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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 3 — Feb. 5, 2007
  • pp: 1161–1166
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Intense exact resonance enhancement of single-high-harmonic from an antimony ion by using Ti:Sapphire laser at 37 nm

Masayuki Suzuki, Motoyoshi Baba, Hiroto Kuroda, Rashid A. Ganeev, and Tsuneyuki Ozaki  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 1161-1166 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.001161


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Abstract

We demonstrated the intensity enhancement of a single high-order harmonic at a wavelength of 37.67 nm using the lowly ionized antimony laser-ablation plume. The conversion efficiency of this harmonic was 2.5×10-5 and the output energy was 0.3 μJ. Such an enhancement of single-harmonic was caused by the multiphoton resonance with the strong radiative transition of the Sb II ions. The cutoff energy of the harmonics generated in Sb plasma was 86 eV (55th harmonic).

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The emission of the high-order harmonics generated during the interaction between the intense laser pulse and nonlinear medium possessed both a good beam quality and ultrashort pulse duration radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray regions. During last fifteen years the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process [1

1. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3535 (1992), [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field mutiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

],improvement of the conversion efficiency [3

3. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280,1412 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and extension of cutoff energy [4

4. J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, G. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, C. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433,596 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been achieved.

The demonstration of the HHG applications such as the control of electron dynamic in molecules [5

5. H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,083003 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nonlinear optical phenomena in the XUV region [6

6. Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10fssoft x-ray pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,043001 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the photoelectron spectroscopy [7

7. L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mullhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87,193002 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and ultrafast dynamics of multiphoton-induced photoelectron emission [8

8. P. Dombi, F. Krausz, and G. Farkas, “Ultrafast dynamics and carrier-envelop phase sensitivity of mutiphoton photoemission from metal surface,” J. Mod. Opt. 53,163 (2006). [CrossRef]

]has recently been reported.

It is obvious that, for the application of the HHG emission, it is important to increase the conversion efficiency of this process. In the past, the conversion efficiency enhancement of the HHG has been demonstrated by controlling the phase-matching condition in a gas-filled capillary [2

2. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field mutiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or gas cell [9

9. E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 27,1920 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The strongest output energies of harmonics of 7 μJ for the 11th harmonic at the wavelength of 72.7 nm, 4.7μJ for the 13th harmonic at the wavelength of 62.3 nm, and 1μJ for the 15th harmonic at the wavelength of 54 nm were achieved using the xenon gas-cell [9

9. E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 27,1920 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the orthogonal polarized two-color field (fundamental and second harmonic) in helium gas also gives a rise of the conversion efficiency [10

10. I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, “Highly efficient high-harmonic generation in an Orthogonally polarized two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,243901 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we present the first observation, to our best knowledge, of a strong enhancement of the single harmonic at the wavelength of 37.67 nm using the antimony laser-ablation plume. The intensity of the 21st harmonic at the wavelength of 37.67 nm was 10 times higher than that of the 23rd and the 19th harmonics. The output energy of this harmonic is measured to be 0.3 μJ. The origin of this enhancement is attributed to the resonance with the strong radiative transitions of the Sb II ions. The maximum cutoff wavelength of the harmonics generated from the antimony plasma was 14.45 nm (photon energy: 85.8 eV, cutoff order: 55th).

2. Experimental setup

The schematic of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. The pump laser was a commercial, chirped pulse amplification laser system (Spectra Physics: TAS-10F), whose output was further amplified using a homemade three-pass amplifier at a 10 Hz repetition. The pre-pulse was split from a portion of amplified laser beam by a beam splitter before the pulse compressor. The prepulse energy was 12 mJ with pulse duration of 210 ps. The main pump pulse output at a center wavelength of 795 nm was 12 mJ with pulse duration of 150 fs. The prepulse was focused in a vacuum chamber onto a target surface by a cylindrical lens and produced a laser-ablation plume consisting of the neutrals and lowly charged ions. The line focus size on the target surface was 100 μm × 3 mm and the intensity of pre-pulse was varied between 0.95×1010 W cm-2 to 1.6×1010 W cm-2. Antimony and silver were used as the targets in this experiment. The main pulse was focused into the ablation plume by a spherical 200 mm focal length lens 100 ns after the prepulse irradiation. The intensity of the main pulse inside the plasma plume was 2.5×1015 W cm-2. The generated high-order harmonics were measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer with a gold-coated Hitach 1200 grooves/mm grating. A gold-coated grazing incidence cylindrical mirror was used for the image translation from the target surface to the detector plane. The XUV spectrum was detected using a multichannel plate with a phosphor screen (Hamamatsu, model F2813-22P), and the optical output from the phosphor screen was recorded using a CCD camera (Hamamatsu model C4880).

Fig. 1. Experimental setup for HHG from the laser-ablation plume. First the prepulse was focused on the target surface. Then the main femtosecond pulse was focused into the preplasma that was produced by prepulse. Delay between prepulse and main pulse is 100 ns. The generated high-order harmonic was measured by grazing incidence spectrometer and detected by MCP coupled with CCD camera.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2 shows the typical HHG spectra from the antimony and silver laser-ablation plumes at the wavelength of 10 - 30 nm. The spectrum of the femtosecond radiation propagated through the antimony plasma shows high-order harmonics up to the 55th order at the cutoff wavelength of 14.45 nm. The conversion efficiency of the 55th harmonic was measured to be 2×10-7, while the harmonic efficiency in the range of 15th to 27th harmonics was estimated to be 1.2×10-6.The details of the absolute conversion efficiency calibration of the spectrometer were described in Ref. [17

17. R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from silver plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 339,103 (2005). [CrossRef]

].Using the silver laser-ablation plasma, we observed the same (55th) cutoff harmonic.

Fig. 2. HHG spectra from the laser-ablation antimony and silver plumes were obtained. The red and blue lines are the harmonics from the antimony and silver plumes, respectively. The spectrum of the HHG from antimony at the wavelength range of 10-30 nm was accumulated using 100 shots. The HHG from the silver plume was accumulated using 10 shots. The curves are shifted vertically to avoid overlap for visual clarity.
Fig. 3. HHG spectrum at the wavelength range of 33-65 nm from the laser-ablation antimony plume. This spectrum was accumulated during 10 shots. The intensity of 21st harmonic was measured to be 20 times higher than those of the 23rd and 19th harmonics.

Figure 3 shows the HHG spectrum from the antimony laser-ablation plume at the wavelengths of 33 - 60 nm. A strong 21st harmonic at the wavelength of 37.67 nm was obtained. The intensity of the 21st harmonic was 10 times higher than those of the 23rd and 19th harmonics. The conversion efficiency of the 21st harmonic was measured to be 2.5×10-5, and thus the pulse energy of the 37.67 nm radiation of 0.3 μJ was obtained from the pump laser energy of 12 mJ. By changing the pump laser polarization from the linear polarization to the circular one using a quarter-wave plate, the 37.67 nm radiation completely disappeared. This tendency is consistent with that of HHG, which allows concluding that the strong emission at the wavelength of 37.67 nm is generated through the HHG.

Fig. 4. Intensities of the 21st (red solid circles), 23rd (green solid squares), and 19th (orange solid triangles) harmonics as functions of the pump laser wavelength.

To investigate the mechanism of the 21st harmonic enhancement using antimony plume, the central wavelength of the laser pulse was tuned in the range from 797 nm to 783 nm. Figure 4 shows the intensities of the 19th, the 21st, and the 23rd harmonics as the functions of the pump laser wavelength. By changing the laser wavelength from the longer wavelength side (797 nm) to the shorter one, the intensity of the 21st harmonic initially gradually increased and then abruptly decreased. The highest intensity of the 21st harmonics was observed at 791 nm. At the same time, the intensities of the 19th and the 23rd harmonics remained almost the same at the wavelength of 795-783 nm. In the past work, the strong Sb II transitions of 4d105s22p3P2- 4d95s25p3(2D)3D3 and 4d105s22p1D2-4d95s25p3(2D)3F3 at the wavelengths of 37.82 nm and 37.55 nm, respectively, have been reported and analyzed [18

18. R. D’Arcy, J. T. Costello, C. McGuinnes, and G. O’Sullivan, “Discrete structure in the 4d photoabsorption spectrum of antimony and its ions,” J. Phys. B 32,4859 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The gf values of 4d105s22p3P2- 4d95s25p3(2D)3D3 and 4d105s22p1D2-4d95s25p3(2D)3F3 transitions have been calculated to be 1.36 and 1.63, respectively, which was 6 to 7 times higher than those of the neighbor transitions. The enhancement of the 21st harmonic of the 791 nm radiation was highest in our studies, although the 21st harmonic (λ = 37.67 nm) was slightly away from the 4d105s22p3P2-4d95s25p3(2D)3D3 transition (λ = 37.82 nm). In this case the enhancement of 21st harmonic was due to the resonance with the 4d105s22p3P2-4d95s25p3(2D)3D3 transition driven by the AC Stark shift. By changing the pump laser wavelength from 791 to 788 nm, the intensity of the 21st harmonic gradually decreased because this harmonic becomes away from the 4d105s22p3P2-4d95s25p3(2D)3D3 transition. However the enhancement of the 21st harmonic of the 785 nm radiation was higher than that of 788 nm radiation. The reason of this intensity enhancement was attributed to the resonance with the 4d105s22p1D2-4d95s25p3(2D)3F3 transition driven by the AC Stark shift. Further decrease of the 21st harmonic wavelength led to the mismatching with the above transitions. As a result, the intensity of the 21st harmonic pumped by the wavelength of 783 nm was considerably lower.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we observed the enhancement of the 21st harmonic by using the antimony laserablation plume as a nonlinear medium. The energy of this harmonic was measured to be 0.3 μJ, and the conversion efficiency was 2.5×10-5. The intensity of this harmonic 10 times exceeded those of the 23rd and the 19th harmonics. The maximum cutoff wavelength of the HHG using antimony laser-ablation plume was 14.45 nm (photon energy: 86 eV). Such an approach can pave the way toward a considerable enhancement of a single harmonic in the short-wavelength range using the appropriate target materials.

Acknowledgments

H. Kuroda and co-authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research (14GS0206) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). T. Ozaki acknowledges the support from the Research Foundation for Opto-Science and Technology.

References and links

1.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 68,3535 (1992), [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field mutiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280,1412 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, G. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, C. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433,596 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Mapping Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Motion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,083003 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10fssoft x-ray pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,043001 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mullhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of dissociating Br2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87,193002 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

P. Dombi, F. Krausz, and G. Farkas, “Ultrafast dynamics and carrier-envelop phase sensitivity of mutiphoton photoemission from metal surface,” J. Mod. Opt. 53,163 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 27,1920 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, “Highly efficient high-harmonic generation in an Orthogonally polarized two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,243901 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A de. Bohan, and H. G. Huller, “Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 32,5843 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “High-order harmonic generation from boron plasma in the extreme-ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett. 30,768 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Strong resonance enhancement of single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett. 31,1699 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Suzuki, M. Baba, R. A. Ganeev, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Anomalous enhancement of a single highorder harmonic by using a laser-ablation tin plume at 47 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31,3306 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

R. A. Ganeev, H. Singhal, P. A. Naik, V. Arora, U. Chakravarty, J. A. Chakera, R. A. Khan, P. V. Redkin, M. Raghuramaiah, and P. D. Gupta, “Single harmonic enhancement by controlling the chirp of the driving laser pulse during high-order harmonic generation from GaAs plasma,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, in press.

16.

R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, H. Singhal, J. A. Chakera, and P. D. Gupta, “Strong enhancement and extinction of single harmonic intensity in the mid- and end-plateau regions of the high harmonics generated in weaklyexcited laser plasmas,” to be published in Optics Letters.

17.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from silver plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 339,103 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

R. D’Arcy, J. T. Costello, C. McGuinnes, and G. O’Sullivan, “Discrete structure in the 4d photoabsorption spectrum of antimony and its ions,” J. Phys. B 32,4859 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 fs Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76,752 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, D. G. Lee, K.-H. Hong, Y. S. Lee, V. Tosa, and C. H. Nam, “Optimization of high-order harmonic brightness in the space domains,” Phys. Rev. A 69,031805(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.7240) Lasers and laser optics : UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers
(190.4160) Nonlinear optics : Multiharmonic generation

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 27, 2006
Revised Manuscript: December 18, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 23, 2006
Published: February 5, 2007

Citation
Masayuki Suzuki, Motoyoshi Baba, Hiroto Kuroda, Rashid A. Ganeev, and Tsuneyuki Ozaki, "Intense exact resonance enhancement of single-high-harmonic from an antimony ion by using Ti:Sapphire laser at 37 nm," Opt. Express 15, 1161-1166 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1161


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References

  1. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992), [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field mutiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays," Science 280, 1412 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, G. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, C. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays," Nature 433, 596 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Niikura, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Mapping Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Motion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083003 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, "Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10fssoft x-ray pulse at 42 eV Photon Energy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 043001 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mullhisen, E. R. Grant X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, "Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of dissociating Br2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Dombi, F. Krausz, and G. Farkas, "Ultrafast dynamics and carrier-envelop phase sensitivity of mutiphoton photoemission from metal surface," J. Mod. Opt. 53, 163 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 27, 1920 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, "Highly efficient high-harmonic generation in an Orthogonally polarized two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. E. S. Toma, Ph. Antoine, A de. Bohan, and H. G. Huller, "Resonance-enhanced high-harmonic generation," J. Phys. B 32, 5843 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, "High-order harmonic generation from boron plasma in the extreme-ultraviolet range," Opt. Lett. 30, 768 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, "Strong resonance enhancement of single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range," Opt. Lett. 31, 1699 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Suzuki, M. Baba, R. A. Ganeev, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, "Anomalous enhancement of a single high-order harmonic by using a laser-ablation tin plume at 47 nm," Opt. Lett. 31, 3306 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Ganeev, H. Singhal, P. A. Naik, V. Arora, U. Chakravarty, J. A. Chakera, R. A. Khan, P. V. Redkin, M. Raghuramaiah, and P. D. Gupta, "Single harmonic enhancement by controlling the chirp of the driving laser pulse during high-order harmonic generation from GaAs plasma," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, in press.
  16. R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, H. Singhal, J. A. Chakera, and P. D. Gupta, "Strong enhancement and extinction of single harmonic intensity in the mid- and end-plateau regions of the high harmonics generated in weakly-excited laser plasmas," to be published in Optics Letters.
  17. R. A. Ganeev, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, and H. Kuroda, "High-order harmonic generation from silver plasma," Phys. Lett. A 339, 103 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. R. D’Arcy, J. T. Costello, C. McGuinnes, and G. O’Sullivan, "Discrete structure in the 4d photoabsorption spectrum of antimony and its ions," J. Phys. B 32, 4859 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 fs Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, D. G. Lee, K.-H. Hong, Y. S. Lee, V. Tosa, and C. H. Nam, "Optimization of high-order harmonic brightness in the space domains," Phys. Rev. A 69, 031805(R) (2004). [CrossRef]

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