “Detection and Generation of Non-Classical Light States from Single Quantum Emitters,” Ph.D. thesis, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (2005)

27.

R. Seguin, A. Schliwa, S. Rodt, K. Pötschke, U.W. Pohl, and D. Bimberg, “Size-Dependent Fine-Structure Splitting in Self-Organized InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257402 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

R.M. Stevenson, R.J. Young, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D.A. Ritchie, and A.J. Shields, “A semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs,” Nature 439, 179 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

N. Akopian, N.H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B.D. Gerardot, and P.M. Petroff, “Entangled Photon Pairs from Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: December 22, 2006
Revised Manuscript: February 1, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 5, 2007
Published: July 10, 2007

Citation
M. Scholz, S. Büettner, O. Benson, A. I. Toropov, A. K. Bakarov, A. K. Kalagin, A. Lochmann, E. Stock, O. Schulz, F. Hopfer, V. A. Haisler, and D. Bimberg, "Non-classical light emission from a single electrically driven quantum dot," Opt. Express 15, 9107-9112 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9107


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References

  1. T. Kimura, Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, A. Tomita, H. Kosaka, K. Nakamura, "Single-photon interference over 150-km transmission using silica-based Integrated-Optic Interferometers for Quantum Cryptography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1109 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources," Phys. Rev. A 71, 050302(R) (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Scholz, T. Aichele, S. Ramelow, and O. Benson, "Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm using triggered single photons from a single quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 180501 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1998).
  6. P. Michler, A. Imamoğlu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406, 968 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a Quantum Dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Zwiller, T. Aichele, W. Seifert, J. Persson, and O. Benson, "Generating visible single photons on demand with single InP quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1509 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kim, O. Benson, H. Kan, and Y. Yamamoto, "A single-photon turnstile device," Nature 397, 500 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Yuan, B. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, "Electrically driven single-photon source," Science 295, 102 (2002). [CrossRef]
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