OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 16 — Aug. 6, 2007
  • pp: 10427–10438
« Show journal navigation

High transmission through ridge nano-apertures on Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

Zhilong Rao, Lambertus Hesselink, and James S. Harris  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 16, pp. 10427-10438 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.010427


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (778 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report high-intensity nano-aperture Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) with sub-100nm near-field spots using ridge apertures. Power transmission efficiency through different ridge apertures, including bowtie, C, H and I-shaped apertures on VCSELs were studied. Significantly higher transmission efficiencies were obtained from the ridge apertures than those from conventional square apertures. Mechanisms for high transmission through the ridge apertures are explained through simulation and waveguide theory. A new quadruple-ridge aperture is proposed and designed via simulation. With the high-intensity and small spot size, VCSELs using these ridge nano-apertures are very promising means to realize applications such as ultrahigh-density near-field optical data storage and ultrahigh-resolution near-field imaging etc.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Many near-field optical applications require a nano-aperture which has high power transmission efficiency and produces a strongly confined near-field spot. Conventional circular or square apertures suffer from extremely low transmission efficiency when the aperture size becomes much smaller than the wavelength. As predicted by the small aperture theory of Bethe [1

1. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163, 1944 [CrossRef]

], the power transmitted through a nano-aperture decays as the fourth power of the aperture size. Unconventional apertures, such as bowtie-shaped, C-shaped, H-shaped and I-shaped apertures, have attracted much research interest due to their strong transmission enhancement over conventional circular or square apertures. A bowtie-shaped aperture is the complement of bowtie antennas widely used in microwave application, which consist of two triangular metal particles with tip facing each other. The C, H, and I-shaped apertures are analogous to the ridge waveguides used in microwave engineering. High transmission through a bowtie [2

2. K. Sendur and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation of bowtie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies,” J. Microsc. , 210, 279–283 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111106 (2005). [CrossRef]

], C [4

4. Xiaolei Shi, Lambertus Hesselink, and Robert L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. , 28, 1320–1322 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], H [5

5. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Finite Difference Time Domain Simulation studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 407 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and I-shaped aperture [6

6. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulation of an aperture in the thick metallic screen that gives high intensity and small spot size using surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Microsc. , 210, 294 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were first shown in simulation. Subsequently, optical near-field confinement in a bowtie [7

7. Eric X. Jin and Xianfan Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 88, 153110 (2006). [CrossRef]

], C [8

8. Fang Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T.E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G.C. Walker, and B.B. Akhremitchev, “Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 83, 3245–3247 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and H-aperture [9

9. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Obtaining subwavelength optical spots using nanscale ridge apertures,” J. Heat Transfer , 129, 37 (2007) [CrossRef]

] were demonstrated experimentally.

Here we report high-intensity nano-aperture VCSELs utilizing ridge apertures, i.e., bowtie-shaped, C-shaped, H-shaped and I-shaped apertures, respectively. To our knowledge, we are the first to study and compare the transmission properties of these unconventional apertures by measuring the far-field power transmitted through these apertures on VCSELs. Significantly higher power transmissions are demonstrated on VCSELs utilizing these ridge nano-apertures than those using a conventional square aperture with about the same area. In particular, we achieve a total far-field power of 188µW from VCSELs using an 180nm bowtie aperture at a wavelength of 970nm. From simulation, the near-field FWHM intensity spot size 20nm away from the bowtie-aperture is 64nm×66nm. The near-field intensity from the bowtie-aperture VCSEL is estimated to be as record-high as 47mW/µm2. Mechanisms for high transmission through the ridge apertures are explained through finite difference time domain simulation and waveguide theory. In the end, a new quadruple-ridge aperture which has four-fold rotational symmetry is proposed and designed via simulation.

2. Device structure

Our top-emitting VCSELs are designed to operate around 970nm and consist of 38.5 pairs of n-type distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR), three InGaAs/GaAsP quantum wells and 9.5 pairs of p-type DBRs. The number of p-type DBR pairs is only about half of that in conventional VCSELs, which is designed to increase the intensity incident onto the nano-aperture. The reflectivity of the top mirror is enhanced with a 150nm thick Au coating. A half-wavelength thick SiO2 film is inserted between the Au coating and the top DBR pairs to enhance the transmission through the nano-aperture. Wet oxidation of Al0.98Ga0.02As is used to obtain a 2.8µm-diameter oxide aperture for current and mode confinement. The nano-apertures are etched through the Au coating using a Ga+ Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Fig. 1 shows a schematic structure of the nano-aperture VCSEL.

Fig. 1. Nano-aperture VCSEL structure

Insertion of the SiO2 layer enhances the transmission through the nano-aperture mainly by two mechanisms. First, insertion of the low-refractive-index SiO2 layer reduces the reflection from the nano-aperture at the interface between the incident medium and air, which is given by: Ereflected/Eincident=(nincident-nair)/(nincident+nair). Without the SiO2 layer, nincident is the high refractive index of AlGaAs, which results in a high reflection. With the SiO2 layer, nincident becomes the low refractive index of SiO2, which largely reduces this reflection. Second, a Fabry-Perot resonance can build up inside the SiO2 layer, which increases the intensity incident onto the nano-aperture. Fig. 2 shows the E2 distribution inside the top DBR pairs and SiO2 layer, which shows that E2 of the forward-propagating wave is over four times higher inside SiO2 than that inside the AlGaAs layer directly below the SiO2 layer due to the Fabry-Perot resonance built in the SiO2 layer.

Fig.2. 2 distribution inside the top DBR pairs and SiO2 layer. The real part of the refractive index of each layer is also shown. The distance in x-axis starts from around the oxidation layer and goes up to the SiO2 layer.

3. Finite Difference Time Domain simulation

3.1 Design of ridge apertures

To design the ridge apertures for resonant transmission at our lasing wavelength of 970nm, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation is performed to optimize the aperture structure. For the bowtie-shaped aperture, the outline dimensions and the gap distance between the two metal tips (see Fig. 3(a)) are tuned. The following simulation is run for each aperture design. A short pulse plane wave is sent from the SiO2 layer onto the metal nano-aperture. Fourier transformations are performed for both the incident pulse and the pulse transmitted through the nano-aperture to find both the incident and transmitted pulse spectrum. By normalizing the transmitted pulse spectrum to the incident pulse spectrum, a transmission spectrum of the aperture is obtained. The resonance transmission peak wavelength is found to red shift with increasing outline dimension of the bowtie aperture as an expected scaling effect, and blue-shift with increasing gap length, which is an interesting phenomenon and will be discussed in more details in section 3.2. The size of the near-field spot from the bowtie aperture is mainly determined by the size of the gap between the two metal tips. To achieve best near-field resolution and at the same time ensure reasonable fabrication quality of the aperture using FIB, a gap size of 30nm is chosen. A bowtie aperture with an outline of 180*180 nm2 and a gap of 30nm is designed so that the resonance peak is near the lasing wavelength. Fig. 3(a) shows the detailed structure of the bowtie aperture. A steady state simulation is then performed using a monochromatic wave at the lasing wavelength. Fig. 4(a) shows the simulated near-field intensity distribution 20nm away from the bowtie aperture. The intensity pattern is normalized to the incident intensity.

Fig. 3. Schematic structure of the ridge apertures. a) Bowtie aperture; b) C-aperture; c) H-aperture; d) I-aperture. The gray region is metal and the white region is air.

The simulated near-field intensity 20nm away from the C-aperture, H-aperture and I-aperture are shown in Fig. 4(b), 4(c) and 4(d) respectively. As we can see from these intensity distributions, the intensity transmitted through these ridge apertures are all largely enhanced over the incident intensity. The near-field intensity spots are confined by the ridges of these apertures and the sizes of the near-field spots are mainly determined by the sizes of the gaps in these apertures.

Fig. 4. Near-field intensity distribution 20nm away; a) from the bowtie aperture; b) from the C-aperture; c) from the H-aperture; d) from the I-aperture. All the intensity patterns are normalized to incident intensity. The white lines are the outlines of these apertures.

3.2 Understanding high transmission through ridge apertures

The bowtie, C, H and I-apertures share some common features. First, these apertures are analogous to the ridge waveguides used in microwave engineering. For the ridge waveguides, the cutoff wavelength for the fundamental propagation mode TE10 can be much larger than 2 times their outline dimensions, while the cutoff wavelength for a rectangular waveguide is only 2 times the length of its longer side. So for the ridge apertures, there exists propagation mode TE10 through even when the aperture sizes are much smaller than the wavelength. And the ridges in these apertures confine this propagation mode TE10 between the gaps, which leads to highly confined near-field spots. Second, surface plasmons can be induced on the ridges of these apertures, which lead to further enhanced near-field intensity transmitted through the ridge apertures.

We take the H and I-aperture as an example to illustrate the effect of the long cutoff wavelength. The H and I-aperture are analogous to the double-ridge waveguides. For a double-ridge waveguide with the dimensions shown in Fig. 5, the cut-off wavelength for the fundamental mode TE10 is approximately given by Eq. (1) [15

15. J. Helszajn, “Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components,” p.27 (The Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 2000).

]:

cot(π(as)λc)+bdtan(πsλc)+2(bλc)ln(cos1(πd2b))=0
(1)

For a particular design of the double-ridge waveguide with the following dimension: a=190nm, b=110nm, s=50nm, d=20nm, the calculated cut-off wavelength is 691nm (3.64×a) with air as both the incident and excident medium. The near-field spot size from this ridge waveguide aperture will mainly be determined by its gap size of 20nm× 50nm. For a rectangular waveguide to support a propagation mode with the same cutoff wavelength of 691nm, the length of the longer side of the rectangular waveguide has to be 346nm. The near-field spot size from such a rectangular waveguide aperture is determined by the length of its longer side and is much larger than that from the double-ridge waveguide aperture. Please notice that the ridge waveguide theory in microwave engineering assumes a perfect conductor. In optical frequencies, the nonideal conductivity of real metals has a significant effect and can’t be ignored. However, the ridge waveguide analogy is still helpful in understanding the high transmission through the ridge apertures.

Fig. 5. Schematic structure of a double-ridge waveguide

As mentioned before, the transmission resonance wavelength blue-shifts with increasing gap distances d (see Fig. 5) of the ridge apertures. Similar gap-dependent spectral shifts were also observed in bowtie nano-antennas consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangular Au particles and explained with a two-dimensional coupled dipole approximation [16

16. David P. Fromm, Arvind Sundaramurthy, P. James Schuck, Gordon Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. , 4, 957 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Here we tried to explain this spectral shift using the gap-dependent cutoff wavelength of the ridge waveguides. As an example, for the above double-ridge waveguide design, with fixed parameter a=190nm, b=110nm, s=50nm, the calculated cutoff wavelength blue-shifts with increasing gap distance d, as shown in Fig. 6. This blue-shifted cutoff wavelength of the ridge waveguides with increasing gap distances may be responsible for the blue-shifted resonance wavelength with increasing gap distances in the ridge apertures.

Fig. 6. Dependence of cutoff-wavelength of the double-ridge waveguide on gap distance.

To further understand the high transmission through the ridge apertures, we performed detailed FDTD simulation to study fields transmitted through the apertures. The 180nm bowtie-aperture shown in Fig. 3(a) is taken as an example to illustrate this study. Fig. 7 shows the Ex and Ez distribution at 5nm away from the bowtie-aperture in a 150nm thick Au film when the incident light is polarized along X-direction. The Ey component is much weaker than Ex and Ez, and so is not shown here. The Ex distribution clearly shows the characteristic of the fundamental propagation mode TE10. This mode has its peak in the center of the aperture and gets strongly confined at the gap region by the two ridges of the bowtie-aperture. The high field strength around the two ridges in the Ez distribution is due to induced surface plasmons around the two metal ridges. These induced surface charges form an electrical dipole, which radiates effectively and further enhances the intensity transmitted through the bowtie-aperture. Although not studied here, it was shown that in chromium film instead of the gold film here, the Ez distribution from the bowtie-aperture is caused only by scattering effects and is much weaker [17

17. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B , 84, 3–9 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. This confirms that the strong Ez distribution around the two ridges of the bowtie aperture in gold film as shown in Fig. 7 is indeed due to the excitation of surface plasmons.

Fig. 7. Ex and Ez distribution at 5nm away from the bowtie-aperture. The incident light is polarized along X-direction. The field strength is normalized to incident field.

To further illustrate the existence of a mode propagating through the bowtie-aperture, a XZ plane is cut along center of the two metal tips of the bowtie-aperture and the field distribution in this plane is shown in Fig. 8 (a), (b). Light is incident from top of the figures and polarized along X-direction. Again, the Ex distribution along the channel through the bowtie aperture clearly indicates the existence of a propagation mode. The Ez distribution shows the existence of induced surface charges on both the incident and excident side of the metal film. Again, the Ey component is much weaker than Ex and Ez and so is not shown here. For comparison, a 130nm square aperture which has the same area as the 180nm bowtie aperture is also studied. The Ex and Ez field distributions in XZ plane cut along center of the square aperture are shown in Fig. 8(c), (d). The magnitude of Ex decays fast when light travels deep into the square aperture. And the distribution of Ez shows that induced surface charges only exists on the incident side of the metal film. This is because light transmitted through the square aperture is too weak to induce noticeable charges on the excident side of the metal film.

Fig. 8. (a), (b) Ex and Ez distribution in XZ plane cut along center of two metals tips of the bowtie-aperture; (c), (d) Ex and Ez distribution in XZ plane cut along center of a 130nm square aperture. The Au film thickness for both the bowtie aperture and the square aperture is 150nm. The white lines in the figures show the outline of the Au film. Light is incident from top of the figures. The magnitudes of all field components here are normalized to the incident light.

4. Polarization control

The transmission of light through these ridge apertures is polarization-dependent. For example, for the bowtie-aperture, when incident light is polarized along the two metal tips, a well-confined near-field spot with high intensity is produced, as shown in Fig. 9(a). However, the orthogonal polarization results in a poorly confined near-field spot and the intensity is three hundred times lower, as shown in Fig. 9(b). The C-aperture, H-aperture and I-aperture have similar polarization-dependent transmission properties. However, for VCSELs without a defining extrinsic polarization selection mechanism, the two orthogonal polarizations coexist and align primarily along the <110> and <110> crystal axis. We thus need to control the polarization of the VCSELs in order to achieve high output power and a well-confined near-field spot from nano-aperture VCSELs utilizing these ridge apertures.

Fig. 9. Near-field E2 distribution at 20nm away from the bowtie-aperture. (a) The polarization is along X-direction; (b) the polarization is along Y-direction.

We developed an integrated method to control the polarization of nano-aperture VCSELs by opening nano-slits in the metal coating [18

18. Zhilong Rao, Joseph A. Matteo, Lambertus Hesselink, and James S. Harris, “High-intensity C-shaped nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with controlled polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 90, 191110 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. As shown in Fig. 10, twenty 50×280nm2 slits are opened in the Au coating along <110> direction. Since the transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the slit is much higher than that of light polarized parallel to the slit, the polarization of the VCSELs is effectively controlled to be parallel to the slit due to lower cavity loss in this direction. After opening the slits, the top emitting power contains power emitted through the nano-slits, which have polarization-dependent power transmission efficiency. This power is comparable to the small laser background power emitted through the Au coating. It’s hard to interpret the intrinsic polarization properties of the laser from the top emitting power. To show the effectiveness of our polarization control method, we measured the polarization-resolved power emitted through the substrate, which does not contain power transmitted through the polarization-dependent slits and thus can clearly indicate the polarization extinction ratio inside the laser cavity. Fig. 11(a) shows the polarization-resolved power emitted through the substrate after opening the slits along <110> direction, which indicates strong pinning of polarization along <110> inside the laser cavity.

Fig. 10. SEM image of the nano-slits and bowtie aperture

5. Experimental Results

The top-emitting power of the laser is measured after opening the nano-slits. The ridge nanoapertures are then opened in between the nano-slits. The net power transmitted through the ridge nano-apertures are obtained by subtracting the small laser background power emitted through the Au coating and the small amount of power transmitted through the nano-slits from the measured top emitting power after opening the ridge apertures. The power transmitted through each slit is negligible compared with the net power through the ridge nano-aperture since it is over two orders of magnitude smaller. The top emitting power from the nano-aperture VCSEL is collected with a 1cm2 circular silicon detector directly above the laser at a distance of 4mm. The power collection efficiency is estimated to be 42% assuming that the far-field radiation from a nano-aperture is uniform radiation from a point source. Fig. 11(b) shows the total far-field net power from VCSEL using different ridge nano-apertures. The dimensions of each of these ridge apertures are shown in Fig. 3. A 130nm square aperture with about the same area as the ridge apertures is also studied for comparison.

Fig. 11. (a) Polarization-resolved power emitted through the substrate after opening slits; (b) Total far-field power from VCSELs using different ridge apertures and a square aperture.

The total far-field power, near-field FWHM intensity spot size 20nm away from the apertures, and the corresponding near-field intensities from VCSELs using bowtie-aperture, C-aperture, H-aperture, I-aperture and square aperture are summarized in table 1. All the ridge apertures show strong transmission enhancement over the 130nm square aperture. And notice that the near-field spot size from the 130nm square aperture is much larger than those from the ridge apertures. Experimental comparison with square apertures producing the same spot size as the ridge apertures is unachievable due to the extremely low and undetectable power output from a sub-100nm square aperture on VCSELs. In comparison among the different ridge apertures, the bowtie aperture VCSEL shows the highest intensity and smallest spot size, which may be attributed to the additional lightning rod effect from the sharp tips of the bowtie-aperture. The C-aperture design can be further optimized to achieve smaller spot size and higher intensity by shrinking the aperture size and tuning the structure [4

4. Xiaolei Shi, Lambertus Hesselink, and Robert L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. , 28, 1320–1322 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], although the smaller aperture size may add to the challenge for fabrication. The relatively lower power output from the H-aperture may be due to worse fabrication imperfection with Focused Ion Beam, such as rounding at the corner and tapering from the etching, because of its smaller feature size.

In particular, the total far-field maximum net power from the bowtie-aperture is measured to be 188µW, which is 16 times higher than that from the 130nm square aperture with the same area as the bowtie aperture. From our simulation, the near-field FWHM intensity spot size at 20nm away from the bowtie aperture is 64nm in X-direction and 66nm in Y-direction. The peak near-field intensity from the bowtie-aperture VCSEL is estimated to be as high as 47mW/µm2. This intensity is much higher than that from a conventional VCSEL and is record-high among intensities achieved from nano-aperture VCSELs. At a closer distance to the aperture, the spot size is even smaller and the near-field intensity is even higher. For example, at 5nm away from the bowtie-aperture, the simulated spot size is 34×36nm2 and the estimated peak intensity is 172mW/µm2. However, a closer distance can add to the challenge for distance control in applications. It is believed that intensity over 10mW/µm2 is required for optical recording [12

12. Satoshi Shinada, Fumio Koyama, Nobuhiko Nishiyama, Masakazu Arai, and Kenichi Iga, “Analysis and fabrication of microaperture GaAs-GaAlAs surface-emitting laser for near-field optical data storage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. , 7, 365–369 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. For the first time, we achieved intensity well above this requirement from nano-aperture VCSELs. The intensity from the bowtie-aperture VCSEL is high enough to realize optical recording and the small spot size of 64nm×66nm corresponds to a storage density up to 150Gbits/in2, which is over two orders of magnitude higher than that in Digital Versatile Disc (DVD).

Table 1. Comparison of nano-aperture VCSELs using bowtie-aperture, C-aperture, H-aperture, I-aperture and square aperture.a

table-icon
View This Table

6. Quadruple-ridge apertures

The ridge apertures discussed above, including the bowtie, C, H, and I-shaped apertures, have at most two-fold rotational symmetry. They all require the incident light to be polarized along one specific direction to have high transmission efficiency and small near-field spot size. Here we propose a new type of ridge aperture, namely, quadruple-ridge aperture, which consists of four ridges sticking to the center of the aperture and has four-fold rotational symmetry. Fig. 12 (a), (b) show two different structures of such apertures designed to have resonant transmission at our lasing wavelength of 970nm. Aperture (a) has an outline dimension of 160 ×160nm2, a ridge width of 20nm, and a gap size of 40×40nm2. Aperture (b) consists of two slits crossing each other, where each slit has a width of 25nm and a length of 230nm. The near-field intensity distributions 20nm away from aperture (a) and (b) are shown in Fig. 12 (c), (d) respectively. For our simulation condition, a monochromatic wave of 970nm wavelength is assumed to be incident from a SiO2 substrate onto the apertures, which are etched in a 150nm thick Au film. The FWHM intensity spot sizes from these two apertures are 98nm in X-direction and 44nm in Y-direction for aperture (a), and 102nm in X-direction and 68nm in Y-direction for aperture (b). Incident light is polarized along X-direction for both apertures.

As shown in Fig. 12 (c), (d), these quadruple ridge apertures also have very high transmission efficiency and strong near-field confinement, with near-field intensity and spot size comparable to the bowtie, C, H, and I-shaped ridge apertures. In addition, since these quadruple-ridge apertures have four-fold rotational symmetry, the incident light can be polarized along either one of the two orthogonal directions and have the same high transmission efficiency and small near-field spot size. Hence, the quadruple-ridge apertures can be useful in applications where the incident light is polarized along either X or Y direction.

Fig.12. (a), (b) Two different designs of quadruple-ridge aperture; (c), (d) Near-field intensity distribution 20nm away from aperture (a) and aperture (b) respectively. The intensity pattern is normalized to incident intensity. The incident light is polarized along x-direction.

7. Conclusions

In conclusion, we demonstrated high-intensity nano-aperture VCSELs with sub-100nm near-field spot size using bowtie-shaped, C-shaped and H-shaped, and I-shaped ridge apertures respectively. The polarization of the nano-aperture VCSELs is effectively controlled by opening nano-slits in the metal coating. High transmission through these ridge apertures can be attributed to the existence of fundamental propagation mode TE10 and the excited surface plasmons localized around the ridges of these apertures. With the high intensity and small spot size, VCSELs utilizing these ridge nano-apertures are very promising means to realize application such as ultrahigh-density near-field optical data storage, ultrahigh-resolution near-field imaging, nanolithography, single molecule fluorescence and spectroscopy, trapping and manipulation of single molecules etc.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Joseph A. Matteo for support on the FDTD simulation, Dr. Glen Carey at Novalux Inc. for the epitaxial growth of the VCSEL wafer and Photonics Technology Access Program for funding the prototype epitaxial growth of the VCSEL wafer.

References and links

1.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163, 1944 [CrossRef]

2.

K. Sendur and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation of bowtie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies,” J. Microsc. , 210, 279–283 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 111106 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

Xiaolei Shi, Lambertus Hesselink, and Robert L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. , 28, 1320–1322 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Finite Difference Time Domain Simulation studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 407 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulation of an aperture in the thick metallic screen that gives high intensity and small spot size using surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Microsc. , 210, 294 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Eric X. Jin and Xianfan Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 88, 153110 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

Fang Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T.E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G.C. Walker, and B.B. Akhremitchev, “Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 83, 3245–3247 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Obtaining subwavelength optical spots using nanscale ridge apertures,” J. Heat Transfer , 129, 37 (2007) [CrossRef]

10.

Jiro Hashizume and Fumio Koyama, “Plasmon-enhancement of optical near-field probing of metal nanoaperture surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Express , 12, 6391–6396 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Young-Joo Kim, Kazuhiro SUZUKI, and Kenya GOTO, “Parallel recording array head of nano-aperture flat-tip probes for high-density near-field optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. , 40, 1783–1789 (2001). [CrossRef]

12.

Satoshi Shinada, Fumio Koyama, Nobuhiko Nishiyama, Masakazu Arai, and Kenichi Iga, “Analysis and fabrication of microaperture GaAs-GaAlAs surface-emitting laser for near-field optical data storage,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. , 7, 365–369 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

Jiro Hashizume and Fumio Koyama, “Plasmon-enhancement of optical near-field of metal nanoaperture surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 84, 3226–3228 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, “Metal nano-aperture VCSEL for near-field optics and polarization control,” Conference Digest pp.101–102, IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (2006).

15.

J. Helszajn, “Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components,” p.27 (The Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 2000).

16.

David P. Fromm, Arvind Sundaramurthy, P. James Schuck, Gordon Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. , 4, 957 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B , 84, 3–9 (2006) [CrossRef]

18.

Zhilong Rao, Joseph A. Matteo, Lambertus Hesselink, and James S. Harris, “High-intensity C-shaped nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with controlled polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 90, 191110 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(210.4770) Optical data storage : Optical recording
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: June 11, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 20, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 30, 2007
Published: August 2, 2007

Citation
Zhilong Rao, Lambertus Hesselink, and James S. Harris, "High transmission through ridge nano-apertures on Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," Opt. Express 15, 10427-10438 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-10427


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sendur and W. Challener, "Near-field radiation of bowtie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies," J. Microsc.  210, 279-283 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111106 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, "Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture," Opt. Lett. 28, 1320-1322 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Finite Difference Time Domain Simulation studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  43, 407 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulation of an aperture in the thick metallic screen that gives high intensity and small spot size using surface plasmon polaritons," J. Microsc. 210, 294 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153110 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker and B. B. Akhremitchev, "Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3245-3247 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Obtaining subwavelength optical spots using nanscale ridge apertures," J. Heat Transfer 129, 37 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, "Plasmon-enhancement of optical near-field probing of metal nanoaperture surface-emitting laser," Opt. Express 12, 6391-6396 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y.-J. Kim, K. Suzuki and K. Goto, "Parallel recording array head of nano-aperture flat-tip probes for high-density near-field optical data storage," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1783-1789 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Shinada, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, M. Arai, and K. Iga, "Analysis and fabrication of microaperture GaAs-GaAlAs surface-emitting laser for near-field optical data storage," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 365-369 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Hashizume and F. Koyama, "Plasmon-enhancement of optical near-field of metal nanoaperture surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3226-3228 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Hashizume, P. B. Dayal, and F. Koyama, "Metal nano-aperture VCSEL for near-field optics and polarization control," Conference Digest, pp.101-102, IEEE 20th International Semiconductor Laser Conference (2006).
  15. J. Helszajn, Ridge waveguides and passive microwave components (The Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 2000) p. 27.
  16. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible," Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, "Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture," Appl. Phys. B 84, 3-9 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Rao, J. A. Matteo, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, "High-intensity C-shaped nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with controlled polarization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191110 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited