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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 3 — Feb. 5, 2007
  • pp: 1261–1266
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Imprinted silicon-based nanophotonics

Peter I. Borel, Brian Bilenberg, Lars H. Frandsen, Theodor Nielsen, Jacob Fage-Pedersen, Andrei V. Lavrinenko, Jakob S. Jensen, Ole Sigmund, and Anders Kristensen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 1261-1266 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.001261


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Abstract

We demonstrate and optically characterize silicon-on-insulator based nanophotonic devices fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. In our demonstration, we have realized ordinary and topology-optimized photonic crystal waveguide structures. The topology-optimized structures require lateral pattern definition on a sub 30-nm scale in combination with a deep vertical silicon etch of the order of ~300 nm. The nanoimprint method offers a cost-efficient parallel fabrication process with state-of-the-art replication fidelity, comparable to direct electron beam writing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Within recent years the development of planar silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based nanophotonic structures such as photonic wires and 2D photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) [1–6

1. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12,1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] has progressed to a level of performance and functionality where technological applications within optical communication [7–10

7. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and sensing [11

11. P. Debackere, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Surface plasmon interferometer in silicon-on-insulator: novel concept for an integrated biosensor,” Opt. Express 14,7063–7072 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7063 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31,59–61 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-1-59 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have become feasible. In the context of transferring SOI-based nanophotonics from research to applications it is of relevance to assess methods of volume manufacture of such components and systems.

The optical performance of SOI-based nanophotonic components is highly sensitive to the nanometer feature size definition of the components. Even small deviations from the design may be devastating for the functionality and/or the target operating frequency. This calls for state-of-the-art nanofabrication technologies, where electron beam lithography (EBL) and deep-ultraviolet lithography (DUVL) have been successfully applied for device demonstration. EBL, in particular, provides nanophotonic structures with extremely high resolution, and this fabrication method is appropriate for many research investigations. However, being a serial fabrication process it is not optimal for mass fabrication of photonic devices. DUVL, on the other hand, is developed for mass fabrication. In this case, however, the production volume must be large enough to support the substantial costs affiliated with the fabrication method. Furthermore, fabrication tolerances are currently pushed to their limits to obtain acceptable structures, leaving only little room for improvement.

Fabrication of nanophotonic structures using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) [13

13. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.67, pp.3114–3116 (1995) [CrossRef]

] is emerging as a cost-efficient alternative capable of nanometer-to-micrometer-scale pattern definition in a parallel process. The resolution of NIL is currently limited by the resolution of the stamp, where e.g. 5-nm linewidth and 14-nm pitch line gratings have been demonstrated [14

14. M. D. Austin, H. Ge, W. Wu, M. Li, Z. Yu, D. Wasserman, S. A. Lyon, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of 5 nm linewidth and 14 nm pitch features by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.84, pp.5299–5301, (2004) [CrossRef]

].

Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of NIL for the fabrication of SOI-based nanophotonic components. In our fabrication process lateral resolution better than 30 nm is achieved on the NIL stamp by high resolution EBL in a thin film of negative resist and subsequent reactive ion etching (RIE). The pattern is imprinted in a thin film of NIL resist with a high etch resistance to silicon RIE, which facilitates device definition with the required high lateral resolution in combination with deep etching into the SOI substrate.

In our device demonstrations, we have realized planar W1 PhCWs, i.e. where the defect is formed by removing one row of holes in the Γ-K direction of the crystal lattice as shown in Fig. 1(left). Furthermore, we demonstrate topology-optimized photonic structures [15

15. P.I. Borel, A. Harpϕth, L.H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, “Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Express 12,1996–2001 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-9-1996 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpϕth, P.I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, “Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization,” Opt. Express 12,5916–5921 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5916 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], see Fig. 2. This type of structure is particular challenging to fabricate with NIL as the frequency response of the device is highly sensitive to the complicated non-circular features of the optimized structures and impose local variations in the pattern density. The pattern replication fidelity is assessed by comparing the measured frequency response with 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations [17

17. A. Lavrinenko, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpϕth, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi, and H. Chong, “Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components,” Opt. Express 12,234–248 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-2-234 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Nanoimprint lithography fabrication

The fabrication of SOI-based nanophotonic devices is based on thermal NIL [13

13. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.67, pp.3114–3116 (1995) [CrossRef]

]. The desired pattern is defined as a surface relief on the stamp (a silicon wafer) by EBL and RIE. The pattern is transferred to a thin film of thermoplastic resist on the SOI device wafer by mechanical deformation as the stamp is embossed into the heated resist. Finally, the pattern is transferred into the top silicon layer of the SOI wafer by RIE. High resolution and high aspect ratio of the transferred pattern is obtained by exploiting a high-resolution negative EBL resist for silicon stamp fabrication in combination with NIL in the thermoplastic resist with high etching resistance.

The silicon stamp is fabricated by 100 kV EBL (JEOL JBX9300FS) in a 50 nm thin film of TEBN-1 [18

18. TEBN-1 by Tokuyama Corp., Tokyo, Japanhttp://www.tokuyama.co.jp

] on a silicon substrate (100 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick) at an exposure dose of 9 mC/cm2 [19

19. B. Bilenberg, M. Schϕler, P. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, P. Bϕggild, M. Fink, C. Schuster, F. Reuther, G. Gruetzner, and A. Kristensen, “Comparison of High Resolution Negative Electron Beam Resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24,1776–1779 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. The written structures are developed in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) for 20 seconds, rinsed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and subsequently transferred 100 nm into the silicon substrate by a highly anisotropic RIE [20

20. B. Bilenberg, S. Jacobsen, M. S. Schmidt, L. H. D. Skjolding, P. Shi, P. Bϕggild, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and A. Kristensen, “High Resolution 100 kV Electron Beam Lithography in SU-8,” Microlectron. Eng. 83,1609–1612 (2006) [CrossRef]

]. After etching the silicon, any remaining resist is removed in oxygen plasma prior to deposition of an anti-sticking layer formed from a C4F8 plasma and imprinting.

The passivation layer deposition capability of a deep reactive ion etching tool is used to plasma deposit an anti-sticking layer on the stamp, as originally suggested by Ayón et al [21

21. A.A. Ayón, D.-Z. Chen, R. Khanna, R. Braff, H.H. Sawin, and M.A. Schmidt, “Novel integrated MEMS process using fluorocarbon films deposited with a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) tool,” Mat. Res. Soc. 605,141–147 (2000) [CrossRef]

]. A few monolayers of PTFE-like fluorocarbon polymer is deposited from C4F8 precursor gas, which is dissociated by plasma to form ions and radical species [22

22. H. Schulz, F. Osenberg, J. Engemann, and H.-C. Scheer, “Mask fabrication by nanoimprint lithography using anti-sticking layers,” Proc. SPIE 3996,244–249 (2000) [CrossRef]

]. The dissociated species subsequently polymerize on the surface and form a layer of polymerized nCF2. The thickness of such a fluorocarbon film has been measured to around 5 nm [22

22. H. Schulz, F. Osenberg, J. Engemann, and H.-C. Scheer, “Mask fabrication by nanoimprint lithography using anti-sticking layers,” Proc. SPIE 3996,244–249 (2000) [CrossRef]

]. Without the anti-sticking layer, the polymer will stick to the stamp, and parts of the polymer pattern are peeled off the substrate when the stamp and substrate are separated.

The nanophotonic devices are fabricated in a SOI wafer from Soitec (100 mm diameter and 340 nm silicon on top of 1 μm buried oxide). An 80 nm thin film of mr-I T85 (4 wt%) [23

23. micro resist technology GmbH, Berlin, Germany, http://www.microresist.com

] is spin coated onto the SOI substrate at a spin speed of 3000 rpm and baked at 150°C for 5 min on a hotplate. The stamp is imprinted in the mr-I T85 film using a pressure of 13 bar for 10 minutes in a parallel plate imprint tool (EVG 520HE) under vacuum (0.01 mbar) and at a temperature of 140°C.. The stamp and the SOI wafer are separated at a lowered temperature of 60°C. The imprint parameters result in a complete filling situation of the stamp in the photonic-crystal structured areas, resulting in 80 nm deep holes in the mr-I T85 resist. The nanoimprinted patterns are transferred into the top 340 nm thick silicon layer of the SOI wafer by using an optimized SF6-based inductively coupled plasma (ICP) RIE. The etch-selectivity is 9:1 (silicon:mr-I T85) [24

24. T. Nielsen, D. Nilsson, F. Bundgaard, P. Shi, P. Szabo, O. Geschke, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprint lithography in the cyclic olefin copolymer, Topas, a highly UV-transparent and chemically resistant thermoplast,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,1770–1775 (2004) [CrossRef]

] which allows for pattern transfer of the imprinted holes through the device silicon layer of the SOI wafer.

3. Straight photonic crystal waveguides

Figure 1 (left) shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the central part of a NIL fabricated SOI device consisting of a W1 PhCW connected to ordinary tapered ridge waveguides. The photonic crystal part of the waveguide is 10 μm long, the pitch of the hexagonal crystal lattice 400 nm, and the hole diameter 250 nm. The width of the ridge waveguides are adiabatically tapered over 450 μm from 4 μm at the end facets of the sample down to 1 μm at the interface to the crystal waveguide. The etch patterns seen to the right and left of the PhCW are caused by the controlled flow of excess polymer during the imprint process. The excess polymer is a result from the large variation in pattern density between the PhCW area and the surrounding un-patterned regions. The polymer flow does not represent an issue in the fabrication of high-quality photonic circuits with more complex design. The excess polymer flow can easily be controlled by adding dummy structures to equalize the pattern density. Also, the fabrication of more complex and/or high-density photonic circuits will typically reduce the variation in the pattern density, and thus simplify the control of the polymer flow.

The fabricated waveguides have been characterized by optical transmission measurements using quasi-transverse electric (TE) polarized light from a laser source in the wavelength region from 1520–1620 nm (ANDO AQ4321D) and broadband light emitting diodes (ANDO AQ4222) covering the wavelength range 1360–1620 nm. Figure 1 (right) shows the resulting laser transmission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits the characteristics of a W1 PhCW having a sharp and well-defined transition (around 1590 nm) between the low-loss guided defect mode and the photonic band gap. The observed sharp cut-off and the high and uniform transmission level below the cut-off wavelength of the spectrum are similar to results obtained for PhCWs of similar designs fabricated by EBL [17

17. A. Lavrinenko, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpϕth, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi, and H. Chong, “Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components,” Opt. Express 12,234–248 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-2-234 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and DUVL [6

6. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12,1583–1591 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1583 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ripples in the spectrum (zoom-in shown in the inset) are due to Fabry-Pérot oscillations caused by reflections from the end facets of the sample.

Fig. 1. (Left) SEM image of a photonic wire adjacent to a 10 μm long W1 PhCW fabricated in SOI by NIL. The etch patterns seen on the outer sides are caused by the controlled flow of excess polymer during the imprint process. (Right): Measured transmission spectrum for quasi-TE polarized laser light through the structure. Inset shows a zoom-in on the spectrum.

4. Topology optimized nanophotonic devices

Recently, we have proposed a novel inverse design strategy called topology optimization (TO), which allows for designing nanophotonic structures with enhanced functionalities [25

25. J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund. “Systematic design of photonic crystal structures using topology optimization: low-loss waveguide bends,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 84,2022–2024 (2004) [CrossRef]

]. In some cases, this inverse design method proposes optimized designs with feature sizes down to ~30 nm. Hence, such structures are very challenging to fabricate even with EBL and will serve as excellent benchmarks for pattern replication fidelity in the NIL fabrication process. In our demonstrations, we have chosen a topology-optimized PhCW coarse wavelength selective Y-splitter as shown in Fig. 2 (right). Such a device is challenging for NIL fabrication since the frequency response of the device is highly sensitive to small variations in the complex structures in the central part of the Y-branch. These structures also impose local variations in the pattern density, which complicate the polymer flow during imprint.

The device optimization is illustrated in Fig. 2. The topology optimization methods redistribute material in a given design domain in order to maximize a certain objective function [25

25. J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund. “Systematic design of photonic crystal structures using topology optimization: low-loss waveguide bends,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 84,2022–2024 (2004) [CrossRef]

,26

26. M. P. Bendsϕe and O. Sigmund, Topology optimization — Theory, Methods and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2003)

]. This method has successfully been applied within mechanical and electrical engineering and, recently, also in fabrication of nanophotonic structures [15

15. P.I. Borel, A. Harpϕth, L.H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, “Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Express 12,1996–2001 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-9-1996 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpϕth, P.I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, “Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization,” Opt. Express 12,5916–5921 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5916 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Figure 2 illustrates the evolution of the iterative optimization process, where the material in the design domain (the central Y-branch) is redistributed using the simulated spectral features of the signals transmitted in the upper and lower arms as feedback. The initial structure (Fig. 2 (leftmost)) has the same frequency response in the upper and lower output arms. The optimization criterion was that the longer wavelengths are transmitted through the upper arm whereas the shorter wavelengths are transmitted through the lower arm, see also Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. Leftmost: (587 kB) Movie of how the material is redistributed in the design domain during the topology optimization procedure. The figure shows four frames from the movie of the topology optimization process. The leftmost frame shows the initial un-optimized structure and the rightmost frame the final topology-optimized design obtained after 760 iterations. The two middle frames show intermediate stages (iteration steps 10 and 200, respectively) before the optimization process has converged. [Media 1]

Figure 3 shows the fabrication results and optical performance of the NIL fabricated TO PhCW wavelength selective Y-splitter.

Figure 3 (left) shows the design layout of the converged TO structure. The red and blue arrows indicate the wavelength-selective transmission of longer (red) and shorter (blue) wavelengths to the upper and lower arms, respectively. The circles and squares in the right panel of the figure show the 3D FDTD simulations of a perfectly fabricated device, i.e. the black and white structure in Fig. 3 (leftmost). The middle panel shows a SEM image of the fabricated structure, which closely resembles the TO design. Deviations between the fabricated and designed structures are partly caused by limitations in the resolution of the lithography and partly caused by line broadening in the RIE. The solid red and blue lines in the right panel show the measured optical transmission performance of the fabricated structure for the upper and lower arms, respectively. The transmission in the upper and lower arms of the Y-splitter is normalized to the measured transmission level of a straight PhCW of same length. The measured spectra are seen to closely resemble to the 3D FDTD simulations both regarding transmission levels and spectral distributions.

The optical response of the structure critically depends on the precise fabrication of small features of sizes down below 30 nm. This was underlined by a series of 3D FDTD calculations, where an increasing number of the ~30–50 nm sized oddly shaped holes in succession were removed from the optimized Y-splitter region. The transmission levels changed typically 1–2 dB in the corresponding pass band when only two features were removed and the spectra changed drastically when nearly all the details were removed. In general the transmission level in the upper arm of the Y-splitter was more affected than in the lower arm. Furthermore, we observed that absence of the small details in the splitter region did not lead to improvement of the transmission in the pass bands. Hence, the small details in the design do not contribute significantly in scattered losses of the Y-splitter. From the above observations and comments, we infer that these small details play an important role in the optimized structure and that they cannot be removed without hampering the performance of the splitter in spite of their negligible size.

The good agreement between the calculated spectra of the designed structure and the optical measurements on the fabricated structure confirms that the NIL fabrication of the challenging nanophotonic TO design has been successful. It should be noted though that the crosstalk is less suppressed in the fabricated structure, illustrating that there still is room for improvement in the fabrication process.

Finally, it is remarked that the TO compact wavelength splitter functions as designed, namely as a fairly efficient and coarse high-pass/low-pass wavelength filter.

Fig. 3. (Left) The original TO design. Light enters the component from the left side and is split into the two arms dependent on the wavelength. (Middle) SEM image of the fabricated splitter using NIL. (Right) Normalized measured transmission below the cut-off wavelength for quasi-TE polarized light from the two output arms. Also shown are 3D FDTD calculations for the transmission through the output arms of the originally designed structure. The 3D FDTD calculations have been blue-shifted by 0.5% in wavelength to match the experimental wavelength scale.

5. Conclusions

We have used NIL to fabricate SOI-based nanophotonic structures with feature sizes down below 30 nm. The NIL fabricated devices perform comparably to the direct EBL defined devices and the obtained results are in good agreement with 3D FDTD calculations. Thus, we have demonstrated the feasibility of NIL as a cost-efficient fabrication technique for silicon-based nanophotonics.

Acknowledgments

This project was supported in parts by the European network of excellence Epixnet, the Danish Research Council for Technology and Production Sciences via the PIPE project, and by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) via the Japanese Industrial Technology Research Area. The partial support of the EC-funded project NaPa (Contract no. NMP4-CT-2003-500120) is gratefully acknowledged. OS and JSJ received support from the Eurohorcs/ESF European Young Investigator Award (EURYI) through the grant “Synthesis and topology optimization of optomechanical systems”. Finally, the authors would like to thank Peixiong Shi, Danchip, DTU, for his technical assistance.

References and links

1.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12,1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-9-385 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. Green, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires: errata,” Opt. Express 14,6372–6372 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6372 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11,2927–2939 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2927 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26,1888–1890 (2001). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-23-1888 [CrossRef]

6.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12,1583–1591 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1583 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast integrated semiconductor optical modulator based on the plasma-dispersion effect,” Opt. Lett. 30,2403–2405 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,1182–1188 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433,725–728, (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

P. Debackere, S. Scheerlinck, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Surface plasmon interferometer in silicon-on-insulator: novel concept for an integrated biosensor,” Opt. Express 14,7063–7072 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7063 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett. 31,59–61 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-1-59 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.67, pp.3114–3116 (1995) [CrossRef]

14.

M. D. Austin, H. Ge, W. Wu, M. Li, Z. Yu, D. Wasserman, S. A. Lyon, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of 5 nm linewidth and 14 nm pitch features by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.84, pp.5299–5301, (2004) [CrossRef]

15.

P.I. Borel, A. Harpϕth, L.H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, “Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Express 12,1996–2001 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-9-1996 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpϕth, P.I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J.S. Jensen, and O. Sigmund, “Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization,” Opt. Express 12,5916–5921 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5916 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. Lavrinenko, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpϕth, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi, and H. Chong, “Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components,” Opt. Express 12,234–248 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-2-234 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

TEBN-1 by Tokuyama Corp., Tokyo, Japanhttp://www.tokuyama.co.jp

19.

B. Bilenberg, M. Schϕler, P. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, P. Bϕggild, M. Fink, C. Schuster, F. Reuther, G. Gruetzner, and A. Kristensen, “Comparison of High Resolution Negative Electron Beam Resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24,1776–1779 (2006) [CrossRef]

20.

B. Bilenberg, S. Jacobsen, M. S. Schmidt, L. H. D. Skjolding, P. Shi, P. Bϕggild, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and A. Kristensen, “High Resolution 100 kV Electron Beam Lithography in SU-8,” Microlectron. Eng. 83,1609–1612 (2006) [CrossRef]

21.

A.A. Ayón, D.-Z. Chen, R. Khanna, R. Braff, H.H. Sawin, and M.A. Schmidt, “Novel integrated MEMS process using fluorocarbon films deposited with a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) tool,” Mat. Res. Soc. 605,141–147 (2000) [CrossRef]

22.

H. Schulz, F. Osenberg, J. Engemann, and H.-C. Scheer, “Mask fabrication by nanoimprint lithography using anti-sticking layers,” Proc. SPIE 3996,244–249 (2000) [CrossRef]

23.

micro resist technology GmbH, Berlin, Germany, http://www.microresist.com

24.

T. Nielsen, D. Nilsson, F. Bundgaard, P. Shi, P. Szabo, O. Geschke, and A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprint lithography in the cyclic olefin copolymer, Topas, a highly UV-transparent and chemically resistant thermoplast,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,1770–1775 (2004) [CrossRef]

25.

J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund. “Systematic design of photonic crystal structures using topology optimization: low-loss waveguide bends,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 84,2022–2024 (2004) [CrossRef]

26.

M. P. Bendsϕe and O. Sigmund, Topology optimization — Theory, Methods and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2003)

OCIS Codes
(000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(220.4830) Optical design and fabrication : Systems design
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(230.4000) Optical devices : Microstructure fabrication

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: November 6, 2006
Revised Manuscript: January 18, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: January 19, 2007
Published: February 5, 2007

Citation
Peter I. Borel, Brian Bilenberg, Lars H. Frandsen, Theodor Nielsen, Jacob Fage-Pedersen, Andrei V. Lavrinenko, Jacob S. Jensen, Ole Sigmund, and Anders Kristensen, "Imprinted silicon-based nanophotonics," Opt. Express 15, 1261-1266 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1261


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