## Wavefront reconstruction without twin-image blurring by two arbitrary step digital holograms

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 18, pp. 11601-11607 (2007)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.011601

Acrobat PDF (1994 KB)

### Abstract

This work discusses a novel approach for numerical wavefront reconstruction, which utilizes arbitrary phase step digital holography. The experimental results reveal that only two digital holograms and a simple estimation procedure are required for twin-image suppression, and for numerical reconstruction. One advantage of this approach is its simplicity. Only one estimate equation needs to be applied. Additionally, the optical system can be constructed from inexpensive, generally available elements. Another advantage is the effectiveness of the approach. The tolerance of the estimated value is less than 1% of the actual value, such that the quality of the reconstructed image is excellent. This novel approach should facilitate the application of digital holography and promote its use.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

1. D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature **161**, 777–778 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2. T. Yamaguchi and Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. **22**, 1268–1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. G. D. Lassahn, J. K. Lassahn, P. L. Taylor, and V. A. Deason, “Multiphase fringe analysis with unknown phase shifts,” Opt. Eng. **33**, 2039–2044 (1994). [CrossRef]

11. X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, “Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption,” Opt. Lett. **31**, 1414–1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Principle

*Ψ*denotes the object wave in the object plane;

_{Obj}*Ψ*denotes the object wave to be detected and recorded on the holographic plane; ℑ denotes the Fourier transform; ℑ

_{O}^{-1}denotes the inverse Fourier transform, and

*h*(

*x,y;z*) denotes the impulse response function of

_{1}*z*, which is the distance between the object and the holographic plane.

_{1}*Ψ*in Eq. (2) denotes the reference wave [12]. The intensity of the sum of the two waves is given by Eq. (3), which describes the first hologram.

_{R}*Δφ*is added in the optical path. The intensity of the arbitrary phase step hologram, which is the second hologram, can now be written as,

*Δφ*must be estimated for twin-image suppression and numerical reconstruction. Accordingly, first assume that the operation is an off-axis holographic scheme, and then begin to analyze the acquired holograms. Equations (3) and (4) reveal that the difference between these two holograms is given only by the retarded phase

*Δφ*. If this information can be separated from these two holograms, then the twin-images can be suppressed. Then, we considered about the Fourier spectrum of the hologram. Suppose in the off-axis holographic scheme, that the spectra of the terms in the hologram, given by Eq. (3), appear well-separated and can be considered independently, because the locations of distribution of the spectra in the holograms differ completely. Therefore, the linearity theorem can be applied to the Fourier transform of hologram

*I*and rewritten as Eq. (5). A similar idea can be applied to the second hologram

_{H1}*I*. Now, the arbitrary phase information can be separated from the division of Fourier transform.

_{H2}*a*

^{2}

_{o}+

*a*

^{2}

_{r}) of the two holograms have the same location of distribution, while the distribution of the Fourier spectra of the other parts of the holograms (including

*ψ**

_{O}ψ_{R}and

*ψ**

_{O}*ψ*, given by 2

_{R}*a*cos(

_{o}a_{r}*φ*)) appear to be of the same character. Therefore, we suggest that the spectra of each parts of the hologram in the divisional operation can be regarded as independent of those of other parts. The following information about the arbitrary phase can be inferred;

_{o}-φ_{r}## 3. Experimental setup and results

*mW*and a wavelength of 632.8

*nm*was used as the light source. Two λ/2-retarded wave-plates and a polarized beam-splitter were used to adjust the ratio of the intensity of the object wave to that of the reference wave. The two waves were collimated using spatial filters and lenses. A translation stage was adopted to add a retarded phase to the reference wave in the optical path. The hologram was recorded using a CCD sensor (Pixera-150SS CCD camera, 1040×1392 pixels, 0.484

*cm*×0.65

*cm*). A Newport resolution target (RES-1) was used as the object. It was placed at a distance of

*z*=9.60

_{1}*cm*away from the CCD.

*mm*, which is the minimum precision of the translation stage. Only the phase of the reference wave was assumed to change after the translation stage was applied. Restated, the wavefront of the reference wave, typically a plane wave, is quite similar to those of the first acquired hologram. An estimated value of

*Δφ*was obtained by summing all elements in a 5×5 array in the center area according to Eq. (8). The retardation of the phase in the exact center of the calculated array was

*Δφ*=1.4150

*rad*. In fact, the estimated phase in the central area would be obtainable from a narrower area if the whole retarded phase in the recording procedure were to more uniform and precise. In the subsequent digital reconstruction, the zero-order image was suppressed using the numerical suppression approach, as described by formulated in Eqs. (9) and (10) [13

13. G. L. Chen, C. Y. Lin, M. K. Kuo, and C. C. Chang, “Numerical suppression of zero-order image in digital holography,” Opt. Express **15**, 8851–8856 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ψ*|

_{R}^{2}is the intensity of the reference wave, and the distribution of the intensity is generally uniform. A uniform intensity can be subtracted by numerical operation for zero-order image suppression. Finally, after the operation of conjugate term suppressing and convolution with the impulse response through distance

*z*, only the object wave is determined; see Eq. (11) [6

_{1}6. C. S. Guo, L. Zhang, H. T. Wang, J. Liao, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Phase-shifting error and its elimination in phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. **27**, 1687–1689 (2002). [CrossRef]

*d*of the fringes with

*d*=

*λ*/sin(

*θ*)) The fringe of the second hologram appears to be similar characteristic of off-axis geometry, as shown in Fig. 2(c). Also, the interference pattern in the second hologram appears to be similar, except for the addition of the retarded phase that caused the shift. Figures 2(b) and 2(d) present the Fourier spectra of Figs. 2(a) and 2(c), respectively. The difference between Figs. 2(b) and 2(d) seems not to be observed but the spectral images reveal that the well-separated areas of the Fourier spectra of the two acquired holograms are the same. Therefore the Fourier spectra of the various parts of the hologram can be regarded as independent in divisional operation. Additionally, the numerical reconstructed image in Fig. 2(a), which is presented in Fig. 2(e), indicates that blurring remains upon reconstruction of the traditional off-axis configuration. To suppress the blurring, the angle between the object wave and the reference wave exceed 2.89° in the traditional off-axis configuration when the reconstruction distance is 9.6

*cm*. (The approach is described in “Numerical reconstruction and twin-image suppression using an off-axis Fresnel digital hologram,” currently being reviewed in Applied Physics B.) Therefore, the spacing between of fringe is less than 12

*µm*, which limits the maximum spatial frequency which can be recorded on a CCD sensor, causing loss of complete hologram information in the recording procedure. However, the clear reconstructed image shown in Fig. 2(f) was obtained only after carrying out the numerical suppression and propagation through distance

*z*according to Eqs (9), (10) and (11), respectively. (Equation (11) in particular would fails at

_{1}*Δφ*=±

*π*. [13

13. G. L. Chen, C. Y. Lin, M. K. Kuo, and C. C. Chang, “Numerical suppression of zero-order image in digital holography,” Opt. Express **15**, 8851–8856 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*µm*(Group 5 number 4; a detail image is shown in Fig. 2(h).) would be sustained to enhance the practicality in the digital holography applications.

## 4. Performance investigation and discussion

*Δφ*to the reference wave. An estimated value for the two simulated holograms was then calculated, using Eq. (7), by summing the elements of a 3×3 array in the central area. The horizontal axis in Fig. (3) represents the added phase from 0 to 2

*π rad*. The cosine of the added phase can be used to check the tolerance of the estimate obtained from Eq. (7). The results reveal that the estimates and the cosine of the added phase were very close, indicating that the estimation is satisfactory and effective, although cos(

*Δφ*) equals both cos(2

*π-Δφ*) and cos(-

*Δφ*). The exact value of the step phase from the actual reconstruction procedure must be obtained.

*φ*)-cos(

_{o}-φ_{r}-Δφ*φ*)] in Appendix A can’t seem to satisfy general condition except for the small adding phase. In fact, the phase terms include the object and the reference fields as well as the arbitrary added phase. Also, the phase terms of the object and the reference fields vary in two-dimensional coordinates. Therefore, specific values of the phase term cannot be suited. Accordingly, we suggest that the ignored terms should be associated with two phase shifting holograms of zero-order term removed of unit amplitude. In fact, the difference between the two phase shifting holograms is very small, such that subtraction leaves information on the shifting phase only and can be neglected. Furthermore, Fig. 3 in this work that the approximation is feasible even though the added phase

_{o}-φ_{r}+Δφ*Δφ*is almost as large as 2

*π*, and the method of estimation is still effective.

## 5. Conclusions

## Appendix

## Acknowledgments

## References and Links

1. | D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature |

2. | T. Yamaguchi and Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. |

3. | G. D. Lassahn, J. K. Lassahn, P. L. Taylor, and V. A. Deason, “Multiphase fringe analysis with unknown phase shifts,” Opt. Eng. |

4. | G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, “Phase-stepping interferometry: five-frame algorithm with an arbitrary step,” Opt. Laser Eng. |

5. | X. Chen, M. Gramaglia, and J. A. Yeazell, “Phase-shifting interferometry with uncalibrated phase shifts,” Appl. Opt. |

6. | C. S. Guo, L. Zhang, H. T. Wang, J. Liao, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Phase-shifting error and its elimination in phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. |

7. | L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, “Phase-shift extraction and wave-front reconstruction in phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary phase steps,” Opt. Lett. |

8. | L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, “Generalized phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary unknown phase steps for diffraction objects,” Opt. Lett. |

9. | L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, “Simultaneous digital correction of amplitude and phase errors of retrieved wave-front in phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary phase shift errors,” Opt. Commun. |

10. | S. Zhang, “A non-iterative method for phase-shift estimation and wave-front reconstruction in phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Commun. |

11. | X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, “Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | J. W. Goodman, |

13. | G. L. Chen, C. Y. Lin, M. K. Kuo, and C. C. Chang, “Numerical suppression of zero-order image in digital holography,” Opt. Express |

14. | P. Guo and A. J. Devaney, “Digital microscopy using phase-shifting digital holography with two reference waves,” Opt. Lett. |

**OCIS Codes**

(090.0090) Holography : Holography

(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques

(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval

**ToC Category:**

Image Processing

**History**

Original Manuscript: June 28, 2007

Revised Manuscript: August 14, 2007

Manuscript Accepted: August 16, 2007

Published: August 28, 2007

**Citation**

Gu L. Chen, Ching Yang Lin, Hon Fai Yau, Ming Kuei Kuo, and Chi Ching Chang, "Wave-front reconstruction without twin-image blurring by two arbitrary step digital holograms," Opt. Express **15**, 11601-11607 (2007)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11601

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### References

- D. Gabor, "A new microscopic principle," Nature 161, 777-778 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, "Phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1268-1270 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. D. Lassahn, J. K. Lassahn, P. L. Taylor and V. A. Deason, "Multiphase fringe analysis with unknown phase shifts," Opt. Eng. 33, 2039-2044 (1994). [CrossRef]
- G. Stoilov and T. Dragostinov, "Phase-stepping interferometry: five-frame algorithm with an arbitrary step," Opt. Lasers Eng. 28, 61-69 (1997). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, M. Gramaglia, and J. A. Yeazell, "Phase-shifting interferometry with uncalibrated phase shifts," Appl. Opt. 39, 585-591 (2000). [CrossRef]
- C. S. Guo, L. Zhang, H. T. Wang, J. Liao, and Y. Y. Zhu, "Phase-shifting error and its elimination in phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1687-1689 (2002). [CrossRef]
- L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, "Phase-shift extraction and wave-front reconstruction in phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary phase steps," Opt. Lett. 28, 1808-1810 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, "Generalized phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary unknown phase steps for diffraction objects," Opt. Lett. 29, 183-185 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. Z. Cai, Q. Liu, and X. L. Yang, "Simultaneous digital correction of amplitude and phase errors of retrieved wave-front in phase-shifting interferometry with arbitrary phase shift errors," Opt. Commun. 233, 21-26 (2004). [CrossRef]
- S. Zhang, "A non-iterative method for phase-shift estimation and wave-front reconstruction in phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Commun. 268, 231-234 (2006). [CrossRef]
- X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, X. F. Xu, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, G. Y. Dong, and Y. R. Wang, "Two-step phase-shifting interferometry and its application in image encryption," Opt. Lett. 31, 1414-1416 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1996).
- G. L. Chen, C. Y. Lin, M. K. Kuo, and C. C. Chang, "Numerical suppression of zero-order image in digital holography," Opt. Express 15, 8851-8856 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Guo and A. J. Devaney, "Digital microscopy using phase-shifting digital holography with two reference waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 857-859 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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