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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 18 — Sep. 3, 2007
  • pp: 11133–11141
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Electromagnetic cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials

Ying Huang, Yijun Feng, and Tian Jiang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 18, pp. 11133-11141 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.011133


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Abstract

Electromagnetic invisibility cloak requires material with anisotropic distribution of the constitutive parameters as first proposed by Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)]. In this paper, we proposed an electromagnetic cloak structure that does not require metamaterials with subwavelength structured inclusions to realize the anisotropy or inhomogeneity of the material parameters. We constructed a concentric layered structure of alternating homogeneous isotropic materials that can be treated as an effective medium with the required radius-dependent anisotropy. With proper design of the permittivity or the thickness ratio of the alternating layers, we demonstrated the low-reflection and power-flow bending properties of the proposed cloaking structure through rigorous analysis of the scattered electromagnetic fields. The proposed cloaking structure could be possibly realized by normal materials, therefore may lead to a practical path to an experimental demonstration of electromagnetic cloaking, especially in the optical range.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

There is currently a growing interest in the theoretical and practical possibility of cloaking objects from the observation by electromagnetic fields [1

1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling Electromagnetic Fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. G.W. Milton and N.A. Nicorovici, “On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance,” Proceedings London Royal Society A 462, 3027–3059 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The basic idea of the cloaking structure proposed by J. Pendry [1

1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling Electromagnetic Fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is to use anisotropic transform medium whose permittivity and permeability are obtained from a homogeneous isotropic medium, by transformations of coordinates. The idea was successfully confirmed both by full-wave simulations [5

5. S. A. Cummer, B-I Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J.B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Optics Letters 32, 1069–1071 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and by experimental demonstration at microwave frequencies [7

7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr , and D. R. Smith. “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the design uses artificially structured metamaterial with inclusions of subwavelength metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs), and cannot be easily implemented for an optical cloak, which is certainly of particular interest. Recently, W. Cai et. al. have proposed an optical cloaking device for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization [8

8. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photonics, vol.1, 224–227 (-). [CrossRef]

], but their design still requires metamaterial with anisotropic distribution of the permittivity, which is realized by subwavelength inclusions of metal wires in the radial direction embedded in a dielectric material.

Anisotropic materials with desired permittivity properties can be produced by a layered structure of thin, alternating dielectric layers (or metal and dielectric layers). Such planar systems have been proposed to demonstrate the subwavelength imaging [10

10. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system.” Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and to build photonic funnels for sub-diffraction light compression and propagation [11

11. A. A. Govyadinov and V. A. Podolskiy, “Metamaterial photonic funnels for subdiffraction light compression and propagation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155108 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, “optical hyperlens” made of cylindrical structure of anisotropic medium has been proposed, which has the capability of far-field imaging with resolution below the diffraction limit [12

12. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit.” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations.” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Such anisotropic “hyperlens” has also been realized experimentally by concentric layered structures consisting of alternating layers of metal and dielectric [14

14. Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, “Far-Field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects.” Science 315, 1699–1701 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. Igor I. Smolyaninov, Yu-Ju Hung, and Christopher C. Davis, “Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range.” Science 315, 1699–1701 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we present the approach of realizing the electromagnetic cloaking by concentric layered structures instead of using the metamaterial with subwavelength structured inclusions. We show that by properly designing the realization of the anisotropic distribution of the permittivity required for the cloak through layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials, the low-reflection and power-flow bending properties of the electromagnetic cloaking structure could be obtained.

2. Realizing anisotropic cylinder by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials

For the sake of simplicity, we restrict the problem to a two dimensional (2D) case. The proposed electromagnetic cloaking structure described here is based on the concentric layered structures consisting of alternating layers A and B of different homogeneous isotropic dielectric materials, as depicted in Fig. 1. When the layers are sufficiently thin compared with the wavelength, we can treat the whole layered structure as a single anisotropic medium with the dielectric permittivity as [10

10. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system.” Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

12

12. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit.” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

εθ=εA+ηεB1+η,
1εr=11+η(1εA+ηεB).
(1)

where, ε A, ε B are the permittivities of the layer A and layer B, respectively, εθ, εr are the angular and radial components of the effective anisotropic permittivity tensor, respectively, and η is the thicknesses ratio of the two layers:

η=dBdA.
(2)

Treating the layered structure as an effective anisotropic medium is based on the effective medium approximation, which requires that the thickness of each layer is much less than the wavelength and the number of the layers is large enough. When considering the finite thickness of a practical layered structure, it has been demonstrated in a planar case that the effective-medium approximation becomes more appropriate as the layers are made thinner [10

10. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system.” Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Here we give the electromagnetic analysis on the cylindrical case in the following.

Consider the electromagnetic wave scattering for an infinite conducting cylinder shelled either with a concentric layered structure (Fig. 1(a)) or with an equivalent anisotropic medium (Fig. 1(b)). A plane wave with TM polarization is assumed to impinge along the x direction upon the shelled cylinder. The axial components of the incident and scattered magnetic field vector H outside the cylinder may be expressed as [16

16. R. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

]

Hzi=H0n=n=jnJn(k0r)ejnθ,
Hzs=H0n=n=CnjnHn(2)(k0r)ejnθ,
(3)

where, Jn, Hn (2) are, respectively, the Bessel function and the Hankel function of the second kind, k 0 is the wave number of the outside medium. The magnetic field inside the mth dielectric layer (designated by the subscript m=1 to 2N) of the layered structure is expressed by

Hzmt=H0n=n=jn(AmnJn(kmr)+BmnHn(2)(kmr))ejnθ,
(4)

where, km is the wave number in the mth dielectric layer. In Eq. (3) and (4), a time dependence of the form ejωt is assumed for the electromagnetic field quantities but is suppressed throughout. Amn, Bmn, and Cn are arbitrary constants that can be determined by enforcing the boundary continuity condition at r=a, r=b, and at the interfaces between each dielectric layer. The electric fields in each medium are determined through

Er=1rjωμk2Hzθ,Eθ=jωμk2Hzr.
(5)

For a TM incident wave from a magnetic line source (with magnetic current of Im, and located at r=r 0), the incident magnetic field is described as

Hzi=ωε0Im4H0(2)(k0rr0).
(6)

The scattering electromagnetic fields can be analyzed similar to that of the plane wave case.

Fig. 1. TM wave incident on an infinite conducting cylinder (in yellow) shelled with (a) concentric layers structure with alternating layers of dielectric A and B, (b) equivalent anisotropic cylindrical medium with radius-dependent, anisotropic material parameters. Both of the shells have inner and outer radius of a and b, respectively.

When the conducting cylinder is shelled with the equivalent anisotropic medium (Fig. 1(b)), the electromagnetic fields scattering could be calculated similarly by application of Sommerfeld’s bundle of rays field representation via a polarization dependent coordinate transformation [17

17. J.C. Monzon, “On the application of Sommerfeld representation in a two-dimensional rotationally invariant anisotropic medium.” IEEE Tran. Antenna and Propagation , 38, 1028–1034 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. The electromagnetic wave scattered by the cylinders could be verified by calculating the far-field scattering pattern which is proportional to

ξ(θ)=n=n=Cnejnθ2.
(7)

First, we calculate the scattering fields by the conducting cylinder shelled with 2N layers of alternating dielectric A and B with same thickness (η=1) as depicted in Fig. 1(a). We choose εA=7.46, εB=0.54, a=λ, b=2λ, where λ is the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The far-field scattering pattern is calculated and plotted in Fig. 2 for the shells composed of different numbers of alternating dielectric A and B (N=5, and 20). The scattering pattern is also plotted in Fig. 2 for the conducting cylinder without any shell for comparison. Next, we calculate the scattering fields by the same conducting cylinder shelled with the equivalent anisotropic medium of same thickness, which has a 2D anisotropic permittivity of εr=1.0, and εθ=4.0, determined by Eq. (1). The far-field scattering pattern is plotted and compared in Fig. 2. It shows clearly that as the layers are made thinner by increasing the number of layers from 10 to 40, the layered structure shell has nearly the same scattering property as the equivalent anisotropic medium shell. This means that we are able to use a concentric layered structure to realize a cylindrical shell of a 2D rotationally invariant anisotropic medium. The thinner the layers, the better this layered structure approaches the scattering performance of the corresponding effective anisotropic medium.

Fig. 2. Comparison of the far-field scattering patterns for a bare conducting cylinder, the conducting cylinder shelled with a concentric layered structure of different number of layers, and that shelled with an anisotropic cylindrical medium. All values have been normalized to the scattering pattern of the bare conducting cylinder at θ=0.

3. Electromagnetic cloaking properties of layered structures

As proposed in Ref. [5

5. S. A. Cummer, B-I Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006). [CrossRef]

7

7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr , and D. R. Smith. “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], cloaking a central cylindrical region of radius a by a concentric cylindrical shell of radius b requires a cloaking shell with the following radius-dependent, anisotropic relative permittivity and permeability:

εr=μr=rar,εθ=μθ=rra,
εz=μz=(bba)2rar.
(8)

Here we follow the TM wave illumination as considered in [8]. In this case only µz, εθ, and εr are of interest and must satisfy the requirement of Eq. (8). Similar to the consideration in [6

6. F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J.B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Optics Letters 32, 1069–1071 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr , and D. R. Smith. “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], to make only one component spatially inhomogeneous and also to eliminate any infinite values in Eq. (8), we can choose a reduced set of medium parameters as

μz=1,εθ=(bba)2,
εr=(bba)2(rar)2.
(9)

This allows us to completely remove the need for magnetic response of the material, which is especially important for making cloak at optical frequency. The shell with the reduced set of parameters provides the same wave trajectory inside the cloaking medium, but it will induce some unfavorable reflection at the outer boundary due to the impedance mismatch.

We consider the following design to explore the realizability of the cloaking through layered structures. For an example, we assume a cylindrical cloaking shell with inner radius a=λ and outer radius b=2λ. Similar to other practical realization of the invisibility cloaks [5

5. S. A. Cummer, B-I Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006). [CrossRef]

7

7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr , and D. R. Smith. “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we first consider a stepwise homogeneous N-layer approximation of the ideal continuous parameters required by Eq. (9), and the continuous radius-dependent, anisotropic medium (as shown in Fig. 1(b)) could be represented approximately by N discrete layers of homogeneous anisotropic medium. Then we mimic each homogeneous anisotropic layer by an alternating layers of isotropic dielectric A and B (as shown in Fig. 1(a)), and the permittivities of the two layers are designed by Eq. (1) from the corresponding anisotropic layer. Fig. 3 depicts the material parameters of the proposed cloak of alternating layers of isotropic dielectric A and B, each with N=20 layers and of equal thickness (η=1). The relative permittivity of dielectric A increases gradually with the radius of each cylindrical layer from 0.005 to 0.536, while the relative permittivity of dielectric B decreases gradually from 8.00 to 7.46.

Fig. 3. The relative permittivity components required for an ideal reduced set of parameter (εr(r), εθ(r)), and that for the corresponding layered structure with alternating dielectric A and B (εA(m), εB(m)). The inset describes the anisotropic shell divided into stepwise homogeneous N-layer (with permittivity as εr(m), εθ(m)), and the mimic of each layer by alternating layers of dielectric A and B (totally 2N layers).

Due to the reduced set of parameters given by Eq. (9), there is an unavoidable but low level of reflection observed in Fig. 4(a), which is caused by the impedance mismatch at the outer boundary. The power reflection is about 11% estimated from the ratio of the inner and outer radii, R ab=a/b=0.5 [8

8. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photonics, vol.1, 224–227 (-). [CrossRef]

]. This agrees with the backward reflection deduced from the standing wave observed in Fig. 4(a). Decreasing R ab or using a thicker cloak can further reduce the backward reflection. For example, if we choose a=λ and b=3λ, we have obtained less scattering from the cloak shell with a reduced power reflection of about 4%.

To show the quantitative behavior of the EM scattering reduction, we have calculated the far-field scattering patterns for the conducting cylinder with (blue line) and without the layered cloaking structure (red line) in Fig. 4(c). The far-field scattering pattern is calculated through Eq. (7) for all radial directions and normalized by the maximum value in the non-cloaked case. The strong lobes in the forward and backward directions for the conducting cylinder without any cloak in Fig. 4(c) correspond to the EM wave shadow and large backward reflection as illustrated in Fig. 4(b). When the cylinder is cloaked with the layered structure, the far-field scattering pattern is reduced in almost all radial directions (except at the directions for the two scattering nulls of the conducting cylinder). The forward scattering has been reduced for 12 dB and the backward scattering for 7 dB, resulting in much reduced EM wave shadow after the object as well as much reduced backward reflection.

Fig. 4. The calculated magnetic-field distribution around the conducting cylinder (a) with a cloak of concentric layered structure (movie, 3.67 MB) [Media 1], and (b) without cloak (movie, 3.67 MB) [Media 2], (c) the far-field scattering pattern. Power-flow lines (in black) in (a) show the smooth deviation of electromagnetic power around the cloaked object. The white circles outline the cloak.

The above calculations have clearly demonstrated the capability of reducing the scattering from the conducting object inside the cloak and the power-flow bending properties of the proposed electromagnetic cloak. Such a concentric layered structure could get rid of the requirement of radius-dependent, anisotropically distributed relative permittivity usually realized by metamaterials with subwavelength structured inclusions. The most concerned issue of the proposed layered structure is the requirement of the alternating dielectrics with gradually increased or decreased permittivity, which is not easy to realize and to control from a practical point of view. An alternative approach is to construct a concentric layered structure that the permittivity of the alternating dielectrics is fixed, while the thickness ratio of the two layers varies to approximately satisfy the Eq. (9), since it will be easier to control the thickness of the dielectric layers.

For an example, a layered structure with N=10 has been designed with a=λ and b=2λ. The relative permittivity of the alternating layers is assumed to be εA=0.01, εB=4, and the thickness ratio η of the two layers varies from 2.3 to 130 according to Eq. (9). To verify the performance of the cloak, we assume a TM incident wave from a line source and calculate the electromagnetic wave scattered from a conducting cylinder (with radius a=λ) shelled with the proposed cloak. The magnetic-field distribution is plotted in Fig. 5 (a). Although there is imperfectness in the scattered fields caused by the reduced set of parameters and small approximation made in the design of the permittivity and the thickness ratio, Fig. 5(a) clearly demonstrates the low-scattering, shadow-reducing and power-flow bending properties of the electromagnetic cloaking structure. The electromagnetic wave scattering is also compared in Fig. 5 (b) for the non-shelled conducting cylinder irradiated by the same line source.

Fig. 5. The magnetic-field distribution around the conducting cylinder, (a) with a cloak of layered structure, and (b) without cloak, for a TM incident wave from a line source. The white circles outline the cloak.

Materials with permittivity close to zero required for dielectric A in this design could be available at infrared and visible range. For examples, the permittivity of the noble metals and polar dielectrics follows Drude or Drude-Lorenz dispersion models [18

18. C. Bohren and D. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley, New York, 1983).

, 19

19. J. D. Jackson, Classical electrodynamics, (John Wiley, New York, 1999).

], and the real part of their permittivity effectively goes to zero at their plasma frequency, which, usually lies in the terahertz regime for polar dielectrics and some semiconductors [20

20. J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Transmission of THz radiation through InSb gratings of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 13, 847–859 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and in the visible and ultraviolet for noble metals [18

18. C. Bohren and D. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley, New York, 1983).

21

21. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. Composite materials realized by properly embedding metallic nanoparticles and nanowires in a dielectric medium could also have effective permittivity near zero in a wide range of frequencies up to the visible [22

22. N. Garcia, E. V. Ponizovskaya, and J. Q. Xiao, “Zero permittivity materials: Band gaps at the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1120–1122 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. N. Garcia, E. V. Ponizowskaya, H. Zhu, J. Q. Xiao, and A. Pons, “Wide photonic band gaps at the visible in metallic nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3147–3149 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The operation frequency band of the proposed cloak should be limited by the material dispersion; especially the dispersion near the frequency the permittivity crosses the zero. Although the design works only for narrow frequency band at this time, we believe it might still have great potential interest.

4. Conclusions

We have proposed an electromagnetic wave cloak by realizing the radius-dependent, anisotropic material through layered structures of homogeneous isotropic materials. The performance of the cylindrical cloak has been demonstrated through rigorous calculation of the electromagnetic wave scattering, which reveals the low-scattering and power-flow bending nature of the properly designed cloaking structure. This approach is comparable with the metamaterial-based cloak [8

8. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photonics, vol.1, 224–227 (-). [CrossRef]

] in terms of EM field distribution, the power flow, as well as the forward and backward EM scattering reductions. Our proposal has no requirement of any anisotropy or inhomogeneity of the material constitutive parameters which usually need metamaterials with structured inclusions to realize. Such cloak is possible to be realized by thin layers of normal materials or composites, therefore may lead to a simpler path to an experimental demonstration of electromagnetic cloaking, especially in the optical range.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2004CB719800), the National Nature Science Foundation (No. 60671002), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20030284024).

References and links

1.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling Electromagnetic Fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. Alu and N. Engheta, “Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith. “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media.” Optics Express 14, 9794–9840 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. A. Cummer, B-I Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J.B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Optics Letters 32, 1069–1071 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr , and D. R. Smith. “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photonics, vol.1, 224–227 (-). [CrossRef]

9.

G.W. Milton and N.A. Nicorovici, “On the cloaking effects associated with anomalous localized resonance,” Proceedings London Royal Society A 462, 3027–3059 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system.” Phys. Rev. B 74, 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

A. A. Govyadinov and V. A. Podolskiy, “Metamaterial photonic funnels for subdiffraction light compression and propagation,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155108 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit.” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations.” Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

Zhaowei Liu, Hyesog Lee, Yi Xiong, Cheng Sun, and Xiang Zhang, “Far-Field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects.” Science 315, 1699–1701 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

Igor I. Smolyaninov, Yu-Ju Hung, and Christopher C. Davis, “Magnifying Superlens in the Visible Frequency Range.” Science 315, 1699–1701 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

R. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

17.

J.C. Monzon, “On the application of Sommerfeld representation in a two-dimensional rotationally invariant anisotropic medium.” IEEE Tran. Antenna and Propagation , 38, 1028–1034 (1990). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Bohren and D. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley, New York, 1983).

19.

J. D. Jackson, Classical electrodynamics, (John Wiley, New York, 1999).

20.

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Transmission of THz radiation through InSb gratings of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 13, 847–859 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

22.

N. Garcia, E. V. Ponizovskaya, and J. Q. Xiao, “Zero permittivity materials: Band gaps at the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1120–1122 (2002). [CrossRef]

23.

N. Garcia, E. V. Ponizowskaya, H. Zhu, J. Q. Xiao, and A. Pons, “Wide photonic band gaps at the visible in metallic nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3147–3149 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 18, 2007
Revised Manuscript: August 14, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: August 17, 2007
Published: August 21, 2007

Citation
Ying Huang, Yijun Feng, and Tian Jiang, "Electromagnetic cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials," Opt. Express 15, 11133-11141 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11133


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References

  1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Achieving transparency with plasmonic and metamaterial coatings," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016623 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9840 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. A. Cummer, B-I Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith and J. B. Pendry, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet and J. B. Pendry, "Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect," Opt. Lett. 32, 1069-1071 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith. "Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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