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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 24 — Nov. 26, 2007
  • pp: 15812–15817
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Optical coding scheme using optical interconnection for high sampling rate and high resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion

Takashi Nishitani, Tsuyoshi Konishi, and Kazuyoshi Itoh  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 24, pp. 15812-15817 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.015812


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Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an optical coding scheme using optical interconnection for a photonic analog-to-digital conversion. It allows us to convert a multi-power level signal into a multiple-bit binary code so as to detect it in a bit-parallel format by binary photodiode array. The proposed optical coding is executed after optical quantization using self-frequency shift. Optical interconnection based on a binary conversion table generates a multiple-bit binary code by appropriate allocation of a level identification signal which is provided as a result of optical quantization. Experimental results show that 8-levels analog pulses are converted into 3-bit parallel binary codes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) has been investigated as a key interface technology to convert an analog signal into a digital one which is manageable for digital signal processing, transmission, storage, and so on. In recent high-speed applications of an ADC such as ultra wideband signal measurements and high bit rate optical communications, the target analog signals are transient ones with an ultra wide bandwidth. To convert these wideband analog signals into digital ones, a high sampling rate and high resolution ADC is indispensable. Although a 24-Gsps 3-bit electrical ADC has been proposed [1

1. H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, K. Sano, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, and M. Muraguchi, “A 24-Gsps 3-bit nyquist ADC using HBTs for DSP-based electronic dispersion compensation,” IEICE Trans. on Electron. E88-C, 1225–1232 (2005). [CrossRef]

], there is a tradeoff between sampling rate and resolution due to electrical jitter of the sampling aperture and ambiguity of the comparator [2

2. Robert H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17, 539–550 (1999) [CrossRef]

3

3. George C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15, 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To break through these electrical limitations, photonic ADC has attracted much attention recently [3

3. George C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15, 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. B. L. Shoop : Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

] because it can make full use of the characteristics of optical sampling pulse such as short duration time and low jitter [3

3. George C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15, 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In general, an ADC consists of three procedures; sampling, quantization, and coding. The optical sampling techniques have been proposed and realized [5

5. Jie Li, Mathias Westlund, Henrik Sunnerud, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Magnus Karlsson, and Peter A. Andrekson, “0.5-Tb/s Eye-Diagram Measurement by Optical Sampling Using XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566–568 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In most of the optical sampling techniques, optical sampling pulses retrieve powers of an input analog signal at overlapped timing between an analog signal and sampling pulses. The analog sampled signals are detected by a high speed and high resolution photodiode (PD) and fed to an electronic ADC for quantization and coding. Since, however, conventional PDs have transient responses in the case of wideband signal inputs, one analog sampled signal spills over into the next. This characteristic of a PD causes power changes of analog sampled signals and limitations of the sampling rate and resolution. In addition, the bandwidth limitations of electrical signal processing cannot be negligible in high sampling rate applications. These problems suggest that optical replacement in quantization and coding is one promising approaches [6

6. H. F. Taylor, “An electro-optic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1524–1525 (1975). [CrossRef]

13

13. J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Demonstration and analysis of a 40 gigasample/s interferometric analog-to-digital converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1247–1256 (2004). [CrossRef]

] to solve the power tolerance issue and remove electrical bandwidth limitations. Previously, we have been proposed optical quantization using self-frequency shift in a fiber and optical coding using a pulse-shaping technique [9

9. T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asano, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2817–2823 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The optical quantization using self-frequency shift realizes a high throughput operation without any electrical bandwidth limitations. On the other hand, because optical coding using a pulse-shaping technique enables to output a multiple-bit binary code in a bit-serial format at a high chip rate over 600 Gchip/s to a single output port [12

12. T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, “Integration of a Proposed All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter using Self-Frequency Shifting in Fiber and a Pulse-Shaping Technique,” Opt. Rev. 12, 237–241 (2005). [CrossRef]

], it is suitable for an all-optical format converter in high-bit rate optical communications. Since, however, the chip rate of the multiple-bit binary code increase with increasing the number of bits, it is difficult to detect by a single binary PD as resolution becomes higher. To overcome this problem, serial-to-parallel conversion [14

14. T. Konishi and Y. Ichioka, “Ultrafast image transmission by optical time-to-two-dimentional-space-to-time-to-two-dimentional-space conversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1076–1088 (1999). [CrossRef]

16

16. R. Takahashi, “Low-temperature-grown surface-reflection all-optical switch (LOTOS),” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 999–1017 (2001). [CrossRef]

] of the bit format of the multiple-bit binary code is one promising approach, and optical interconnection is suitable method for optical coding because it can broadcast an optical signal to desired output ports in parallel. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel optical coding scheme using optical interconnection which allows us to convert a multi-power level signal into a multiple-bit binary code so as to detect it in a bit-parallel format by binary PD array.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a photonic ADC using the proposed optical coding scheme.

2. Principle of the photonic ADC

The optical sampling techniques have been proposed and realized [5

5. Jie Li, Mathias Westlund, Henrik Sunnerud, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Magnus Karlsson, and Peter A. Andrekson, “0.5-Tb/s Eye-Diagram Measurement by Optical Sampling Using XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566–568 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The proposed subsystem realizes optical quantization and optical coding after optical sampling process. The schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 1. In optical quantization [9

9. T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asano, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2817–2823 (2002). [CrossRef]

], we use the phenomenon of self-frequency shift (SFS) in a fiber [17

17. J. P. Gordon “Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift”, Opt. Lett. 11, 662–664 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and a dispersion device so as to provide each different level identification signal of a power of an analog sampled signal. The analog sampled signal propagates in a high-nonlinear fiber (HNLF) for generation of SFS. After SFS, the center wavelength of each analog sampled signal is shifted to a longer wavelength side. Since the amount of center wavelength shift increases with increasing a power of an analog sampled signal, we can discriminate a power of an analog sampled signal referring to a difference of the center wavelength. By placing an appropriate dispersion device after SFS, each different level identification signal of a power of an analog sampled signal is provided at one specific port of the dispersion device. The proposed optical coding is executed after optical quantization using SFS. In optical coding, we use optical interconnection based on a binary conversion table. It allows us to broadcast the level identification signal so as to provide multiple-bit binary code in a bit-parallel format. Here, the octal-to-binary conversion table for a 3-bit ADC is shown in Table 1 as an example of a binary conversion table.

Table 1. Octal-to-binary conversion table for a 3-bit ADC.

table-icon
View This Table

The inputs a0–a7 are octal signals and the outputs b1–b3 are binary signals in Table 1. From Table 1, the outputs b1–b3 are described by Eq. (1).

b1=a1+a3+a5+a7
b2=a2+a3+a6+a7
b3=a4+a5+a6+a7
(1)

To apply this equation to optical coding, a set of inputs and outputs are corresponding to power levels of an analog sampled signal and each bit in a 3-bit binary code, respectively. From Eq. (1), we can see that each bit in a 3-bit binary code b1–b3 is formed by combination of level identification signals a1–a7. Since the sum operation in Eq. (1) can be realized by optical interconnection, a level identification signal is broadcasted to appropriate output ports so as to provide a 3-bit parallel binary code. Consequently, a multiple-bit binary code in a bit-parallel format corresponding to power levels of an analog sampled signal can be detected by binary PD array.

3. Experimental setup and results

To demonstrate the proposed optical coding scheme for a photonic ADC, we executed preliminary experiment of a 3-bit ADC. The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2. We used an optical pulse irradiated from a fiber laser (IMRA America Inc.) as a light source. The pulse width, the center wavelength, and the repetition rate were 500 fs, 1558 nm, and 50 MHz, respectively. To prepare analog sampled pulses, we adjusted a power of an optical pulse using a variable optical attenuator. We set the peak powers of optical pulses as 79.8 W, 92.7 W, 103 W, 113 W, 122 W, 131 W, 139 W, and 147 W. For generation of SFS, the optical pulses were propagated in a 650 m polarization maintaining (PM) HNLF (3M. Inc. : FS-LS-7511) after adjusting their polarization by a polarization controller. The optical pulses after SFS were duplicated and fed to AWG1 (200GHz spacing), AWG2 (100GHz spacing), and optical band-pass filters (OBPF1 and OBPF2 : 1nm FWHM) being set for each center wavelength of optical pulses after SFS at each input power. To synchronize the timing and equalize the power of level identification signals, we adjusted the time delays and powers in advance using optical delay lines and optical attenuators placed at each output port of AWGs and OBPFs. Since the output ports of AWGs and OBPFs were connected based on an octal-to-binary conversion table, the level identification signals were broadcasted to the appropriate output ports so as to provide 3-bit parallel binary codes to binary PD array. We measured the temporal waveforms and transfer functions of output signals at each output port by using an oscilloscope with 53 GHz PD (Agilent technologies Inc.) and a power meter. Figure 3 shows the relationship between the input peak power and the center wavelength of the optical pulse after SFS. From Fig. 3, we can confirm that the center wavelength is shifted as increasing the power of the input optical pulse. Figure 4 (a)–(h) show the experimental results of the output spectrums of the optical pulses after SFS at each input power. From Fig. 4, since each spectrum has a single spectral peak, we can discriminate power levels of the input optical pulse referring to the difference of the center wavelength and output each different level identification signal at one specific port of dispersion devices. From Figs. 3 and 4, the pass wavelengths of dispersion devices were set as 1570.0 nm, 1575.7 nm, 1581.9 nm, 1588.7 nm, 1595.1 nm, 1602.3 nm, and 1609.5 nm. Figure 5 shows the experimental results of the temporal waveforms of the output signal at each input power. From Fig. 5, 3-bit parallel binary codes corresponding to the power levels of input optical pulses can be successfully detected by binary PD array. The experimental results of the measured transfer functions of each output port are shown in Fig. 6 (a)–(c). Figures 5 and 6 indicate that we have successfully demonstrated the 3-bit photonic ADC. From experimental results, we confirm the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 6 dB which is not sufficient for 3-bit resolution. In addition, when the power of an input sampled analog signal lie on the edges of the wavelength bands, it regarded as a quantization error. However, we can improve the SNR and the number of bits if we apply an optical binary thresholder to the level identification signal.

Fig. 2. Experimental setup for a 3-bit photonic ADC, VOA : Variable optical attenuator, ATT : Optical attenuator, PC : Polarization controller, OSA : Optical spectrum analyzer, OBPF : Optical band-pass filter, AWG : Arrayed waveguide grating, DEL : Optical delay line, PD : Photodiode, OSC : Oscilloscope, OC : Optical coupler.
Fig. 3. Experimental result of the relationship between the input peak power and the center wavelength of the optical pulse after SFS.
Fig. 4. Experimental results of the output spectrums of the optical pulses after SFS in 650 m PMHNLF at each input peak power (a) 79.8 W, (b) 92.7 W, (c) 103 W, (d) 113 W, (e) 122 W, (f) 131 W, (g) 139 W, (h) 147 W.
Fig. 5. Experimental results of the temporal waveforms of each bit in a 3-bit binary code at each input power (a) 79.8 W, (b) 92.7 W, (c) 103 W, (d) 113 W, (e) 122 W, (f) 131 W, (g) 139 W, (h) 147 W.
Fig. 6. Experimental results of the measured transfer function of each output port (a) 1st bit output port, (b) 2nd bit output port, (c) 3rd bit output port.

The resolution of the proposed photonic ADC, that is the achievable number of bit N, is described by Eq. (2) [9

9. T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asano, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2817–2823 (2002). [CrossRef]

].

N=log2(λshift+ΔλFWHMΔλFWHM)
(2)

where λshift and ΔλFWHM are the amount of the center wavelength shift and the spectral width of the optical pulse after SFS, respectively. From Figs. 3 and 4, because λshift and the average of ΔλFWHM were 60 nm and 6 nm, the resolution can be up to 3.46 bit. We can improve the resolution of the photonic ADC if we optimize parameters of HNLF for SFS so as to decrease the spectral width ΔλFWHM [18

18. X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, “Soliton self-frequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 358–360 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and increase the amount of the wavelength shift λshift [19

19. B. R. Washburn, J. A. Buck, and S. E. Ralph, “Transform-limited spectral compression due to self-phase modulation in fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 445–447 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In this experiment, because the pulse widths of the output signals are estimated about 5.3 ps, which is slightly dispersed, this subsystem has the potential of high sampling rate operation over 180 Gsps. If we choose the optimized filter whose pass band width is matched the spectral width of the optical pulse after SFS and execute appropriate dispersion compensation for output signals, the pulse width of the output signal can be reduced to 0.5 ps. From the viewpoint of electrical binary detection, since the unitraveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) with an ultra wide bandwidth has been proposed [20], it allows us to detect analog signals as digital ones at the sampling rate of over one hundred Gsps.

4. Conclusion

We proposed and demonstrated a novel optical coding scheme using optical interconnection for a photonic analog-to-digital conversion. Experimental results showed that 8-levels optical analog pulses can be converted into 3-bit parallel binary codes. The proposed scheme allows us to convert a multi-power level signal into multiple-bit parallel binary code without depending on the sampling rate and the number of bit. The results of experiments indicate that the proposed photonic ADC has the potential of both high sampling rate and high resolution applications over one hundred Gsps and 3-bit resolution which surpass the electrical ADC limitation.

References and links

1.

H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, K. Sano, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, and M. Muraguchi, “A 24-Gsps 3-bit nyquist ADC using HBTs for DSP-based electronic dispersion compensation,” IEICE Trans. on Electron. E88-C, 1225–1232 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

Robert H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17, 539–550 (1999) [CrossRef]

3.

George C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15, 1955–1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. L. Shoop : Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2001).

5.

Jie Li, Mathias Westlund, Henrik Sunnerud, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Magnus Karlsson, and Peter A. Andrekson, “0.5-Tb/s Eye-Diagram Measurement by Optical Sampling Using XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 566–568 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

H. F. Taylor, “An electro-optic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1524–1525 (1975). [CrossRef]

7.

J.-M. Jeong and M. E. Marhic, “All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 91, 115–122 (1992). [CrossRef]

8.

P. P. Ho, Q. Z. Wang, J. Chen, Q. D. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, “Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3425–3429 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asano, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2817–2823 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Oda, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical quantization scheme based on fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 587–589 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, “Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2618–2628 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, “Integration of a Proposed All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter using Self-Frequency Shifting in Fiber and a Pulse-Shaping Technique,” Opt. Rev. 12, 237–241 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Demonstration and analysis of a 40 gigasample/s interferometric analog-to-digital converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1247–1256 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Konishi and Y. Ichioka, “Ultrafast image transmission by optical time-to-two-dimentional-space-to-time-to-two-dimentional-space conversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1076–1088 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

T. Konishi, Y. Oshita, Wanji Yu, H. Furukawa, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, “Application of ultrafast time-to-two-dimensional-space-to-time conversion (I) : Time-varying spectral modulation for arbitrary ultrafast signal generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 620–622 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

R. Takahashi, “Low-temperature-grown surface-reflection all-optical switch (LOTOS),” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 999–1017 (2001). [CrossRef]

17.

J. P. Gordon “Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift”, Opt. Lett. 11, 662–664 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, “Soliton self-frequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 358–360 (2001). [CrossRef]

19.

B. R. Washburn, J. A. Buck, and S. E. Ralph, “Transform-limited spectral compression due to self-phase modulation in fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 445–447 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Itoh, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, “High-speed and High-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 709–727 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(320.7140) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in fibers

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 30, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 9, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 12, 2007
Published: November 14, 2007

Citation
Takashi Nishitani, Tsuyoshi Konishi, and Kazuyoshi Itoh, "Optical coding scheme using optical interconnection for high sampling rate and high resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion," Opt. Express 15, 15812-15817 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-15812


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References

  1. H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, K. Sano, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, and M. Muraguchi, "A 24-Gsps 3-bit nyquist ADC using HBTs for DSP-based electronic dispersion compensation," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C,1225-1232 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. RobertH. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17,539-550 (1999) [CrossRef]
  3. GeorgeC. Valley, "Photonic analog-to-digital converters," Opt. Express 15, 1955-1982 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. L. Shoop : Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
  5. Jie Li, Mathias Westlund, Henrik Sunnerud, Bengt-Erik Olsson, Magnus Karlsson, and Peter A . Andrekson, "0.5-Tb/s Eye-Diagram Measurement by Optical Sampling Using XPM-Induced Wavelength Shifting in Highly Nonlinear Fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,566-568 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. H. F. Taylor, "An electro-optic analog-to-digital converter," Proc. IEEE 63,1524-1525 (1975). [CrossRef]
  7. J.-M. Jeong and M. E. Marhic, "All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer," Opt. Commun. 91,115-122 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. P. P. Ho, Q. Z. Wang, J. Chen, Q. D. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation," Appl. Opt. 36,3425-3429 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asano, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, "All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,2817-2823 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Oda, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "All-optical quantization scheme based on fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,587-589 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, "Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,2618-2628 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Nishitani, T. Konishi, and K. Itoh, "Integration of a Proposed All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter using Self-Frequency Shifting in Fiber and a Pulse-Shaping Technique," Opt. Rev. 12,237-241 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Stigwall and S. Galt, "Demonstration and analysis of a 40 gigasample/s interferometric analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1247-1256 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Konishi and Y. Ichioka, "Ultrafast image transmission by optical time-to-two-dimentional-space-to-time-to-two-dimentional-space conversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16,1076-1088 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Konishi, Y. Oshita, WanjiYu , H. Furukawa, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, "Application of ultrafast time-to-two-dimensional-space-to-time conversion (I) : Time-varying spectral modulation for arbitrary ultrafast signal generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,620-622 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Takahashi, "Low-temperature-grown surface-reflection all-optical switch (LOTOS)," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33,999-1017 (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. J. P. Gordon "Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift", Opt. Lett. 11,662-664 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, "Soliton self-frequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26,358-360 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. B. R. Washburn, J. A. Buck, and S. E. Ralph, "Transform-limited spectral compression due to self-phase modulation in fibers," Opt. Lett. 25,445-447 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Itoh, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, and T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and High-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10,709-727 (2004). [CrossRef]

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