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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 3 — Feb. 5, 2007
  • pp: 1301–1306
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Optimal radii of photonic crystal holes within DBR mirrors in long wavelength VCSEL

Tomasz Czyszanowski, Maciej Dems, Hugo Thienpont, and Krassimir Panajotov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 1301-1306 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.001301


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Abstract

The modal characteristics of a Photonic-Crystal Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting diode Laser (PC-VCSEL) have been investigated. Photonic crystal structure, realized by a regular net of air holes within the layers, has been etched in the upper DBR mirror. An advanced three-dimensional, vectorial electromagnetic model has been applied to a phosphide – based device design featuring InGaAlAs active region, AlGaAs/GaAs mirrors and a tunnel junction to confine the current flow. For the structure under consideration a single mode operation has been found for the hole diameter over photonic crystal lattice constant ratio between 0.1–0.3.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

2. Laser structure and computational method

Several works have addressed recently the electromagnetic wave problem within a PC VCSEL cavity [1

1. P. S. Ivanov, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, J. Maehnss, K. J. Ebeling, and I. A. Sukhoivanov, “Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2442 –2447 (2003). [CrossRef]

,2

2. N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, and K. D. Choquette “Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1344 –1346 (2003). [CrossRef]

] however, all of them are based on a simple effective index/frequency method. Such an approach can be erroneous since the separability of the optical field in longitudinal and transverse components, which is a common assumption for effective methods [3

3. T. Czyszanowski and W. Nakwaski “Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39,30 –35 (2006). [CrossRef]

], is not possible for PC-VCSEL.

Fig. 1. Schematic layer structure of a VCSEL with Photonic Crystal Structure in the upper DBR.

Our theoretical study is based on the 1.3 μm PC VCSEL structure, of a design shown in Fig. 1. The multiquantum well active region within the 3-λ InP cavity consists of four 10-nm-thick Al0.0152Ga0.495In0.49As quantum wells and 15-nm-wide Al0.218Ga0.25In0.532As barriers. The cavity is bounded by the Al0.9Ga0.1As/GaAs DBRs. The upper one consists of 27 DBR pairs and the bottom one of 35 pairs. An optical confinement is realized by three rings of hexagonal air-hole PC in the whole upper DBR with a lattice constant of 4 μm. We consider here a simple single defect PC cavity. The uniform injection of carriers in the active region is assured by a proton implanted tunnel junction placed at a node position of the standing wave. In our computational model, the refractive indices of the layers are complex. We take into account the losses originating from the free carrier absorption in the passive layers and the intraband absorption within the active region and the tunnel junction. The distributions of the refractive indices are assumed to be uniform within each layer (see table 1).

Table. 1. Construction details of the AlGaInAs multiple quantum-well InP-based 1.3-μm PC VCSEL under consideration.

table-icon
View This Table

3. Results

Fig. 2. The wavelength of emission as a function of the 1/N for different a/L ratios.

3.1. Passive structure

We consider two different cases: a VCSEL structure as just described and the same VCSEL with a step gain function. Figure 3(a) presents the dependence of the emitted wavelength on the hole aperture for two guided modes in the structure (HE11 and HE12). The holes serve to provide the optical confinement. Broadening of the holes causes narrowing of the active region and strengthening of the mode confinement. The impact of the mode squeezing by the holes is observed in a typical blue shift of the emitted wavelength. The structure supports only the fundamental mode for narrow holes in the range 0.1 – 0.3 of the a/L ratio.

Fig. 3. Real a) and imaginary b) wavelength of emission as a function of the a\L ratio for the fundamental and the first order mode in a passive (pas) and active (act) structure. The insets show the distribution of the optical field within the active region cross-section.

3.2. Active structure

Fig. 4. Profiles of the fundamental mode within active region for hole/lattice ratios: 0.1 a), 0.3 b) and 0.7 c).

4. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

T. C. acknowledges the support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office for providing Research Fellowships. This work was supported by the IAP Program of the Belgian government, as well as GOA, FWO, and OZR of the VUB.

References and links

1.

P. S. Ivanov, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, J. Maehnss, K. J. Ebeling, and I. A. Sukhoivanov, “Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20,2442 –2447 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, and K. D. Choquette “Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,1344 –1346 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Czyszanowski and W. Nakwaski “Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39,30 –35 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Dems, R. Kotynski, and K. Panajotov “Plane Wave Admittance Method — a novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures,” Opt. Express 13,3196 –3207 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, “Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,950 –952 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

R.P. Sarzala, P. Mackowiak, M. Wasiak, T. Czyszanowski, and W. Nakwaski “Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEE Proceedings-OptoelectronicsOpt. Express 150,83 –85 (2003).

7.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, “Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,7 –9 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, and K. Panajotov “Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers”.submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B

9.

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, and A. Gopinath “Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38,1282–1290 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: September 28, 2006
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: January 17, 2007
Published: February 5, 2007

Citation
Tomasz Czyszanowski, Maciej Dems, Hugo Thienpont, and Krassimir Panajotov, "Optimal radii of photonic crystal holes within DBR mirrors in long wavelength VCSEL," Opt. Express 15, 1301-1306 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1301


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References

  1. P. S. Ivanov, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, J. Maehnss, K. J. Ebeling, I. A. Sukhoivanov, "Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2442 - 2447 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Czyszanowski, W. Nakwaski "Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 30 - 35 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov "Plane Wave Admittance Method — a novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Express 13, 3196 - 3207 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).
  7. J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B
  9. P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002). [CrossRef]

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