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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 16 — Aug. 6, 2007
  • pp: 10362–10369
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Coupled resonator optical waveguide structures with highly dispersive media

Curtis W. Neff, L. Mauritz Andersson, and Min Qiu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 16, pp. 10362-10369 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.010362


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Abstract

Analysis of photonic crystal coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structures with a highly dispersive background medium is presented. A finite-difference time-domain algorithm was employed which contains an exact representation of the permittivity of a three-level atomic system which exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We find that the coupling strength between nearest-neighbor cavities in the CROW decreases with increasing steepness of the background dispersion, which is continuously tunable as it is directly related to the control field Rabi frequency. The weaker coupling decreases the speed of pulse propagation through the waveguide. In addition, due to the dispersive nature of the EIT background, the CROW band shape is tuned around a fixed k-point. Thus, the EIT background enables dynamic tunability of the CROW band shape and the group velocity in the structure at a fixed operating point in momentum space.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Signal routing on integrated optics platforms can be achieved through total internal reflection [1

1. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides,(Academic Press, New York, 1974).

], Bragg reflection [2

2. P. Yeh and A. Yariv, “Bragg reflection waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 19, 427–430 (1976). [CrossRef]

], and coupled optical resonators [3

3. A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett. 24, 711–713 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. In the latter, a series of high-Q micro-resonators are aligned within proximity to one another such that photons can tunnel from one resonator to its nearest-neighbor and thus propagate as if in a waveguide. Figure 1 shows a schematic of such a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) formed by an infinite straight line of defect cavities in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) [4

4. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Microwave propagation in two-dimensional dielectric lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017–2020 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140–2143 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Yariv et al. showed through a tight-binding (TB) analysis that the dispersion relation and propagation velocity of a pulse in such a structure are determined solely by a coupling factor, κ :

ω(k)=ωres[1+κcos(kR)]
(1)

and

νg(k)=ωresRκsin(kR),
(2)

respectively, where ωres is the mode frequency of a single, isolated resonator of the waveguide, R is the spacing between resonators, and k is the wave vector. Therefore, the group velocity, Eq. (2), of the pulse can be decreased by decreasing κ. However, κ is typically a fixed quantity based on the design of the structure, e.g. the intrinsic Q of a the individual resonators and/or the spacing R. Yet, for realizing active components in an optical circuit, a dynamic control over v g is desirable. The problem then becomes how one can manipulate κ in a seemingly fixed system. We propose that a tunable, highly dispersive process such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) [7

7. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] will facilitate control over the propagation velocity in the CROW structure by modifying the coupling factor between cavities.

EIT has been demonstrated in multilevel atomic systems [7

7. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. L. V. Hau, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and S. E. Harris, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature (London) 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. In a three-level Λ system, three atomic energy levels are situated such that the transition probability amplitudes from the ground levels b and c to the upper level a show destructive quantum interference under the two-photon resonance condition. Phenomenologically, a transparency window opens between two absorption peaks in the susceptibility, which allows a probe pulse to propagate through the otherwise optically opaque medium. At the same time, this transparency window occurs at a highly dispersive region of the susceptibility. It has been reported that such a lossless, highly dispersive EIT medium within an optical resonator cavity has the effect of dramatically narrowing the cavity linewidth and increasing the cavity Q-factor [9

9. M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, M. O. Scully, and V. L. Velichansky, “Intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. 23, 295–297 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. G. Müller, M. Müller, A. Wicht, R.-H. Rinkleff, and K. Danzmann, “Optical resonator with steep internal dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 2385–2389 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. M. Soljačić, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Hau, and Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of microcavity lifetimes using highly dispersive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 026602 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In the following work, we consider a PhC CROW structure (Figure 1) which possesses a background exhibiting EIT. Thus, the system consists of a series of optical resonators embedded in a highly dispersive medium whose dispersive properties are linked to the Rabi frequency of the control field excitation. We show that control over the dispersion relation of the waveguide is gained through the control field Rabi frequency, which in turn enables control of v g in the waveguide.

Fig. 1. Cross-section schematic of a CROW structure formed in a 2D PhC square lattice of high index rods where single rods were removed to create the resonant cavities.

1.1. Electromagnetically induced transparency

Figure 2(a) is a schematic of the three-level EIT system considered in this work (the Λ scheme). The susceptibility such a system can be expressed by [13

13. M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).

, 14

14. P. Jänes, J. Tidström, and L. Thylén, “Limits on optical pulse compression and delay bandwidth product in electromagnetically induced transparency media,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3893–3899 (2005). [CrossRef]

]:

χ(Δ)=CΔ+iγbc(Δ+iγbc)(Δ+iγab)Ωc24,
(3)

ε=εb+A1B1+iω+A2B2+iω,
(4)

where εb is the background dielectric constant and A 1,2 and B 1,2 are the coefficients:

A1,2=iC2{1γbcγab[(γbcγab)2Ωc2]12},
(5)

and

B1,2=iωab+12{γbc+γab[(γbcγab)2Ωc2]12}.
(6)
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of the energy levels in a three level Λ system. Representative plot of the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity for an EIT medium at two Ωc values of the control field: 0.08 (solid) and 0.03 (dashed)

1.2. Coupled resonator optical waveguide structure

The CROW of this study consists of an infinitely long line of high-Q, point defect PhC cavities separated by a distance of R=3a (see Fig. 1). The cavities are formed in 2D square lattice of high-dielectric rods, ε=11.56, embedded in an EIT medium. The EIT medium has the same physical parameters as those given in section 1.1 except that ωab is chosen so that the EIT resonance frequency matches the mid-band frequency of the vacuum CROW, ω 0=0.3796, the subscript denoting the vacuum background structure. The size of the computational domain is 3a × 14a and contains and array of circular rods with diameter d=0.4a arranged in a square lattice. The point defect cavities are formed by removing a rod in the center of the array. Periodic boundaries are used along the long sides of the domain to form an infinitely long series of defect cavities separated by the distance R=3a. Perfectly matched layer [18

18. J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comp. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994). [CrossRef]

] absorbing boundaries on the short sides of the domain truncate the structure in the transverse direction. A spatial resolution of Δxy=0.025a is used in all of the calculations. A transverse-magnetic polarized field (magnetic field components normal to the rod axis) is used in the calculations since a photonic band gap exists for this polarization, and the fields are randomized throughout the domain at the beginning of the calculation. Data collected from a point detector positioned near the center of the point defect is used to calculate the resonant frequency of the CROW using the Padé approximation and Baker’s algorithm [19

19. W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE [see also IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett.] 11, 223–225 (2001).

, 20

20. G. A. Baker and J. L. Gammel, The Padé Approximant in Theoretical Physics, (Academic, New York, 1970).

].

2. Results and discussion

We investigate the effects of the EIT medium on the optical response of the CROW by calculating the dispersion relationship of the CROW for different values for Ωc. For the vacuum background CROW, the frequency width Δω of the waveguide band is 0.0109, and the maximum group velocity v g,0=0.1025vg/c 0 of the band occurs near the zone center. We can calculate the coupling factor from κω/(2ωres) if the resonant frequency of the isolated resonatorωres is known [6

6. M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140–2143 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A separate calculation reveals that for the vacuum background single-defect cavity ωres=0.3793, thus giving a coupling factor of κ 0=0.0144. For the EIT background isolated resonator, the value of ωres changes for each value of Ωc because of a frequency pulling effect [21

21. manuscript in preparation

].

For convenience, we divide the response of the EIT CROW into two regimes: case 1) when the frequency width of the EIT transparency exceeds the Δω of the CROW and case 2) when the opposite is true.

Figures 3(a) and (b) show the CROW bands and group velocities as a function of wavevector for case 1. The vacuum background band is included as a comparison to the EIT-CROW bands under different values of Ωc. The points are the results from FDTD calculations while the solid lines are the results given by Eqs. (1) and (2), after calculating κ from the FDTD data, as done previously for the vacuum CROW. As shown, the bands become flatter as Ωc is decreased (e.g. as the dispersion of the EIT media increases). In addition, the bands share a common point at the zone center at ω 0=ωab around which the bands pivot as Ωc is tuned. When Ωc=0.01, slightly less than Δω of the vacuum CROW, the band is very flat with a maximum group velocity less than 2.0×10-3 vg/c 0 and a Δω<2.0×10-4 a/λ. This represents over a 50 times slowing of the group velocity in comparison to the vacuum background CROW.

Fig. 3. Evolution of EIT CROW bands (a) and group velocities (b) for case 1: Ωc≥Δω.
Fig. 4. Evolution of EIT CROW bands (a) and group velocities (b) for case 2: Ωc≤Δω.
Fig. 5. Coupling coefficient (normalized by the vacuum CROWκ 0) as a function of control field Rabi frequency. The points and crosses are taken from the FDTD and TB analysis data, respectively, and the solid line is a plot of the EIT group velocity relationship (right axis) with a fitted α parameter.

On the right axis in Figure 5, we plot the vg vs. Ωc relationship of the EIT background [23

23. J. Tidström, P. Jönes, and L. M. Andersson, “Delay bandwidth product of electromagnetically induced transparency media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 53803 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Working from the group velocity at the ab-transition frequency we can derive an expression for vgc):

νg=c01+ωab2χΔ=c01+ωab24CΩc2=c0αΩc21+αΩc2,
(7)

where α is (2Cωab)-1. From the values given earlier, we calculate α=1.317×102 for the EIT background medium and plot Eq. (7) in Figure 5. We find that the relationship of the EIT CROW κ vs. Ωc follows that of the EIT background. We used a minimization algorithm to fit the FDTD data points to an equation of the form of Eq. (7) to find α=1.940×10 2. The shape of κc) can be explained as follows: Since the coupling is dependent upon the overlap of the field between adjacent resonators, κ ∝1/Q. At the same time, as Soljačić et al. have shown, Q increases as the steepness of the dispersion increases, thus vg ∝1/Q. It follows that κvg, meaning that in the EIT CROW system, manipulation of the coupling coefficient is directly coupled to a controllable parameter, namely Ωc.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have successfully modeled a PC CROW structure embedded in a three-level EIT medium with the FDTD method. The ADE method was employed to incorporate the frequency dependence of ε of the highly dispersive EIT background into the time-stepping algorithm. We found that by adjusting the control field strength, dynamic control the shape of the CROW band was enabled, whereas the shape of the CROW band is typically fixed since it is controlled by the coupling strength of the cavities, eg. distance R between the defects. We classified two regimes of the dynamic system by the relative frequency band width of the vacuum CROW structure verses the band width of the EIT transparency window. In the two regimes, the rate of change in the coupling factor (or the group velocity) as a function of the control field Rabi frequency differed, being larger in the case where Ωc ≥ Δω. We also found that the relationship of the EIT-CROW coupling factor, κc) follows that of the EIT group velocity, vgc). In the spirit of the TB analysis, one can draw a parallel between the atomic separation distance and the resonator cavity separation in the CROW. Therefore, one can also think of the dispersion of the media or Ωc in the cavity as the ‘atomic potential’. As Ωc decreases, the atomic potential increases, reducing the coupling between modes. To achieve a usable slow light effect, a large bandwidth is required to accept the input pulse into the system before the band is flattened and the pulse stopped [24

24. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Through our investigation, we have shown an implementation of the CROW which would allow dynamic control of the propagation speed of a pulse through the system. We chose the 2D square lattice PhC system because it has a monopole point defect mode and simple band structure, making it a ‘clean’ system for this study; however, these effects are not limited to this configuration. More importantly, the unique dispersion characteristics of the EIT in the CROW fixes a pivot point in the CROW bands, around which the bands change shape. This pivot offers a fixed operation point in momentum space which could useful in coupling in and out of the structure. The EIT and CROWimplementation could be applied in optical buffer or optical memory schemes.

Acknowledgments

Funding for this work was through the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) under the INGVAR program, the SSF Strategic Research Center in Photonics, and the Swedish Research Council (VR).

References and links

1.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides,(Academic Press, New York, 1974).

2.

P. Yeh and A. Yariv, “Bragg reflection waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 19, 427–430 (1976). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett. 24, 711–713 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Microwave propagation in two-dimensional dielectric lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017–2020 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, “Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140–2143 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

L. V. Hau, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and S. E. Harris, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature (London) 397, 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, M. O. Scully, and V. L. Velichansky, “Intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. 23, 295–297 (1998). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Müller, M. Müller, A. Wicht, R.-H. Rinkleff, and K. Danzmann, “Optical resonator with steep internal dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 2385–2389 (1997). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Soljačić, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Hau, and Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of microcavity lifetimes using highly dispersive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 026602 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

C. W. Neff, L. M. Andersson, and M. Qiu, “Modelling electromagnetically induced transparency media using the finite-difference time-domain method,” New J. Phys. 9, 48 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).

14.

P. Jänes, J. Tidström, and L. Thylén, “Limits on optical pulse compression and delay bandwidth product in electromagnetically induced transparency media,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3893–3899 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Okoniewski, M. Mrozowski, and M. Stuchly, “Simple treatment of multi-term dispersion in FDTD,” IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett. 7, 121–123 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

17.

M. Han, R. Dutton, and S. Fan, “Model dispersive media in finite-difference time-domain method with complex-conjugate pole-residue pairs,” Microwave andWireless Components Letters, IEEE [see also IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett.] 16, 119–121 (2006).

18.

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comp. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994). [CrossRef]

19.

W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,” Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE [see also IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett.] 11, 223–225 (2001).

20.

G. A. Baker and J. L. Gammel, The Padé Approximant in Theoretical Physics, (Academic, New York, 1970).

21.

manuscript in preparation

22.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature (London) 409, 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef]

23.

J. Tidström, P. Jönes, and L. M. Andersson, “Delay bandwidth product of electromagnetically induced transparency media,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 53803 (2007). [CrossRef]

24.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(230.4555) Optical devices : Coupled resonators
(130.5296) Integrated optics : Photonic crystal waveguides

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: June 28, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 24, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 27, 2007
Published: August 1, 2007

Citation
Curtis W. Neff, L. Mauritz Andersson, and Min Qiu, "Coupled resonator optical waveguide structures with highly dispersive media," Opt. Express 15, 10362-10369 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10362


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References

  1. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides,(Academic Press, New York, 1974).
  2. P. Yeh and A. Yariv, "Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Commun. 19, 427-430 (1976). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis," Opt. Lett. 24, 711-713 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, "Microwave propagation in two-dimensional dielectric lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017-2020 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in threedimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140-2143 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. V. Hau, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and S. E. Harris, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature (London) 397, 594-598 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, M. O. Scully, and V. L. Velichansky, "Intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 23, 295-297 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Müller, M. Müller, A. Wicht, R.-H. Rinkleff, and K. Danzmann, "Optical resonator with steep internal dispersion," Phys. Rev. A 56, 2385-2389 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Soljačić, E. Lidorikis, L. V. Hau, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of microcavity lifetimes using highly dispersive materials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026602 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. C. W. Neff, L. M. Andersson, and M. Qiu, "Modelling electromagnetically induced transparency media using the finite-difference time-domain method," New J. Phys. 9, 48 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
  14. P. Jänes, J. Tidström, and L . Thyl’en, "Limits on optical pulse compression and delay bandwidth product in electromagnetically induced transparency media," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3893-3899 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Okoniewski, M. Mrozowski, and M. Stuchly, "Simple treatment of multi-term dispersion in FDTD," IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett. 7, 121-123 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).
  17. M. Han, R. Dutton, and S. Fan, "Model dispersive media in finite-difference time-domain method with complexconjugate pole-residue pairs," Microwave andWireless Components Letters, IEEE [see also IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett.] 16, 119-121 (2006).
  18. J.-P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. W.-H. Guo, W.-J. Li, and Y.-Z. Huang, "Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Padé approximation," Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE [see also IEEE Micro. Guided Wave Lett.] 11, 223-225 (2001).
  20. G. A. Baker and J. L. Gammel, The Pad’e Approximant in Theoretical Physics, (Academic, New York, 1970).
  21. manuscript in preparation
  22. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature (London) 409, 490-493 (2001). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Tidström, P. Jänes, and L. M. Andersson, "Delay bandwidth product of electromagnetically induced transparency media," Phys. Rev. A 75, 53803 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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