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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 22 — Oct. 29, 2007
  • pp: 14476–14481
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4W continuous-wave narrow-linewidth tunable solid-state laser source at 546 nm by externally frequency doubling a ytterbium-doped single-mode fiber laser system

Frank Markert, Martin Scheid, Daniel Kolbe, and Jochen Walz  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 22, pp. 14476-14481 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.014476


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Abstract

A high-power continuous-wave coherent light source at 545.5nm is described. We use 8.3W from a solid-state ytterbium-doped single-mode fiber oscillator/amplifier system as input into an external frequency doubling stage. This system produces up to 4.1 W of stable green single-frequency laser radiation. We characterize the light source by performing absorption spectroscopy on iodine across the full tuning range of the fiber laser and saturation spectroscopy on one strong iodine line of the doppler-broadened spectrum.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Since their invention in 1962 [1

1. H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, and R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium-activated silica glass,” Appl. Opt. 1, 534–536 (1962). [CrossRef]

], ytterbium-doped fiber lasers have become powerful tools. A three-level transition of Yb3+ lases at 974 nm, and a four-level transition enables tunable operation between 1010nm and 1162nm [2

2. D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, and A. C. Tropper, “An ytterbium-doped monomode fibre laser: broadly tunable operation from 1.010μm to 1.162μm and three-level operation at 974 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 517–525 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. Continuous-wave powers of 1.36kW [3

3. Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and pulsed peak powers of 175kW [4

4. Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang, “Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 724–726 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been demonstrated. Pulses as short as 36 fs have been produced [5

5. F. Ö. Ilday, J. Buckley, L. Kuznetsova, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 36-femtosecond pulses from a ytterbium fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 3550–3554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. One important application of ytterbium fiber lasers in the infrared at 1083nm is to produce hyperpolarized 3He by optical exchange pumping [6

6. G. Tastevin, S. Grot, E. Courtade, S. Bordais, and P.-J. Nacher, “A broadband ytterbium-doped tunable fiber laser for 3He optical pumping at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 145–156 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. S. Bordais, S. Grot, Y. Jaouén, P. Besnard, and M. Le Flohic, “Double-clad 10-W Yb3+-doped fiber master oscillator power fiber amplifier for 3He optical pumping,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2168–2174 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. M. Batz, S. Baeßler, W. Heil, E. W. Otten, D. Rudersdorf, J. Schmiedeskamp, Y. Sobolev, and M. Wolf, “3He Spin Filter for Neutrons,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 110, 293–298 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Laser radiation from fiber lasers can also be converted to the visible or even the ultraviolet region by frequency doubling and frequency quadrupling, respectively [9

9. A. Friedenauer, F. Markert, H. Schmitz, L. Petersen, S. Kahra, M. Herrmann, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Schätz, “High power all solid state laser system near 280 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 371–373 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Using a periodically-poled MgO crystal, a continuous-wave ytterbium fiber laser has been frequency doubled to do sub-doppler spectroscopy on molecular iodine, measuring the absolute frequency of the hyperfine components of a line at 514.7nm [10

10. J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fibre laser,” Metrologia 43, 294–298 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Sub-doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine has also been done at 541nm with a laser system based on a diode laser, that was amplified by a ytterbium fiber amplifier and frequency doubled by a periodically-poled KTiOPO4 crystal [11

11. P. Cancio Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we describe a high-power laser system at 545.5nm based on a high-power ytterbium fiber laser system with external frequency doubling. This system has been developed for a continuous-wave Lyman-α source which is based on four-wave sum-frequency mixing of laser-beams at 254 nm, 408 nm, and 546nm wavelength in mercury vapor [12

12. K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous Coherent Lyman-α Excitation of Atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A next-generation Lyman-α source will be based on high-power solid-state laser systems, and a 750mW system at 253.7nm has been described already [13

13. M. Scheid, F. Markert, J. Walz, J. Wang, M. Kirchner, and T. W. Hänsch, “750 mW continuous-wave solid-state deep ultraviolet laser source at the 253.7 nm transition in mercury,” Opt. Lett. 32, 955–957 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The laser source and the frequency doubling setup are described in section 2, in which we emphasize details that are important for obtaining stable high output powers and high conversion efficiencies. In section 3 we present absorption and sub-doppler spectroscopy on molecular iodine.

2. The setup

Figure 1 shows a diagram of both, the laser system and the iodine spectroscopy setup. The laser consists of three components. The first, a ytterbium-doped fiber oscillator (Koheras Adjustic Model RTAdY10PztS), generates an output power up to 127mW with a linewidth of 60 kHz. It is tunable from 1090.81nm to 1091.19nm by changing the temperature of the lasing fiber. For fast modulation it is tunable for an additional 8.4 GHz by applying a voltage to a piezo that stretches the fiber. The second component, a ytterbium-doped preamplifier (Koheras Boostik Model BoY10Amp), compensates for losses introduced after the oscillator. The third component a ytterbium-doped high-power amplifier (Koheras Boostik Model BoY10Amp), boosts light from a minimum input power of 90mW to a maximum of 9.3W. All three fiber laser components use single mode fibers. The frequency doubling stage is a modified commercial setup (Spectra-Physics WaveTrain [14

14. E. Zanger, R. Müller, B. Liu, and W. Gries, “Diode-pumped industrial high-power cw all solid-state laser at 266 nm,” SPIE 3862, 255–261 (1999). [CrossRef]

]) stabilized by the Pound-Drever-Hall locking technique [15

15. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983). [CrossRef]

]. The resonator consists of a Brewster-cut lithium triborate (LBO) crystal, a curved incoupling mirror M1, a curved outcoupling mirror M2, and a fused silica prism mounted onto a piezo. The whole resonator is assembled inside an aluminum housing with windows for the laser beams. It can be covered by a lid and is then sealed against dust and convection. In addition that housing attenuates acoustical disturbances and external thermal fluctuations. The crystal is type I phase matched by angle tuning. Its temperature is held constant at 308K using a peltier element placed beneath the crystal that stabilizes the temperature-dependent phase matching angle and prevents condensation of atmospheric water vapor on its surfaces. The prism, which is also used at Brewster’s angle, serves two purposes: to redirect the fundamental beam reflected from the outcoupling mirror onto the incoupling mirror, thereby closing the ring cavity, and to scan and stabilize the cavity. This triangular resonator design [14

14. E. Zanger, R. Müller, B. Liu, and W. Gries, “Diode-pumped industrial high-power cw all solid-state laser at 266 nm,” SPIE 3862, 255–261 (1999). [CrossRef]

] makes it possible to construct, in contrast to the common bow-tie design for frequency doubling resonators [16

16. T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, “On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 199, 435–446 (2001). [CrossRef]

], a rather small cavity with a short optical roundtrip path length of < 20 cm. A short cavity leads to additional intrinsic locking stability for two reasons. First, a short path length makes the cavity alignment less susceptible to beam pointing due to disturbances of the optical elements. Second, the cavity linewidth is larger for a shorter cavity at the same finesse. This makes locking the cavity to the fundamental wavelength less sensitive to changes of the effective cavity length caused by vibrations of cavity elements. In our setup, the ellipticity of the frequency doubled beam is 0.8. The beam is collimated by a single 155mm lens CL. From the maximum fiber laser output power of 9.3W, 8.3W remain after the faraday isolator. Using this fundamental radiation as input into the cavity, an output power of 4.1W at 545.5nm is produced.

Fig. 1. Experimental setup. WM, wavelength meter; FC, fiber collimator; λ/4, λ/2, wave plates; PBC, NPBC, polarizing and non-polarizing beam splitter cubes; BD, beam dump; PM, phase modulator; PD, PD-I, PD-N, PD-S, photodiodes; FI, faraday isolator; ML, mode matching lens; BS, beam shifter; FS, fused silica window; L, CL, lenses; ES, unit for error signal detection; M1, M2, cavity mirrors; LBO, lithium triborate crystal; P, prism; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; ND, neutral density filter; C, chopper; A, aperture. Part (a) is used to normalize the absorption-spectroscopy signal, and part (b) is used for doppler-free saturation spectroscoy.

The commercial frequency doubling system is not designed for multi-watt input power levels. For this reason and also to reach optimum conversion efficiencies, we modified the commercial system. Components, that are part of the original WaveTrain package, are marked with an asterisk in Fig. 1. The infrared input power is higher than the damage threshold of the phase modulator used for generating the sidebands for the error signal. The phase modulator is therefore inserted between the fiber oscillator and the fiber power amplifiers. For precise adjustment, we placed the first mode matching lens on a linear translation stage, as the second lens is. The second lens is slightly tilted (7.5°) to adjust the incoming beam to the ellipticity of the beam inside the cavity. Since the error signal detection unit ES would be damaged by our high input power, only the fraction of the beam reflected by the incoupling mirror that is also reflected by an additional fused silica window is directed onto this unit. The transmitted part of the beam is sent onto a beam dump. Some of the stray light is detected by an additional photodiode in order to monitor the incoupling efficiency into the cavity. For optimal phase matching and thereby maximum output power of the cavity, the crystal angle φ has to be adjusted according to the input wavelength and crystal temperature. At low input powers, this can be done by removing the incoupling mirror from the cavity and adjusting the crystal angle in single pass, undisturbed by intensity changes of the enhanced fundamental light due to cavity alignment. After replacing the input coupler, the cavity mirrors should be aligned for the cavity mode to match the incoming beam. For high input powers, this method does not render optimal results but is used only to find a starting value for the crystal angle alignment. Due to linear absorption in the crystal the upper side of the crystal holder heats up from 304 K to 315K at maximum input power. While the crystal temperature rises, the second harmonic power drops from 4.3W to 1.3 W. To compensate for the higher temperature, the crystal is tilted to lower angles φ to accomplish optimal phase matching. We find that the resonator remains locked while the crystal angle is tuned if the cavity is realigned after each tuning step. Long-term stability at high powers requires permanent removal of the lid of the aluminum housing so that heat generated in the crystal is sufficiently transported away via convection.

Figure 2 shows the green output power as a function of the infrared input power. Measurements done with the crystal aligned for maximal single pass conversion efficiency are plotted as circles. Filled circles indicate stable output powers. Open circles show the harmonic power directly after locking the cavity at one particular input power. The arrows indicate the relaxation to stable output power levels after several minutes of locked cavity operation. Diamonds in Fig. 2 show stable high-power green output at full infrared input power, achieved by using the alignment procedure outlined above. The high-power output is stable for more than 45 minutes.

Fig. 2. Green output power Pgr at 545.5 nm as a function of the infrared input power Pir at 1091 nm.

3. Spectroscopy on iodine

Fig. 3. (a) Absorption spectrum of molecular iodine. (b) Doppler free spectrum of the line at 18334.8 cm-1

The radiation at 545.5nm is used for spectroscopy on iodine to demonstrate both, smooth tuning characteristics and single-frequency operation. The spectroscopy part of the setup is shown at the bottom of Fig. 1. We use a cell with a 49 cm column length of iodine vapor at a temperature of 269 K. The absorption signal is measured by photodiode PD-S. The wavelength of the fundamental beam is monitored by a commercial wavelength meter (HighFinesse WS7). The upper scan in Fig. 3 shows a part of the absorption spectrum of the X1g+B30u+ electronic transition in molecular iodine vapor [17

17. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molécule d’iode 14800 - 20000 cm-1 (Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, 1978). [PubMed]

]. This scan covers the full range of the fiber laser oscillator which involves temperature tuning from 293.0K to 323.7K. The doppler-broadened absorption data has been normalized by using the signal from photodiode PD-N. This removes distortions of the spectrum due to fluctuations of the green power. The modulation of the baseline that is left on the data is due to interferences in the windows of the iodine cell. Small arrows above the baseline in the plot mark where the cavity ran out of its tuning range and had to be relocked.

The lower part of Fig. 3 shows doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of the strong iodine line to the right of the doppler-broadened absorption spectrum in part (a). This line is number 4489 in the iodine atlas [17

17. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molécule d’iode 14800 - 20000 cm-1 (Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, 1978). [PubMed]

]. For this scan, the wavelength was tuned using the piezo of the fiber laser. Since the wavelength data from the wavelength meter showed unphysical steps below the specified accuracy of 27MHz at 1091nm, they were smoothed over five data points using binomial weighting. For saturation spectroscopy [18

18. P. W. Smith and T. W. Hänsch, “Cross-Relaxation Effects in the Saturation of the 6328-Å Neon-Laser Line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 740–743 (1971). [CrossRef]

], a chopped pump beam counter-propagating with respect to the probe beam is sent through the slightly inclined iodine cell. Two apertures in front of PD-S were used to block out pump light reflected by the window of the iodine cell. The measured signal is rectified using a lock-in amplifier. Figure 3(b) demonstrates that scanning with a frequency doubled high-power ytterbium fiber laser is possible. The linewidth of the laser radiation has not been measured directly in the work presented here. The manufacturer specifies a linewidth of 60kHz for the fiber laser emission, and we estimate the linewidth of the green light is twice as large.

4. Conclusion

High-power narrow-linewidth tunable green continuous-wave coherent radiation is produced by using a ytterbium fiber laser and a commercial frequency doubling system. We modified the ring frequency doubling cavity for high input powers and high conversion efficiencies. Stable output powers of 4.1W at 545.5nm are generated. Tuning and scanning of the generated radiation has been demonstrated by spectroscopy of molecular iodine. This laser system will enhance our fundamental input power for the generation of Lyman-α by four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury vapor.

References and links

1.

H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, and R. J. Ginther, “Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium-activated silica glass,” Appl. Opt. 1, 534–536 (1962). [CrossRef]

2.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, and A. C. Tropper, “An ytterbium-doped monomode fibre laser: broadly tunable operation from 1.010μm to 1.162μm and three-level operation at 974 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 517–525 (1990). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12, 6088–6092 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang, “Tunable high-peak-power, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29, 724–726 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. Buckley, L. Kuznetsova, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 36-femtosecond pulses from a ytterbium fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 3550–3554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

G. Tastevin, S. Grot, E. Courtade, S. Bordais, and P.-J. Nacher, “A broadband ytterbium-doped tunable fiber laser for 3He optical pumping at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 145–156 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Bordais, S. Grot, Y. Jaouén, P. Besnard, and M. Le Flohic, “Double-clad 10-W Yb3+-doped fiber master oscillator power fiber amplifier for 3He optical pumping,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2168–2174 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Batz, S. Baeßler, W. Heil, E. W. Otten, D. Rudersdorf, J. Schmiedeskamp, Y. Sobolev, and M. Wolf, “3He Spin Filter for Neutrons,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 110, 293–298 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Friedenauer, F. Markert, H. Schmitz, L. Petersen, S. Kahra, M. Herrmann, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Schätz, “High power all solid state laser system near 280 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 371–373 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, “Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fibre laser,” Metrologia 43, 294–298 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

P. Cancio Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000). [CrossRef]

12.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous Coherent Lyman-α Excitation of Atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679–5682 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Scheid, F. Markert, J. Walz, J. Wang, M. Kirchner, and T. W. Hänsch, “750 mW continuous-wave solid-state deep ultraviolet laser source at the 253.7 nm transition in mercury,” Opt. Lett. 32, 955–957 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

E. Zanger, R. Müller, B. Liu, and W. Gries, “Diode-pumped industrial high-power cw all solid-state laser at 266 nm,” SPIE 3862, 255–261 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, “On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 199, 435–446 (2001). [CrossRef]

17.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molécule d’iode 14800 - 20000 cm-1 (Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, 1978). [PubMed]

18.

P. W. Smith and T. W. Hänsch, “Cross-Relaxation Effects in the Saturation of the 6328-Å Neon-Laser Line,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 740–743 (1971). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.7300) Lasers and laser optics : Visible lasers
(190.7070) Nonlinear optics : Two-wave mixing
(300.6550) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, visible

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 12, 2007
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: September 12, 2007
Published: October 19, 2007

Citation
Frank Markert, Martin Scheid, Daniel Kolbe, and Jochen Walz, "4W continuous-wave narrow-linewidth tunable solid-state laser source at 546nm by externally frequency doubling a ytterbium-doped single-mode fiber laser system," Opt. Express 15, 14476-14481 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-22-14476


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References

  1. H. W. Etzel, H. W. Gandy, and R. J. Ginther, "Stimulated emission of infrared radiation from ytterbium-activated silica glass," Appl. Opt. 1, 534-536 (1962). [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, and A. C. Tropper, "An ytterbium-doped monomode fibre laser: broadly tunable operation from 1.010 μm to 1.162 μm and three-level operation at 974 nm," J. Mod. Opt. 37, 517-525 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Express 12, 6088-6092 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y.-X. Fan, F.-Y. Lu, S.-L. Hu, K.-C. Lu, H.-J. Wang, X.-Y. Dong, J.-L. He, and H.-T. Wang, " Tunable high-peakpower, high-energy hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 724-726 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F.  Ö. Ilday, J. Buckley, L. Kuznetsova, and F. W. Wise, "Generation of 36-femtosecond pulses from a ytterbium fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 3550-3554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Tastevin, S. Grot, E. Courtade, S. Bordais, and P.-J. Nacher, "A broadband ytterbium-doped tunable fiber laser for 3He optical pumping at 1083 nm," Appl. Phys. B 78, 145-156 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Bordais, S. Grot, Y. Jaouën, P. Besnard, and M. Le Flohic, "Double-clad 10-W Yb3+-doped fiber master oscillator power fiber amplifier for 3He optical pumping," Appl. Opt. 43, 2168-2174 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Batz, S. Baeßler, W. Heil, E. W. Otten, D. Rudersdorf, J. Schmiedeskamp, Y. Sobolev, and M. Wolf, "3He Spin Filter for Neutrons," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 110, 293-298 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Friedenauer, F. Markert, H. Schmitz, L. Petersen, S. Kahra, M. Herrmann, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, and T. Schätz, "High power all solid state laser system near 280 nm," Appl. Phys. B 84, 371-373 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. J.-P. Wallerand, L. Robertsson, L.-S. Ma, and M. Zucco, "Absolute frequency measurement of molecular iodine lines at 514.7 nm, interrogated by a frequency-doubled Yb-doped fibre laser," Metrologia 43, 294-298 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Cancio Pastor, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, "Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source," Opt. Commun. 176, 453-458 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hansch, "Continuous Coherent Lyman- α Excitation of Atomic Hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5679-5682 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Scheid, F. Markert, J. Walz, J. Wang, M. Kirchner, and T. W . Hänsch, "750mW continuous-wave solid-state deep ultraviolet laser source at the 253.7 nm transition in mercury," Opt. Lett. 32, 955-957 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Zanger, R. M¨uller, B. Liu, and W. Gries, "Diode-pumped industrial high-power cw all solid-state laser at 266 nm," SPIE 3862, 255-261 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical Resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Freegarde and C. Zimmermann, "On the design of enhancement cavities for second harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 199, 435-446 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode 14800 - 20000 cm-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, 1978). [PubMed]
  18. P. W. Smith and T. W. H¨ansch, "Cross-Relaxation Effects in the Saturation of the 6328-°A Neon-Laser Line," Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 740-743 (1971). [CrossRef]

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