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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 15 — Jul. 23, 2007
  • pp: 9418–9433
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Accurate BER evaluation for lumped DPSK and OOK systems with PMD and PDL

Zhongxi Zhang, Liang Chen, and Xiaoyi Bao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 15, pp. 9418-9433 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.009418


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Abstract

New forms using Dirac bra-ket notations and their transformations to express electrically filtered currents are presented for optical systems using either binary differential phase-shift keying (2-DPSK) or ON-OFF keying (OOK) with lumped first-order PMD and PDL, arbitrary optical and electrical filtering and pulse shaping. Based on these forms, the moment generating functions (MGFs) and bit-error-ratios (BERs) for different systems are obtained. Our results show that, for a given BER, 2-DPSK requires ~5dB lower input signal-to-noise ratio than OOK. By comparing BERs for different polarization systems, we also show that the PDL-induced partially polarized noise can significantly improve system performance and reduce BER variation caused by the random couplings between signal polarization, PDL and PMD vectors.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Although many communication systems with forward-error correction (FEC) can tolerate raw BERs up to 10-3, typical BERs for optical systems are in the range of 10-9–10-15 or below, where the usual Gaussian fitting Q-factor approximation does not work well. In this case, the BER can be obtained by calculating the characteristic function, or equivalently the moment-generating function (MGF) [7

7. D. Marcuse, “Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1816–1823 (1990). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991). [CrossRef]

]. By using the Karhunen-Loève series expansion (KLSE) method to describe the filtered amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, Ref. [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

] further proposed a computationally efficient approach to accurately evaluate BER via MGF for an optically preamplified system with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary signal pulse shape and pre-and post-detection filtering. Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

] extended Ref. [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]’s performance evaluation by taking into account the coupling between two orthogonal ASE noise components caused by the PDL in an OOK system with negligible PMD. Here, we extend Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

]’s calculation to the system with both PMD and PDL by combining methods used in Refs. [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. We reach this by expressing the filtered current in Ref. [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]’s one dimensional (1D) OOK model with Dirac bra-ket notations and their transformations and generalizing this form to various models. [Here “1D” means the signal and the noise are treated as scalar variables, while “2D” means both are considered as vector variables.] Based on this, accurate MGFs for systems with either unpolarized or partially polarized noise are derived. With negligible PMD, our MGF for the case of partially polarized noise reduces to the result of Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the effects of the partially polarized noise on the system performance are studied by comparing BERs in different polarization systems.

Fig. 1. Low-pass equivalent system with lumped PMD, PDL1, PDL2 and DPSK balanced receiver.

2. System modeling and BER calculation

Figure 1 shows the low-pass equivalent model used for our study. The optical signal s⃗in(t) is launched into the fiber system with lumped chromatic dispersion (CD) and lumped PMD-PDL1 (first-order) [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in the linear regime. [Assuming the input power of the 2-DPSK system is low enough, the impact of the ASE-induced nonlinear phase noise (the Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise) has been neglected.] Then it is amplified by a flat gain amplifier G. The normalized ASE noise added at “4” in Fig. 1 is considered as additive white Gaussian noise n⃗in(t) with two-sided power spectral density N0=nspG1Ghv, where nsp ≥1 is the spontaneous-emission or population-inversion parameter and hn is the photon energy. We assume that G≫1 so that N0≈nsphnv [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. At the output of the second PDL component (PDL2), the ASE noise is partially polarized and the signal is further distorted. They are optically filtered prior to the DPSK balanced receiver. Finally the detected current at “7” in Fig. 1 is electrically filtered by the postdetection filter and sampled at the time tk. The balanced direct-detection with responstivity R=1 yields the current at “7” in Fig. 1 which is given by [11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. L. Xie, L. Chen, S. Hadjifaradji, and X. Bao, “WDM high speed chirped DPSK fiber optical system transmission modeling in presence of PMD, PDL, and CD,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 276–281 (2006). [CrossRef]

]

i(tk)=12[so(tk+Tb)+no(tk+Tb)]·[so(tk)+no(tk)]*+c.c.,
(1)

where Tb is the bit-time interval, c.c. or […]* stands for complex conjugation and s⃗o(t) [n⃗o(t)] is the signal (noise) at the output of the optical filter (“6” in Fig. 1).

The effect of the partially polarized ASE noise on a 2-DPSK system can be studied by comparing the BERs of two special cases of Fig. 1, i.e., the system with unpolarized ASE noise (assuming PDL2 is negligible) and the system with partially polarized ASE noise (assuming PDL1 is negligible). In both cases, the non-negligible PDL values are assumed to be the same. According to Ref. [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

], the amplitude of the input signal s⃗in(t) in Fig. 1 can be assumed to be a periodic repetition of signal d(t)=i=0N1aip(tiTb) with period NTb, i.e., |sin(t)|=sin(t)=n=d(tnNTb) . Here p(t) determines the elementary input pulse shape and ai determines the logic value of the ith bit. In this paper, the input pulse shape is assumed to be p(t)=2EbTbcos[π2cos2(πtTb)],, where Eb is the optical energy per transmitted bit [11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. To include the intersymbol interference (ISI) effect, {ai} for the OOK model is assumed to be a 25-bit de Bruijn sequence [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

], i.e., 0000 0111 0111 1100 1011 0101 0011 0001. Repetition of this sequence yields all possible configurations of a 5-bit string from 00000 to 11111. For the balanced DPSK receiver shown in Fig. 1, ai (∈{ej0,ejπ}) is determined by requiring the received codes at sampling instants tk(tk=t0+kTb,k=0, …,N-1), normalized as “0” or “1” with no signal distortion, form a de Bruijn sequence (see inset of Fig. 2). Therefore, the input s⃗in(t) can be expanded in Fourier series,

sin(t)=sin(t)ps=l=(Sin)lej2πltNTbps.
(2)

For simplicity, we assume all Fourier components of input signal are polarized in the same direction represented by a constant unit vector |psi=[x,y]T in 2D Jones space.

On the other hand, the ASE noise n⃗in(t) added at “4” in Fig. 1 can be decomposed along two orthonormal Jones vectors (e.g., |ex〉 and |ey〉) and can be expressed in a Fourier series using a Karhunen-Loève expansion [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

], e.g.,

n(t)=nx(t)ex+ny(t)ey=m=[(Nin)x,mex+(Nin)y,mey]ej2πm(ttk+T0)T0.
(3)

In (3), we assume the overall duration of the impulse response of the optical (bandwidth Bo) and electrical (bandwidth Br) filters is T0=μ(1Bo+1Br) and the noise contribution to the photoelectric current i(tk) in (1) is caused by the noise input within the time interval (tk-To, tk) [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Dimensionless fitting parameter m must be determined iteratively [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. As usual, the expansion coefficients (Nin)i,m (i=x,y) are treated as complex independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables (r.v.) with Gaussian pdfs of zero mean and variance σ2=N0/(2To) [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

2.1. BER in a 2-DPSK system with PMD, PDL and unpolarized noise

In this subsection, we consider the BER of one special case of Fig. 1, i.e., the effect of PDL2 on the ASE noise has been neglected. As a result, the ASE noise at “5” in Fig. 1 is unpolarized. Based on the filtered current y(tk)=yss+ynn+yns given by (35), (40) and (42) in Appendix B, its MGF can be obtained by averaging over the “canonical” noise at “4” in Fig. 1. By using the formula

<es(c2+2ca)>=dc2πσ2ec22σ2es(c2+2ca)=[12σ2s]12e2σ2s2a212σ2s
(4)

and noticing that random variables (Zi)m (i=α0,α⊥;m=-M, …,M) in (40) have zero mean and variance σ2 [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

], the MGF of the filtered current y(tk) can be written as

Ψtk(s)=esy(tk)=esyssm=MMes22σ2b˜mD21sβm(1sβm)2,
(5)

where βm=2σ2λmD [see formulas between (25) and (26)], yss is given by (35) and |b̃ Dm |2 by (44). In this work the noise average is denoted as 〈.〉 and the Hermitian inner product as 〈.|.〉. Mean and variance of the detected current are given, respectively, by

E[y(tk)]=dΨtk(s)dss=0=yss+m=MM2βm
Δy2=d2Ψtk(s)ds2s=0E2[y(tk)]=m=MM(2βm2+4σ2b˜mD2).
(6)

As shown in Ref. [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

], for a given MGF, the BER can be obtained using

BERyth(tk)=±12πjC±Ψtk(s)sesythds,
(7)

where yth is the detection threshold, + and C+ correspond for yss < yth, while - and C_ for yss > yth [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Substituting (5) into (7), we obtain BERyth(tk)=±12πjC±dse(ythyss)ss×m=MMes22σ2b˜mD21sβm(1sβm)2 for the binary DPSK with unpolarized noise. Averaging BERs over all bits in the de Bruijn sequence, we have (tk=t0+kTb)

BER=k=0N1BERyth(tk)N.
(8)

For a 2D OOK system, its MGF can be treated as a special case of (5). Actually, by setting the DPSK-induced factors Di (i=ss,nn,ns) introduced in (27) to be unity, we can get the reduced yss from (35), |b̃m|2 from (44), λm from (23) and then the MGF from (5) for the 2D OOK system.

2.2. MGF of a 2-DPSK system with PMD, PDL and partially polarized noise

In this subsection, we consider the second special case of Fig. 1, i.e., the PDL1 has been neglected. Due to PDL2, the noise at “5” of Fig. 1 is partially polarized.

The effect of the partially polarized noise on a negligible PMD system was investigated in Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

], where the PDL (i.e., PDL2 in Fig. 1) component was represented by a matrix

K=(k11k12k21k22).
(9)

When K is Hermitian, it can be diagonalized with its two real eigenvalues k0=1+DOP and k=1DOP [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

To connect our MGF calculation with Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

]’s result, we indicate that the Jones matrix of PDL2 in Fig. 1 relates with K of Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

] by

TPDL2=eαk2eαk·σ2=Kk0
(10)

with PDL2-induced degree of polarization DOP=1e2αk1+e2αk, which yields DOPαk0=0 (unpolarized noise) and DOPαk=1 (completely polarized noise). Since k0≥1, matrix K contains both PDL and polarization-dependent gain (PDG), whereas TPDL2 has pure PDL effect.

With the help of (4), the MGF of a system with partially polarized noise can be obtained from (35), (45) and (46). Therefore we have (βm=2Dm)

Ψtk(s)=es(yss+ynn+yns)=esyssm=MMes22σ2(b˜k0D)m21sβm1sβmes22σ2(b˜kD)m2(kk0)21sβm(kk0)21sβm(kk0)2.
(11)

To take into account the PDG effect, TPDL2 (10) needs to be replaced by matrix K (9). In this case the signal-signal beating yss in (35) still hold, except Θll'=eα[clα0*cl'α0+(kk0)2clα*cl'α] in (36) should be replaced by (Θk)ll′=k2 0Θll′. Also (45) and (46) now become ynn=m=MM[k02Zk02+k2Zk2]λmD and yns=k0Zk0b˜k0D+kZkb˜kD+c.c... They modify the MGF (11) as

Ψtk(s)=esyssm=MMes22σ2(b˜k0D)m2k021sβmk021sβmk02es22σ2(b˜kD)m2k21sβmk21sβmk2.
(12)

When a system is OOK modulated and its PMD is negligible, formula (12) should return to the MGF given by (45) of Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. This is true because, according to (37) and (43), |(b̃Di)m|2 in MGF (12) now reduces to (i=k0:+;i=k⊥:-)

(b˜i)m2=l,l'=LLslo*Bml*Bml'sl'o1±ps·k02ki2=bm21±ps·k02(1±DOP)
(13)

[cf. |bm|2 near (24)] and the signal-signal beating term (34) now yields

yss=so(tk)Rssso(tk)[1+ps·k02k02+1ps·k02k2]dk[1+DOPps·k0]
(14)

with Rss given by (22). Substituting (13) and (14) into (12) and replacing λDm with λm for the OOK system, we obtain (βm=2σ2λm)

Ψtk(s)=esyssm=MMes2βm(1+DOP)2(1+ps·k0)bm2(2λm)1sβm(1+DOP)1sβm(1+DOP)es2βm(1DOP)2(1ps·k0)bm2(2λm)1sβm(1DOP)1sβm(1DOP)
=esdk[1+DOP(ps·k0)]m=MM1[1sβm(1DOP)][1sβm(1+DOP)]exp[βms2λm[bm]2
1+DOP2βms+βmsDOP2+(ps·k0)DOP(2βms+DOP2βms)[1sβm(1DOP)][1sβm(1+DOP)]],
(15)

which is same as (45) of Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

], provided that p⃗s·k⃗0 equals to -cos(2θ) of Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

], where q is the polar angle between signal polarization and the assumed x direction in the 2D Jones space. In fact, if the assumed y axis in Ref. [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

] is set in the “direction” of |k⃗0〉, then we have p⃗s·k⃗0=-cos(2θ). (See formulas between (10) and (11) in Ref. [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and notice that the Stokes vector k⃗0 is the mapping of its Jones vector |k⃗0〉.)

3. Results and discussion

In this section, we first validate our analytical and numerical evaluations by considering some special cases of DPSK and OOK systems, as their BERs obtained fromMonte Carlo and numerical simulations had been discussed in Ref. [11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Then we analyze the polarized noise effects on the system performance by evaluating BERs in different polarization systems. In the following specific applications, we neglect the chromatic dispersion (CD) effect. When necessary, this effect can be easily included by using the relevant formulas given in appendices.

3.1. Special cases of OOK and 2-DPSK systems

In the following numerical calculation, the optical filter in Fig. 1 is assumed to be a Fabry-Pérot type with its low-pass transfer function Ho(f)=1/(1+j2f/Bo). The transfer function of the electrical filter in Fig. 1 is a fifth-order Bessel type, i.e., Hr(f)=945/(jF5+15F4-j105F3-420F2+ j945F+945) with F=2.43f/Br [11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In this subsection, we further assume the ASE noise is unpolarized. For the DPSK model given by Fig. 1, its BER is obtained by using (5)–(8). For the OOK model, because the balanced detection in Fig. 1 is replaced by the OOK direct detection in Fig. 5 (a) (Appendix A), its MGF is treated as a special case of (5), i.e., it is obtained from (5) with all the DPSK induced phase factors in (27) being reduced to one. The detection threshold yth and initial detection time t0=tk-kTb (k=0, …,N-1) are adjusted to get the minimal BER (8). For a system using RZ-2-DPSK format, its optimum threshold is fixed at yth≈0. This is because, for the cases discussed in this work, the filtered signal-signal beating is always symmetrically “balanced” with respect to yth≈0 [see the dashed curve in inset of Fig.2 (a)]. Therefore it is reasonable to minimize the BER at yth≈0. For an OOK system, its optimum threshold is always changed because the currents of marks and spaces are directly affected by any system variation, such as Eb/N0 (i.e., OSNR [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]), τ/Tb [the normalized differential group delay (DGD)], etc.

Fig. 2. (a) BER versus Eb/N0 (OSNR) with α=τ=0 and (b) PMD-induced power penalty as a function of normalized DGD τ/Tb with α=0 for the OOK ({Bo,Br}={1.8/Tb,0.65/Tb}) and the 2-DPSK ({Bo,Br}={2.2/Tb,0.65/Tb}) systems. Bo (Br) is the 3dB bandwidth of the Fabry-Pérot optical filter (fifth-order Bessel electrical filter), respectively [11]. BERs are evaluated using (5)–(8). Inset of (a): Time dependent filtered current caused by signal-signal beating in the OOK (solid) and the binary DPSK (dashed) systems. Crosses in (a): Monte Carlo simulation results of Ref. [11]. Stars (DPSK) and squares (OOK) in (b): numerical results of Ref. [11]. Also in (b) the power splitting ratio of PMD γ=0.5 and the required BER is 10-9.

Fig. 3. BER versus DOP for the 2-DPSK system with Eb/N0=12dB and (a) τ/Tb=0 and (b) τ/Tb=0.3. The BERiPDL1 (i=pa,or) is obtained using (5)–(8) for the system with unpolarized noise, while the BERiPDL2 (i=pa,or) is calculated using (7), (8) and (11) for the case of partially polarized noise. pa (or) means the input signal polarization |ps〉 is parallel (orthogonal) to the minimum attenuation direction |α⃗0〉 of PDL1 (or |k⃗0 of PDL2). The PDL-induced degree of polariztion is given by DOP=(1e2x)(1+e2x), where x=a (x=ak) is the PDL value of PDL1 (PDL2), respectively. Insets: the pdf as a function of BER for systems with unpolarized noise (dashed) and partially polarized noise (solid) at DOP=0.28 or α=αk≈2.5dB. To show clearly the two pdf curves in the inset of (a), the dashed pdf curve (unpolarized noise) is shifted up by 0.3.

Figure 2(b) shows our calculated PMD-induced power penalties at 10-9 BER. They are almost the same as those given in Ref. [11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In the inset of Fig. 2(a), the filtered signal-signal beating (dashed) in the 2-DPSK system is obtained using (35). For the OOK direct detection, its current (solid) is obtained as a special case of (35) where the DPSK-induced phase fatcors need to be reduced to unity.

3.2. Effect of polarized noise on the optical performance

In this subsection, the effect of the polarized noise on BER is studied by comparing the BER in the system with unpolarized ASE noise (Fig. 1 with negligible PDL2) and the BER with partially polarized noise (Fig. 1 with negligible PDL1).

Figure 3(a) shows BER versus DOP for these two systems using RZ-2-DPSK format with negligible PMD (τ=0,θατ=0). For the first system where the noise is unpolarized, BERpaPDL1 (assuming |ps〉‖|α⃗0〉) and BERorPDL1 (assuming |ps〉⊥|α⃗0〉), obtained from (5), (7) and (8) with PDL1-induced DOP=(1e2α)(1+e2α), are plotted as thin and thick dashed curves. As shown, the BERpaPDL1 (thin dashed) keeps unchanged, because the signal is polarized in the zero attenuation direction |α⃗0〉 and the two orthogonal components of the ASE noise are not affected by PDL1. On the other hand, when the signal is polarized in the maximum attenuation direction (|ps〉 ⊥ |α⃗0〉), the signal will be severely distorted when the PDL1-induced DOP becomes large. Therefore we get the thick dashed curve in Fig. 3(a). For the second system where the noise is partially polarized, we get BERpaPDL2 (thin solid) and BERorPDL2 (thick solid) versus PDL2-induced DOP curves, obtained from (7), (8) and (11). As shown in Fig. 3(a), BERpaPDL2 (BERorPDL2) is lower than BERpaPDL1 (BERorPDL1), respectively. This is because, no matter how the signal is polarized (|ps〉‖|k0〉 or |ps〉 ⊥ |k0〉), the overall noise in the second system (no PDL1) is always smaller than that in the first system (no PDL2). Moreover BERpaPDL2 (thin solid) shows that although in the zero attenuation direction (|k0〉) both noise and signal are not changed, the noise attenuation in the orthogonal direction (|k⊥0〉) can also improve the optical performance. Besides, at DOP=0.28 (α=αk≈2.5dB), the ratio BERorPDL2/BERpaPDL2≈75 is much smaller than the ratio BERorPDL1/BERpaPDL1≈600.

The inset of Fig. 3 (a) shows the statistical features of the BER fluctuation due to the coupling between |ps〉 and |α⃗0〉 (dashed) and the coupling between |ps〉 and |k0〉 (solid), obtained by setting DOP=0.28 and randomly changing parameters θi(weightingfactorsinθi2,i=sτ,ατ)) and (φατ) (weighting factor 12π) with ~2×105 random realiztions. (To show clearly the two pdf curves in this inset, the dashed pdf curve for the unpolarized noise case is shifted up by 0.3.) Each pdf can be approximated as a rectangular pulse. This means, BERs with random directional couplings determined by θi(i=sτ,ατ) and (φατ) are homogeneously distributed between thick and thin curves. As shown in this inset, the BER variation range and its average value for the case of unpolarized noise (dashed) are about one order of magnitude larger than those for the partially polarized noise case (solid). Therefore the PDL effect on the ASE noise can improve the system performance and reduce the BER variance caused by the directional coupling between the signal polarization and the PDL vector.

In Fig. 3(a), the dotted horizontal line near 10-7, calculated by using the 1D balanced DPSK model discussed in Appendix A, is used to verify BERpaPDL2. Actually BERpaPDL2 approaches closely to this horizontal line when DOP>0.6. We also consider the PDG effect by replacing (11) with (12) in the BER calculation. The two curves thus obtained (BERorK and BERpaK, not shown) coincide almost exactly with the two solid curves (BERorPDL2 and BERpaPDL2) in Fig. 3(a), respectively. Mathematically one can prove that, for a 2-DPSK format with yth≈0, by scaling transformation ssk20 [cf. the discussion between (11) and (12)], the BER obtained using (11) and (7) is the same as the BER using (12) and (7). Physically, K is equivalent to PDL2 followed by an ideal amplifier with G=k0>1, which does not cause further signal and noise distortion and therefore no additional effect on the BER.

Similar BER calculations for 2-DPSK systems with τ/Tb=0.3 are depicted in Fig. 3(b). As shown, the PMD increases the BER and further reduces the BER fluctuation caused by the PMD-PDL-induced directional coupling (BERorPDL1/BERpaPDL1≈66 and BERorPDL2/BERpaPDL2≈12 with DOP=0.28). In the inset of Fig. 3(b), we show the pdf versus BER with DOP=0.28 for the cases of unpolarized and partially polarized noise. Due to the PMD-PDL interaction, each pdf can be approximated as a “smoothed” rectangular pulse. Note that, in this inset, the BER range of each pdf curve is different from the corresponding gap between BERori and BERpai (i=PDL1,PDL2) in Fig. 3(b). As an example, for a system with partially polarized noise, the BER variation range of the solid curve in the inset of Fig. 3(b) is determined by BERs obtained by setting θατ=0 with θ=π (~6×10-5) and θ=0 (~8×10-7), whereas the thick (thin) solid curve in Fig. 3(b), obtained using θατ=θ=π/2 with (φατ)=π [(φατ)=0], yields BERorPDL2≈3×10-5 (BERpaPDL2≈1.8×10-6) at DOP=0.28.

For an OOK system, because the BER depends sensitively on the detection threshold, the noise polarization effects are rather complicated. However if the BER is calculated using optimal threshold, one can get the BER versus DOP curves in Fig. 4, which are similar to those shown in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4. BER versus DOP for the OOK format with Eb/N0=18dB and τ/Tb=0. Calculations of BERji (i=pa,or, j=PDL1,PDL2) are explained in the caption of Fig. 3. Also, for the OOK system, the DPSK induced factors Di (i=ss,nn,ns) detailed in (27) should be reduced to unity.

4. Conclusion

Appendix A: Expressions of the filtered current: from 1D OOK to 1D DPSK

By inserting a polarizer before or after the optical filter of Fig. 5(a) or (b), the signal and noise can be aligned in the same direction. In this case, the 2D vector forms of signal (2) and noise (3) can be simplified as

sin(t)=l=[sin(t)]l=l(Sin)lej2πltNTb,nin(t)=m=[nin(t)]m=m(Nin)mej2πm(ttk+T0)T0,
(16)

where [sin(t)]l(Sin)lej2πltNTb and [nin(t)]m(Nin)mej2πm(ttk+T0)T0. In (16), due to the optical filter response ho(t) [or Ho(f)], only those components with frequencies within the filter bandwidth Bo need to be considered. Because of this the Dirac bra-ket notations for input signal and noise at time tk can be introduced as

sin(tk)=[(Sin)Lej2πLtkNTb,,(Sin)Lej2πLtkNTb]T,sin(tk)=[(Sin)L*ej2πLtkNTb,,(Sin)L*ej2πLtkNTb]
nin(tk)=Nin=[(Nin)M,,(Nin)M]T,nin(tk)=[(Nin)M*,,(Nin)M*]
(17)

with

L=ηBoNTb,M=ηBoT0,T0=μ(1Bo+1Br).
(18)

Dimensionless fitting parameters h and m must be determined iteratively [10

10. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 5. Low-pass equivalent (a) OOK system and (b) 2-DPSK system in the absence of PMD and PDL, assuming both signal and noise are aligned in the same direction.

At the output of the optical filter, the signal and noise can be written as

so(tk)=OssΦCDsin(tk),so(tk)=sin(tk)ΦCDOss
no(tk)=OnnNin,no(tk)=NinOnn
(19)

with (Onn)mm'=δm,m'Ho(mTo), (Oss)ll'=δl,l'Ho(1NTb) and (ΦCD)ll'=δl,l'HCD(1NTb) [9

9. E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Here we assume the chromatic dispersion (CD) comes from the fiber. Its transfer function is HCD(f)=ej2π2β2f2L with β2=-λ2 D(λ)/(2πc). For a nondispersion shifted fiber at λ=1550nm, the dispersion parameter D≈17ps/(km·nm). As usual, the Hermitian conjugate of a matrix A is defined as (A )ij=A*ji. The photoelectric current prior to the electrical filter is i1D(t)=〈so(t)+no(t)|so(t)+no(t)〉 (R=1). Due to the response function of the electrical filter, hr(t) [or Hr(f)], the filtered current at sampling time tk consists of three parts, i.e., the signal-signal beating, noise-noise beating and noise-signal beating

y(tk)=yss+ynn+yns,
(20)

where

yss=so(tk)Rssso(tk),
ynn=no(tk)Rnnno(tk)=NinOnnRnnOnnNin=ZΛZ,
yns=no(tk)Rnsso(tk)+c.c.=NinOnnRnsOssΦCDsin(tk)+c.c.=Zb(tk)+c.c.,
(21)
(Rss)ll'Hr(l'lNTb),(Rnn)mm'Hr(m'mT0),(Rns)mlHr(lNTbmT0),
(22)

with m=-M, …,M, l=-L, …,L. In the ynn term given by (21), because Rnn is a Hermitian matrix satisfying Rnn=Rnn, O†nnRnnOnn is also Hermitian and it can be diagonalized by a orthogonal and unitary transformation U

ΛUOnnRnnOnnU,
(23)

with Λmm′=δm,m′lm and U being composed of eigenvectors |λm〉 of λm. Thus we have

Z=UNin,
b(tk)=UOnnRnsOssΦCDsin(tk)=UOnnRnsso(tk)Bso(tk),
(24)

For the 1D system using DPSK balanced receiver shown in Fig. 5(b), the photoelectric current prior to the electrical filter is given by iD 1 D(t)=[〈so(t+Tb)+no(t +Tb)|so(t)+no(t)i+ c.c.]/2 [11

11. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. L. Xie, L. Chen, S. Hadjifaradji, and X. Bao, “WDM high speed chirped DPSK fiber optical system transmission modeling in presence of PMD, PDL, and CD,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 276–281 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Thus each filtered component in (21) needs to be modified as

yss(tk)=[so(tk+Tb)Rssso(tk)+c.c.]2=so(tk)RssDso(tk)
ynn(tk)=[no(tk+TB)Rnnno(tk)+c.c.]2=NoRnnDNo=ZΛDZ
yns(tk)=[no(tk+Tb)Rnsso(tk)+no(tk)Rnsso(tk+Tb)+c.c.]2
=[NinOnnRnsDso(tk)+c.c.]=[ZbD(tk)+c.c.]
(25)

where ΛDUOnnRDnnOnnU with (ΛD)mm′=δm,m′λDm and

bD(tk)=UOnnRnsDso(tk)BDso(tk),
(26)
(RssD)ll'=(Rss)ll'Dll'ss,(RnnD)mm'=(Rnn)mm'Dmm'nn,(RnsD)ml=(Rns)mlDmlns
Dll'ss=ej2πlN+ej2πl'N2,Dmm'nn=ej2πmTbT0+ej2πm'TbT02,Dmlns=ej2πmTbT0+ej2πlN2.
(27)

Eq. (26) yields bmD2=l,l'=LLslo*(tk)(BD)ml*(BD)ml'sl'o(tk)(m=M,,M). Its physical meaning is similar to |bm|2 discussed above.

Appendix B: Filtered current in DPSK system with unpolarized ASE noise

TPMD(ωl)=exp(jωlτ·σ2),
(28)

where ωl=2πl/(NTb), σ⃗ is the standard physics notation for Pauli spin matrices satisfying σ⃗×σ⃗=2⃗ [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. τ⃗ is a 3D real Stokes vector. In this work, its magnitude τ (i.e., DGD) and direction τ⃗0=τ⃗/τ are assumed to be frequency independent. Matrix (28) has two orthonormal eigenvectors (|τ⃗0〉 and |τ⃗⊥〉) in 2D Jones space, indicating the directions of slow (|τ⃗0〉) and fast (|τ⃗⊥〉) principal state of polarizations (PSPs) with matrix elements [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

τ0TPMD(ωl)τ0=ejωlτ2,τTPMD(ωl)τ=ejωlτ2,τ0TPMD(ωl)τ=0.
(29)

Here |τ⃗0〉 is the Jones vector corresponding to Stokes vector τ⃗0 [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. (For the input signal presented in the form of (2), we introduce the PMD Jones matrix (28) so that the PMD vector τ⃗ points in the direction of the slow PSP, which is the usual convention. Note that, although the PMD Jones matrix in Ref. [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] was introduced in a different way, formula (11) in Ref. [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] still can be used here, provided the PMD vector τ⃗ in this formula now is replaced with -τ⃗). Similarly, for a given transform matrix TPDL1=exp(-α/2)exp(α⃗·σ⃗/2) connecting the input and output of PDL1, its two orthonormal eigenvectors (|α⃗0i and |α⃗⊥〉) in 2D Jones space represent the minimum (zero) and maximum attenuation states which yield [5

5. L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

α0TPDL1α0=1,αTPDL1α=eα,α0TPDL1α=0.
(30)

Like (17) in Appendix A, input (2) can be represented by a Dirac bra [(Sin)Lej2πLtkNTb,,(Sin)Lej2πLtkNTb]T|ps, i.e., sin(tk)=sin(tk)ps, where ⊗ stands for tensor product. |ps〉 is the unit Jones vector used to represent the input signal polarization. Because of this, each element of |sin(tk)〉 is a 2D vector. Assuming the optical filter has no effect on the signal polarization, we express the signal at “6” in Fig. 1 as

so(tk)=so(tk)ps=OssP(τ,α)ΦCDsin(tk)ps,
(31)

where P(τ⃗,α⃗)ll′=δl,l′TPDLTPMD. (The possible PDL effect of the optical filter on signal and noise can be included into PDL2, which is the case discussed in subsection 2.2 and Appendix C.)With the help of (29), (30) and the completeness relations |k0〉〈k0|+|k⃗⊥〉〈k⃗⊥|=1(k⃗=τ⃗,α⃗) in the 2D Jones space, we have

TPMD=(τ0τ0+ττ)TPMD(τ0τ0+ττ)=ejωlτ2τ0τ0+ejωlτ2ττ
TPDL1=(α0α0+αα)TPDL1(α0α0+αα)=α0α0+eααα,
(32)

which means the polarization matrix element P(τ⃗,α⃗)ll′ projects the input polarization |ps〉 into two orthogonal directions, i.e., P(τ,α)ll'ps=(Pα0)ll'ps+(Pα)ll'ps with

(Pα0)ll'ps=δl,l'α0[α0τ0τ0psejωlτ2+α0ττpsejωlτ2]δl,l'clα0α0
(Pα)ll'ps=δl,l'eαα[ατ0τ0psejωlτ2+αττpsejωlτ2]δl,l'eαclαα.
(33)

Therefore one can express the signal (31) as

so(tk)=Oss[(Pα0+Pα)Ps]ΦCDsin(tk)=[(Pα0+Pα)Ps]s0(tk),
(34)

with |so(tk)〉 given by (19). Because each of the three (2L+1)-dimensional matrices in (34) is diagonal, it can be commutated with any of other two matrices in (34). The electrically filtered signal-signal beating in (20) can be obtained easily by replacing |so(tk)i in the first part of (25) by |so(tk)〉 and using (34), which yields

yss=so(tk)RssDso(tk)=so(tk)R˜ssDso(tk),
(35)

Θll'=eα[clα0*cl'α0+e2αclα*cl'α]Θll'α0+Θll'α,
(36)
Θll'i=e±α[ej(ωl'ωl)τ2A˜(τ0,±α0)+ej(ωl'ωl)τ2A˜(τ0,±α0)±ej(ωlωl')τ2C˜+jD˜4±ej(ωl+ωl')τ2C˜jD˜4]
=e±α2[cos(ωl'ωl)τ2[1±(τ0·ps)(τ0·α0)]+jsin(ωl'ωl)τ2(τ0·ps±τ0·α0)
±(cos(ωl+ωl')τ2C˜sin(ωl+ωl')τ2D˜)](+:i=α0;:i=α)
(37)

Θll'(τ,α;ps)=shαsinθατsinθsτcos(φατφsτ+(ωl+ωl')τ2)
+cos(ωl'ωl)τ2(chα+shαcosθατcosθsτ)+jsin(ωl'ωl)τ2(chαcosθsτ+shαcosθατ)
(38)

where θατ) and φατ) are polar and azimuthal angles between α⃗ (ps) and τ⃗ in 3D Stokes space. For a system with given τ and α, the PMD-PDL-induced factor eαΘll'i(τ,α;ps) (i=α0,α⊥) is determined by the relative directional relations between the input signal polarization ps, the PMD vector τ⃗0 and the PDL vector α⃗0. In this context, we called it the PMD-PDL-induced directional coupling factor. For a system with α=τ=0 (and θατ=0), (38) yields e-αΘll′ (τ⃗,α⃗p⃗s)=1.

Because of the random property of the noise polarization, the input ASE noise at “4” in Fig. 1 cannot be factorized as its magnitude part and its direction part. However, we can decompose it into two orthogonal components, e.g., Nin=Ninα0α0+Ninαα. Similarly, the corresponding “canonical” noise at “4” in Fig. 1 can be written as

Z=UNin=Zα0α0+Zαα.
(39)

As introduced in Appendix A, U is the Hermitian matrix of U, which is used to diagonalize O†nnRDn nOnn. Thus the filtered current caused by noise-noise beating yields

ynn=NinOnnRnnDOnnNin=ZΛDZ=m=MM((Zα0)m2+(Zα)m2)λmD,
(40)

where ΛD and λDm are given between (25) and (26).

For the same reason, the transformed field |bD〉=BD|so(tk)i in (25) now becomes

bD(tk)=BD[P(τ,α)ps]so(tk)=BD[Pα0ps]so(tk)+BD[Pαps]so(tk)
b˜α0Dα0+b˜αDα
(41)

with BD given by (26) and Pi|p⃗s′ (i=α0,α⊥) by (33). So the electrically filtered noise-signal beating can be written as yns=NinOnnRnsD[(Pα0+Pα0)ps]so(tk)+c.c. or

yns=ZbD+c.c.=Zα0b˜α0D+Zαb˜αD+c.c.
(42)

with (b˜iD)m=l=LL(BD)mlclislo(tk)(i=α0,α) and cli given by (33). Thus we obtain

(b˜iD)m2=l,l'slo*(BD)ml*(BD)ml'sl'oeαΘll'i(τ,α;ps)
(43)

with Θill′ (τ⃗,α⃗ps) given by (36) and

b˜mD2=(b˜α0D)m2+(b˜αD)m2=l,l'slo*(BD)ml*(BD)ml'sl'oeαΘll'(τ,α;ps).
(44)

In formulas (35)–(36) and (43)–(44), the directional factors eαΘll'i(τ,α;ps)(i=α0,α) not only affect the signal-signal beating as well as the noise-signal beating but also determine how the noise-signal beating is “projected” into the two orthogonal directions (|α⃗0〉, |α⃗⊥〉). For example, when t=0, we can take τ⃗0‖α⃗0 (i.e., θατ=0) and get Θll'i(τ,α;ps)=e±α2(1±cosθsτ), which yields (b˜α0D)m2=bmD21+cosθsτ2 and (b˜αD)m2=bmD2e2α(1cosθsτ)2 (cf. |bDm|2 given in Appendix A). Obviously, the “projected” noise-signal beating in each direction is determined by signal polarization ps and the PDL vector α⃗0.

Notice that in Appendix A |so(tk)〉 is the optical field at the output of the optical filter. But in Appendix B it is not the magnitude of |so(tk)〉. In fact it is the magnitude of the optically filtered field without the influence of PMD and PDL. The effect of PMD and PDL has been included in the directional factors Θill′ (i=α0,α⊥) given by (37), since the matrices P(τ⃗,α⃗) and Oss in (34) and (41) can commutate with each other.

Appendix C: Filtered current in DPSK system with partially polarized noise

ynn=NinPPDL2OnnRnnDOnnPPDL2Nin
=ZkPPDL2ΛDPPDL2Zk=m=MM[Zk02+(kk0)0Zk2]λmD.
(45)

In (45), as the value of αk is assumed to be frequency independent, PPDL2 is a constant diagonal matrix, which means UPPDL2U=PPDL2. Due to the effect of the partially polarized noise, the noise-signal beating in (42) now becomes

yns=ZkPPDL2bD+c.c.=Zk0b˜k0D+kk0Zkb~kD+c.c.,
(46)

where (b˜k0D)m2 and (b˜kD)m2 are same as (b˜α0D)m2 and (b˜αD)m2 in (43), except α now becomes αk.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the financial support from Canadian funding agencies: NSERC and the Centers of excellence program: AAPN. They thank an anonymous reviewer for insightful comments and suggestions. They also thank Dr. John Cameron for reading the manuscript.

References and links

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I. T. Lima, A. O. Lima, Y. Sun, H. Jiao, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, “A receiver model for optical fiber communication systems with arbitrarily polarized noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1478–1490 (2005). [CrossRef]

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L. Chen, Z. Zhang, and X. Bao, “Combined PMD-PDL effects on BERs in simplified optical systems: an analytical approach,” Opt. Express 15, 2106–2119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, and H. Kim, “Impact of filtering on RZ-DPSK reception,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 840–842 (2003). [CrossRef]

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P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576–1582 (1991). [CrossRef]

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E. Forestieri, “Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre-and postdetection filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493–1503 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, “Performance evaluation of optically preamplified receivers with partially polarized noise and arbitrary optical filtering: a rigorous approach,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 251–262 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, “Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362–371 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

L. Xie, L. Chen, S. Hadjifaradji, and X. Bao, “WDM high speed chirped DPSK fiber optical system transmission modeling in presence of PMD, PDL, and CD,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 276–281 (2006). [CrossRef]

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P. Lu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss for a pulse in single-mode fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 856–859 (2001). [CrossRef]

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H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, and J. P. Gordon, “Emulation and inversion of polarization-mode dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 482–495 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(260.2030) Physical optics : Dispersion
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: April 13, 2007
Revised Manuscript: June 29, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 3, 2007
Published: July 16, 2007

Citation
Zhongxi Zhang, Liang Chen, and Xiaoyi Bao, "Accurate BER evaluation for lumped DPSK and OOK systems with PMD and PDL," Opt. Express 15, 9418-9433 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9418


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References

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