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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 23 — Nov. 12, 2007
  • pp: 15242–15249
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Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires

I-Wei Hsieh, Xiaogang Chen, Xiaoping Liu, Jerry I. Dadap, Nicolae C. Panoiu, Cheng-Yun Chou, Fengnian Xia, William M. Green, Yurii A. Vlasov, and Richard M. Osgood, Jr.  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 23, pp. 15242-15249 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.015242


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Abstract

We observe spectral broadening of more than 350 nm, i.e., a 3/10-octave span, upon propagation of ultrashort 1.3-μm-wavelength optical pulses in a 4.7-mm-long silicon-photonic-wire waveguide. We measure the wavelength dependence of the spectral features and relate it to waveguide dispersion and input power. The spectral characteristics of the output pulses are shown to be consistent, in part, with higher-order soliton radiative effects.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Supercontinuum generation is a device functionality that has important applications in many areas of photonic integrated circuits [1

01. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For example, in the case of wavelength-division multiplexing applications, it is often beneficial to use a single broadband laser source, select out filter-specific wavelength channels, and then modulate these channels, instead of using a separate laser for each wavelength channel. Use of a single source with continuum generation reduces both the complexity of on- or off-chip multiple laser integration and its concomitant power dissipation. These are important considerations in telecommunication applications, such as optical transceivers, or in emerging on-chip optical networks for multi-processor chips. In addition, continuum generation is important in other non-communication applications. These include, for example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) where a low power Si supercontinuum source can enable measurement of axial features in a sample at optimum wavelengths, i.e., ~1.3 – 1.5 μm, [2

02. W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47–74 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for imaging in nontransparent biological tissues.

2. Experimental setup

Our experiments use single-mode Si-WWGs having a cross-section of A 0 = w×h = 520 × 220 nm2 and a length L = 4.7 mm, fabricated on Unibond SOI with a 1-μm-thick oxide layer and aligned along the [110] crystallographic direction. Each end of the waveguides has an inverse-taper mode-converter, which allows efficient coupling of light. The devices were fabricated using the CMOS production line at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center [13

13. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The laser source is an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) pumped by a regeneratively amplified Ti: Sapphire laser system. The OPA has a pulse repetition rate of 250 kHz and a pulse width of Tp ≈ 100 fs. It produces wavelengths, λ0, ranging from 1300 nm to 1600 nm with half-power bandwidths of ~30 nm. The pulse is coupled into the waveguide with a free-space objective. The polarization direction of the pump is chosen in such a way that the TE waveguide mode is efficiently excited. The output is collected by a tapered-fiber, and is characterized by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and power meter. Free-space coupling instead of tapered fiber coupling is employed to rule out SPM in the input fiber, but at the expense of a larger coupling loss, ~ 30 dB, between the lens and the waveguide. The coupled peak pump power is estimated to be 1 W. In addition, the propagation loss inside the waveguide has been characterized to be ~ 2.5 dB/cm. Note also that earlier measurements [13

13. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] show that the optical loss in the waveguides increases in going from 1.50 to 1.30 μm. For example, for the waveguide in Ref. [13

13. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], loss increased from 3.5 dB/cm at 1.50 μm to 6.8 dB/cm at 1.30 μm. Similarly, optical absorption in Si becomes significant at the short-wavelength limit of our measurements, i.e., at 1.1 μm the loss in undoped Si is ~10 dB/cm. Finally, note that our waveguide takes on an increasingly multimode character in going to shorter wavelengths, e.g., the second-order TE1 mode is cutoff at 1400 nm; this fact will make a propagation analysis somewhat more complex. However, since the input polarization is almost purely along the x-axis, this minimizes coupling into the TE1 mode that has a relative large Ey component relative to a TE0 mode.

3. Results

3.1 Dispersion properties of the silicon photonic wire

Since the dynamics of supercontinuum generation is strongly influenced by the linear dispersion properties of the photonic wire, it is necessary to have a complete description of the optical parameters that characterize the optical dispersion of the wire, viz. effective index n eff, group index n g, GVD coefficient, β 2, and third-order dispersion (TOD) coefficient, β 3. These quantities are defined as n g=β 1 c and βm = dm β 0/dωm, (where m= 1,2,3) where β 0 = n eff(ω)ω/c is the mode propagation constant and ω is the carrier frequency. We calculated n eff using the RSoft BeamPROP software [15

15. E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, 3853–3863 (2906). [CrossRef]

] based on a full vectorial beam propagation method, and the result was crosschecked with a finite-element method (FEM) calculation and experimental data. We then fit the values of n eff with a 7th -order polynomial and took numerical derivatives of this polynomial to obtain n g and β 2. The dispersion coefficients, up to the second order, that result from using this method agree with FEM calculations results to within 0.1%; good agreement with experimental results is also observed [15

15. E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, 3853–3863 (2906). [CrossRef]

]. Notice that for most of the wavelength range used in our experiments, our waveguide exhibits anomalous dispersion (β 2 < 0). In addition, as illustrated in Fig. 1, our numerical calculations show that β 3 > 0 (β 3 < 0) for λ < 1730 nm (λ > 1730 nm). With regard to the calculation of β 3, this is less straightforward than for the lower-dispersion coefficients because the numerical errors accrued at each step, at which we calculate the derivative, prevent a rigorous determination of these numerical derivatives beyond the second order; see Ref. [18

18. I. -W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 12380–12387 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for a more complete discussion of this point. We have recently developed a new procedure for experimentally measuring the TOD by using the properties of TOD-induced soliton-emitted radiation [18

18. I. -W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 12380–12387 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In our case, we used the results of this measurement to obtain β 3 for the waveguide used here.

Fig. 1. Wavelength dependence of the second-order dispersion of the test waveguide used in the experiment. For the wavelengths considered, the waveguide exhibits anomalous dispersion from 1290 nm to 1800 nm.

3.2 Nonlinearity-induced phase shift

Figure 2(a) shows the dependence of the output spectrum as a function of the in-coupled peak pump power at pump center wavelength of λ0 = 1310 nm. At the lowest observable pump power of P 0 ~ 10 mW, the spectral width is ~80 nm. As the pump power increases the spectral width increases until at the highest power, 1 W, the spectral width has increased to more than 350 nm. Recall, as mentioned above, that the spectral width is determined from the intersection of the signal with the noise level of our OSA. This is a significant degree of spectral broadening, i.e., 3/10 of an octave, particularly since the pump pulse has propagated only 4.7 mm in the wire waveguide. For comparison, with current technology, a pulse with an optical intensity of 1 GW/cm2 needs to propagate several meters in photonic crystal fibers to achieve a comparable level of spectral broadening. Furthermore, the data presented in Fig. 2(a) show that, as a result of increased nonlinear interaction, several spectral peaks develop at high optical powers. The relevant nonlinear optical effects for the supercontinuum generation include cascaded self-phase modulation, TOD-induced soliton radiation, and soliton fission [1

01. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

,21

21. L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 391–393 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A more detailed discussion on the nonlinear processes leading to supercontinuum generation in Si-WWGs, as well as the exact origin of the spectral features seen in Fig. 2(a) will be presented in a following section.

Fig 2. (a). Pump power dependence of the output spectra. At P0 ≈ 1 W, a spectral broadening of 350 nm can be observed. (b). Dependence of spectral width as a function of coupled peak power.

3.3 Wavelength dependence of supercontinuum generation

Fig. 3. Supercontinuum generation for several input central wavelengths at P 0 ≈ 1W. The OSA limit is 1700 nm. The inset shows that the spectral broadening increases as λ0 approaches the ZGVD wavelength of 1290 nm.

4. Discussion

The origin of continuum or supercontinuum radiation in guided-wave structures has been previously investigated by many groups. Generally speaking, the strong spectral broadening observed in the process of generation of white-light (supercontinuum radiation) is attributable to the onset of (cascaded) nonlinear effects, with the particular details of the evolution from the input-pulse to the output-pulse spectrum being strongly dependent on the specific pulse parameters such as pulse width, pulse peak power, pulse chirp, carrier frequency, as well as the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the corresponding optical medium [1

01. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In order to increase the efficiency of the supercontinuum-generation process, input pulses are launched near the ZGVD point so that the optical dispersion is small and thus minimizing temporal pulse broadening, which reduces the strength of the nonlinear effects. In this connection, depending on the dispersion properties of the optical medium, namely the sign of the GVD coefficient β 2, two different scenarios can be identified. In the first case, when the pulse propagates in the normal dispersion regime, i.e., β 2 > 0, the main nonlinear processes that contribute to the supercontinuum radiation are four-wave mixing (FWM), intra-pulse Raman scattering, and, to a smaller extent, SPM and modulation instability (MI). However, in this normal dispersion regime, FWM processes have small efficiency [9

09. A. Demircan and U. Bandelow, “Analysis of the interplay between soliton fission and modulation instability in supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 31–39 (2007). [CrossRef]

] due to the poor phase-matching characteristics and become even less efficient as the peak power increases. In addition, if femtosecond pulses are used, as is the case in this work, the Raman interaction in Si is rather weak, as the Raman response time in Si is in the range of a few picoseconds. Moreover, Raman Stokes frequency shift in silicon (~15.6 THz) is much larger spontaneous Raman spectrum width (~105 GHz), and thus the intra-pulse Raman scattering can normally be ignored. As a result, spectral broadening of pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime is expected to be small. By contrast, for pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime, β 2 < 0, both FWM and MI can be strongly phase matched, and thus both nonlinear optical processes become efficient in generating new optical frequencies.

In addition, a different effect that contributes to the pulse spectral broadening, which can be dominant in the initial stages of the generation of the supercontinuum radiation, is the higher-order-soliton fission [22–27

22. Y. S. Kivshar and B. A. Malomed, “Dynamics of solitons in nearly integrable systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 763–916 (1989). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, under the influence of perturbative effects such as finite-time response and frequency dispersion of the optical nonlinearity, as well as higher-order linear dispersion, the initial pulse splits into a series of solitons, the frequency shift of each soliton, as well as the dependence of this frequency shift on the propagation distance, being strongly dependent on the optical power contained in each soliton [22

22. Y. S. Kivshar and B. A. Malomed, “Dynamics of solitons in nearly integrable systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 763–916 (1989). [CrossRef]

]. Through this mechanism, an incipient spectral broadening builds up. Furthermore, solitons generated in this initial stage emit radiation at frequencies at which the soliton and the cw wavevectors are in resonance [24

24. P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, Y. C. Lee, and H. H. Chen, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in the neighborhood of the zero-dispersion wavelength of monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11, 464–466 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602–2607 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], contributing to a further increase in the spectral broadening. Finally, FWM processes between the newly formed single solitons and the corresponding soliton-generated spectral components become phase-matched [4

04. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901–203904 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

05. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901–173904 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], leading to the generation of additional spectral components.

In addition in our experiment, the spectral broadening due to soliton-induced emission of radiation is inherently limited since the radiation peak is generated towards the blue side of the spectrum, near the absorption band of Si. This drawback can be easily overcome by tuning the dispersion of the Si-WWG. Thus, through proper design of the waveguide geometry, the dispersion curve can be shifted towards lower wavelengths, such that its β 3<0 section is brought near 1550 nm. As a result, the soliton-emitted radiation peak will be generated within the red side of the spectrum, and therefore a much broader spectrum can be obtained. As an additional advantage, this spectral region is characterized by reduced two-photon absorption, which translates to a weak suppression of the nonlinear interactions. In summary, while a more extensive study is required for a clear interpretation of the observed results and for assessing the importance of other known nonlinear optical processes in Si wires, such as modulation instability [28

28. N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, and R. M. Osgood, “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3609–3611 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], it is apparent that soliton effects, as recently observed in Si wires [18

18. I. -W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 12380–12387 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and previously known to be important in fiber optics [4

04. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901–203904 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

05. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901–173904 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

07. K. M. Hilligsoe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, “Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1887–1893 (2003). [CrossRef]

,9

09. A. Demircan and U. Bandelow, “Analysis of the interplay between soliton fission and modulation instability in supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 31–39 (2007). [CrossRef]

,24–27

24. P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, Y. C. Lee, and H. H. Chen, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in the neighborhood of the zero-dispersion wavelength of monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11, 464–466 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], can serve as the source of significant spectral broadening.

5. Conclusions

In this experimental study of supercontinuum generation in Si-WWG, we demonstrate a more than 3/10 octave broadening of the output spectrum with a peak coupled-input-power of 1 W and a short propagation distance of 4.7 mm. This degree of broadening is reached prior to the onset of optical limiting of the spectral broadening due to two-photon absorption. Our analysis is consistent with the importance of soliton fission in forming the supercontinuum radiation in our Si-WWGs. The measured wavelength response of our continuum spectra also suggests that proper dispersion engineering of waveguide geometry can be used to extend the supercontinuum generation into a longer wavelength region than shown here.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the DoD STTR, Contract No. FA9550-05-C-1954, and by the AFOSR Grant FA9550-05-1-0428. The IBM part of this work as supported by Grant No. N00014-07-C-0105 ONR/DARPA.

References and Links

01.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

02.

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47–74 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

03.

P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, “Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712–1715 (1987). [CrossRef]

04.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901–203904 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

05.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901–173904 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

06.

A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 924–926 (2002). [CrossRef]

07.

K. M. Hilligsoe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, “Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1887–1893 (2003). [CrossRef]

08.

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 299–309 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

09.

A. Demircan and U. Bandelow, “Analysis of the interplay between soliton fission and modulation instability in supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 31–39 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

M. A. Foster, J. M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 363–367 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Octave-level spectral broadening in RPE PPLN Waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuK2.

12.

Ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, “All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4094–4102 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160–170 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, 3853–3863 (2906). [CrossRef]

16.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 12949–12958 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, 5524–5534 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

I. -W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 12380–12387 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

I. -W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15, 1135–1146 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 18, 2617–2619 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 391–393 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

Y. S. Kivshar and B. A. Malomed, “Dynamics of solitons in nearly integrable systems,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 763–916 (1989). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. Kodama and A. Hasegawa, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a monomode dielectric guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 510–524 (1987). [CrossRef]

24.

P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, Y. C. Lee, and H. H. Chen, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in the neighborhood of the zero-dispersion wavelength of monomode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11, 464–466 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602–2607 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

J. N. Elgin, T. Brabec, and S. M. J. Kelly, “A perturbative theory of soliton propagation in the presence of third order dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 114, 321–328 (1995). [CrossRef]

27.

N. C. Panoiu, D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, I. V. Melnikov, J. S. Aitchison, F. Lederer, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Dynamics of dual-frequency solitons under the influence of frequency-sliding filters, third-order dispersion, and intrapulse Raman scattering” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 885–892 (2004). [CrossRef]

28.

N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, and R. M. Osgood, “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3609–3611 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: September 5, 2007
Revised Manuscript: October 25, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: October 31, 2007
Published: November 2, 2007

Citation
I-Wei Hsieh, Xiaogang Chen, Xiaoping Liu, Jerry I. Dadap, Nicolae C. Panoiu, Cheng-Yun Chou, Fengnian Xia, William M. Green, Yurii A. Vlasov, and Richard M. Osgood, "Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 15242-15249 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15242


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References

  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, "Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712-1715 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, ‘‘Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,’’ Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901-203904 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, ‘‘Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,’’ Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-173904 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. L. Gaeta, ‘‘Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers,’’ Opt. Lett. 27, 924-926 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. K. M. Hilligsoe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thogersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, "Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1887- 1893 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Demircan and U. Bandelow, "Analysis of the interplay between soliton fission and modulation instability in supercontinuum generation," Appl. Phys. B 86, 31-39 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Foster, J. M. Dudley, B. Kibler, Q. Cao, D. Lee, R. Trebino, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation," Appl. Phys. B 81, 363-367 (2005). [CrossRef]
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