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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 25 — Dec. 10, 2007
  • pp: 17106–17113
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Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator

William M. J. Green, Michael J. Rooks, Lidija Sekaric, and Yurii A. Vlasov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 25, pp. 17106-17113 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.017106


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Abstract

Silicon p+-i-n+ diode Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulators having an ultra-compact length of 100 to 200 µm are presented. These devices exhibit high modulation efficiency, with a Vπ·L figure of merit of 0.36 V-mm. Optical modulation at data rates up to 10 Gb/s is demonstrated with low RF power consumption of only 5 pJ/bit.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Silicon modulators based upon free carrier electrooptic effects [3

3. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]

] have continued to evolve over the past two decades. Beginning with epitaxial silicon-on-silicon substrates, in which a lightly doped Si layer on a heavily doped Si substrate served as the optical waveguide [4

4. R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986). [CrossRef]

], rib waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers [5

5. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 771–773 (1991). [CrossRef]

] and electroabsorption modulators [6

6. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, “Silicon optical modulators at 1.3 µm based on free-carrier absorption,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276–278 (1991). [CrossRef]

] using embedded p+-i-n+ diodes for charge injection were demonstrated. Modulator development subsequently progressed toward the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates [7

7. C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000). [CrossRef]

], where high index contrast optical confinement has enabled the use of compact low-loss waveguide bends (radius <5 µm) [9

9. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], ultimately resulting in the deeply scaled nanophotonic wire devices frequently used today.

A recent example of the extent to which SOI optical modulators have been scaled is illustrated by devices based upon the micro-ring resonator. Charge injection based p+-i-n+ diode modulators with ultra-compact footprint (approximately 0.0002 mm2) have been realized using high quality factor optical micro-resonators [10

10. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. C. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express 15, 5069–5076 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The compact nature of these devices is made possible on account of the enhancement of modulation efficiency near sharp spectral resonances. However, it is precisely this same resonant enhancement which simultaneously makes these structures highly sensitive to small variations in bias conditions, operating temperature, and fabrication tolerances.

In contrast, the familiar Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) geometry possesses the advantage of broadband spectral operation and improved tolerance to environmental and process fluctuations. Recent studies of high-performance SOI MZMs have included metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor [13

13. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and p-n diode [15

15. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 660–668 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006). [CrossRef]

] driven devices. However, the large footprint occupied by these modulators, having active lengths on the order of several millimeters, restricts their use within highly integrated ultra-compact on-chip interconnect systems, where it is likely that hundreds if not thousands of modulators will be required on a single die. An ultra-compact MZM device would therefore be an indispensable choice for many on-chip applications, including filtering and switching functions in addition to optical modulation.

In this report, we demonstrate several ultra-compact (100 to 200 µm length), low RF power (5 pJ/bit), high speed SOI MZM devices, capable of operating at data rates up to 10 Gb/s [17

17. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

]. Despite the conventionally held view that a non-resonant modulator such as the MZM must naturally be designed with a long optical interaction length, the devices reported here demonstrate that it is indeed possible to design a high-performance ultra-compact MZM component with micron-scale dimensions, suitable for on-chip optical interconnect applications.

2. Design and fabrication

The ultra-compact MZM devices demonstrated here were designed using nanophotonic rib waveguides with embedded p+-i-n+ diodes as charge injection-based electrooptic phase shifters. A cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the active waveguide structure is shown in Fig. 1(a). These rib waveguides were nominally 550 nm wide and 220 nm in height, with a 35 nm silicon slab providing a conductive path between the anode and cathode, for the injection of free carriers into the intrinsic waveguide core.

Fig. 1. (a). Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope image of the SOI p+-i-n+ diode nanophotonic rib waveguide used. The heavily doped p+/n+ regions are hatched, and the nickel silicide contact regions are highlighted in gold false color. A 25 nm layer of silicon dioxide remains on top of the rib waveguide. (b). Electrical I-V trace taken for a modulator with LMZM=100 µm, illustrating a low forward resistance of 49 Ω. Inset: Schematic of the asymmetric MZM device geometry fabricated.

Furthermore, while rib waveguides with larger dimensions require large radius bends (R>20 µm) in order to avoid excessive bend losses, the nanophotonic rib waveguide yields ultra-compact low-loss bends with radii <5 µm [9

9. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as well as ultra-compact Y-junction splitters [18

18. L. Sekaric, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Y-splitters in photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides,” presented at the VI Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures, Crete, Greece, 19–24 June 2005. http://www.research.ibm.com/photonics/posters/splittters_pecsvi.pdf

]. Therefore, the total footprint of MZM devices designed with nanophotonic rib waveguides is limited only by the length of the phase shifter section LMZM, rather than the bend radius.

MZM devices with various p+-i-n+ diode phase shifter lengths LMZI (as shown in Fig. 1(b) inset) were fabricated on a SOI substrate (p-type, resistivity 10 Ω-cm) having a 2 µm thick buried oxide layer. A series of aligned electron beam lithographic exposures was used to define rib waveguides, anode (boron, p+~1×1020 cm-3) and cathode (phosphorus, n+~1×1020 cm-3) implants, and ohmic contact pads using nickel silicide. The distance between the heavily doped regions (hatched areas in Fig. 1(a)) and the edges of the rib waveguide core was nominally 400 nm. However, the nickel silicide contact pads (highlighted in gold) were formed closer to the waveguide edges than intended, resulting in additional on-chip optical loss as will be described below. Finally, polymer spotsize converters were formed over SOI waveguide inverted tapers [19

19. S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for efficient coupling to tapered optical fibers, and device chips were cleaved for testing.

3. Experimental results and discussion

An electrical I-V curve obtained for a MZM with a 100 µm long active p+-i-n+ phase shifter region is shown in Fig. 1(b). Under typical high speed operating conditions, large current densities flow across the nanophotonic rib waveguide cross-section, as the p+-i-n+ diode is modulated between forward (ON) and reverse biased (OFF) states. Despite channeling of this current through the thin 35 nm silicon slab at the anode/cathode terminals, the forward differential resistance of 49 Ω illustrated in the figure indicates that low electrical impedance can be achieved, as necessary for matching to 50 Ω drive electronics and ensuring low power consumption. Furthermore, this measurement serves to emphasize that the high impedance observed previously (on the order of 10 kΩ) for comparable nanophotonic rib diode structures [10

10. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is not a fundamental limitation of the waveguide structure itself, but rather depends upon the dopant profile and contact resistance. In addition, the measured device exhibited a reverse leakage current of less than 10 nA, indicating that the reverse bias potential generates a large electric field localized across the depleted intrinsic region of the waveguide core, resulting in fast, efficient sweep-out of injected carriers. Finally, a reverse bias capacitance of 200 fF was measured, suggesting that this device has a high-frequency RC cutoff of approximately 16 GHz.

The spectral transmission characteristics of the MZM devices near λ=1550 nm were characterized using a broadband LED light source polarized to excite the TE guided mode, and an optical spectrum analyzer. Interference fringes with a free spectral range (FSR) of 7.3 nm were observed, corresponding to a built-in 80 µm path length difference between the two branches of the MZM, as shown in the inset schematic of Fig. 1(b). A balanced MZM would be desirable to maximize the optical bandwidth of the device. However, for illustration purposes in this work, the presence of interference fringes assisted in distinguishing between thermooptic and electrooptic effects under low-frequency modulation, and in the measurement of extinction ratios.

A measured on-chip loss of 12 dB and relatively low extinction ratio of 6–10 dB originated primarily from metal losses caused by unintentional placement of the nickel silicide contact pads approximately 200 nm away from the edges of the rib waveguide, as shown in Fig. 1(a). However, these losses do not present a fundamental limitation. Increasing the distance between the lossy contact pads and the waveguide without moving the highly doped p+ and n+ regions would result in nearly identical electrical performance, while significantly decreasing on-chip loss and improving extinction.

Measurements of the figure of merit Vπ·L and data transmission, described below, were carried out by coupling light from a TE-polarized tunable laser into the MZM device and tuning to a quadrature point near λ=1550 nm. The modulated output was amplified by an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), and detected using a 15 GHz optical receiver connected to a digital communications analyzer (DCA) electrical module with 20 GHz bandwidth.

Fig. 2. (a). Application of a 9 MHz sinusoidal voltage with peak-to-peak amplitude of Vπ=1.8 V to a LMZI=200 µm modulator (Vbias=1.8 V). (b) The resulting half-period of sinusoidal optical modulation occurring between the maxima/minima indicated by arrows illustrates a Vπ·L product of 0.36 V-mm.

The high frequency performance of charge injection-based silicon electrooptic modulators is limited by the slow recombination dynamics of minority carriers injected into the p+-i-n+ diode junction under forward bias [20

20. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332–2339 (2003). [CrossRef]

], while the depletion of injected carriers in reverse bias can occur on much shorter time scales [21

21. F. Gardes, G. Reed, N. Emerson, and C. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express 13, 8845–8854 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The large asymmetry between the rise and fall time of the carrier concentration within the nanophotonic rib waveguide waveguide, and accordingly the free carrier induced phase shift, results in significant intersymbol interference (ISI) which limits the maximum data rate to approximately 1 Gb/s [11

11. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, pre-emphasis is a commonly used technique for mitigating signal degradation in systems suffering from ISI [22

22. H. Stark, F. B. Tuteur, and J. B. Anderson, Modern Electrical Communications, (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1988).

, 23

23. S. Haykin, Communication Systems, (Wiley, New York, 1994).

], and was used to demonstrate high speed operation of the ultra-compact MZM devices described here. A NRZ electrical drive signal from a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator was pre-emphasized in similar manner to that described by Xu et. al. [10

10. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For all experiments discussed below, the modulator drive signal was composed of a 1.2 V peak-to-peak NRZ pattern with pre-emphasis pulses having 3.5 V peak amplitude occurring at each transition between a 1-bit and a 0-bit. A bit sequence from a 5 Gb/s pre-emphasized drive signal is shown in Fig. 3(a), while Fig. 3(b) illustrates the corresponding modulated optical output when the drive signal was applied to a 100 µm long MZM device.

Fig. 3. (a). Pre-emphasized electrical drive signal at 5 Gb/s. Transitions between 0 and 1 bits have large amplitude, while consecutive 0’s or 1’s are suppressed. (b) Corresponding optical signal at the output of a LMZM=100 µm modulator.
Fig. 4. Eyeline diagrams of NRZ optical data signals (PRBS 27-1) produced by several ultracompact MZM devices. (a) LMZM=100 µm modulator operating at 5 Gb/s. (b) LMZM=200 µm modulator operating at 10 Gb/s.

Figure 4(a) contains an eyeline diagram of the modulated optical signal at the output of a 100 µm long MZM operating at 5 Gb/s (27-1 PRBS). Under these conditions, the device was biased at Vbias=0.3 V, and drew a DC current of 2.17 mA. Given the p+-i-n+ diode forward resistance of 49 Ω (Fig. 1(b)), this corresponds to a DC power consumption of 230 µW. An additional RF average power of 41 mW was required for data transmission, calculated assuming a 49 Ω load driven by the 5 Gb/s pre-emphasized electrical waveform. Operation at 10 Gb/s was demonstrated using the increased optical modulation efficiency afforded by a longer 200 µm MZM device, as illustrated in Fig. 4(b). In this case, the modulator device was unbiased, drew a DC current of 2.69 mA under operating conditions, and consumed DC and RF power of 287 µW and 51 mW, respectively. The high-speed 10 Gb/s performance of the 200 µm long MZM represents a 25x improvement in demonstrated data rate in comparison with recent work in which a MZM of similar length (250 µm) and waveguide design was reported [24

24. T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon photonics for compact energy-efficient interconnects,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 63–73 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 25

25. F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact, low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ6. [PubMed]

].

Table 1. Comparison of power consumption for recently reported SOI optical modulators.

table-icon
View This Table

It is worthwhile noting that an optimized 100 µm long MZM of the present design may occupy a miniscule silicon footprint as small as 100 um×10 um=0.001 mm2, this being only ~5x larger than the footprint occupied by a typical microring resonator modulator [10

10. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In applications where the broadband optical performance and improved tolerance to on-chip temperature variations and fabrication process fluctuations are critical, the electrooptic MZM design presented here illustrates that suitable broadband SOI nanophotonic modulators can be realized without paying the prohibitively large footprint penalty conventionally associated with comparing non-resonant versus resonant modulator designs.

4. Conclusions

We have demonstrated SOI Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulators having ultra-compact 100 to 200 µm long p+-i-n+ diode active regions, suitable for on-chip optical interconnect applications. The measured Vπ·L figure of merit was 0.36 V-mm, this being a factor of 100 times smaller than previously reported for SOI MZM devices. This enhanced electrooptic efficiency originated from nearly complete free carrier/optical mode overlap in high-confinement nanophotonic rib waveguides. Using electrical pre-emphasis, NRZ optical modulation at data rates up to 10 Gb/s has been shown, with low RF power consumption of 51 mW or 5 pJ/bit.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Alexander Rylyakov, Clint Schow, and Dan Kuchta for providing instrumentation and valuable advice for pre-emphasis equalization measurements. This work was supported in part under DARPA contract N00014-07-C-0105.

References and links

1.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network on chip,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chips (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 53–64. [CrossRef]

2.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]

4.

R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, “All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ=1.3 and 1.6 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873–879 (1986). [CrossRef]

5.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 771–773 (1991). [CrossRef]

6.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, “Silicon optical modulators at 1.3 µm based on free-carrier absorption,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276–278 (1991). [CrossRef]

7.

C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, “Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 451–452 (1995). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, “CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660–662 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15, 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

C. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express 15, 5069–5076 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427, 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13, 3129–3135 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 660–668 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

18.

L. Sekaric, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Y-splitters in photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides,” presented at the VI Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures, Crete, Greece, 19–24 June 2005. http://www.research.ibm.com/photonics/posters/splittters_pecsvi.pdf

19.

S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332–2339 (2003). [CrossRef]

21.

F. Gardes, G. Reed, N. Emerson, and C. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express 13, 8845–8854 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

H. Stark, F. B. Tuteur, and J. B. Anderson, Modern Electrical Communications, (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1988).

23.

S. Haykin, Communication Systems, (Wiley, New York, 1994).

24.

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon photonics for compact energy-efficient interconnects,” J. Opt. Netw. 6, 63–73 (2007). [CrossRef]

25.

F. Gan, S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, and F. X. Kartner, “Compact, low-power, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ6. [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(250.7360) Optoelectronics : Waveguide modulators

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 6, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 7, 2007
Published: December 6, 2007

Citation
William M. Green, Michael J. Rooks, Lidija Sekaric, and Yurii A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15, 17106-17113 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106


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References

  1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "On the design of a photonic network on chip," in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chips (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 53-64. [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1312-1317 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, "All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for λ = 1.3 and 1.6 μm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873-879 (1986). [CrossRef]
  5. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, "Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 771-773 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, "Silicon optical modulators at 1.3 μm based on free-carrier absorption," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 276-278 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. C. K. Tang and G. T. Reed, "Highly efficient optical phase modulator in SOI waveguides," Electron. Lett. 31, 451-452 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Dainesi, A. Kung, M. Chabloz, A. Lagos, P. Fluckiger, A. Ionescu, P. Fazan, M. Declerq, P. Renaud, and P. Robert, "CMOS compatible fully integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer in SOI technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 660-662 (2000). [CrossRef]
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