## Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO_{3} by a local-temperature-control technique

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 4, pp. 1561-1566 (2007)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.001561

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### Abstract

A tunable multi-wavelength filter can be realized in periodically poled LiNbO_{3} by using a local-temperature-control technique. In this paper, a tunable single-wavelength and double-wavelength filter of this kind is experimentally demonstrated. In our experiment, the output transmissivity peaks of the filter can be tuned to any wavelengths by properly setting the local temperature distribution along the sample. The dependence between the wavelength shift and temperature change is Δ*λ*/ΔT≈−0.598nm/°C. The wavelength tuning range of such filter is determined by the tuning range of the temperature control device according to this Δ*λ*/ΔT relation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

_{3}(PPLN) was extensively studied in the past decade for its outstanding nonlinear optical properties. Because the nonlinear coefficient changes sign periodically due to the periodic reversal of the ferroelectric domains in PPLN, quasi phase matching (QPM) occurs during the frequency conversion process [1–3

1. R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase matched nonlinear interactions and devices,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. **6**,549–592 (1997). [CrossRef]

4. Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, “Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO_{3} and its applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **77**,3719–3721 (2000). [CrossRef]

5. X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. **28**,2115–2117 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. J. H. Shi, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Observation of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. **39**,224–225 (2003). [CrossRef]

8. Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. **228**,139–143 (2003). [CrossRef]

9. D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, n_{e}, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. **22**,1553–1555 (1997). [CrossRef]

_{3}(Ti:PPLN) waveguide [10

10. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B. Yu, J. Lee, and D. Ko, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti: LiNbO_{3} channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **86**,011104 (2005). [CrossRef]

## 2. Theory of tunable PPLN multi-wavelength filter

4. Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, “Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO_{3} and its applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **77**,3719–3721 (2000). [CrossRef]

5. X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. **28**,2115–2117 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. J. H. Shi, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Observation of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. **39**,224–225 (2003). [CrossRef]

_{o}and n

_{e}are the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices respectively, and ʌ is the period of PPLN giving the sum length of one positive domain and one negative domain. The corresponding full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this filter can be estimated by Eq. (2) [11]:

*λ*

_{0}is the central wavelength.

_{o}-n

_{e}) part in Eq. (1) will consequently change, thus the central wavelength will be tuned to a new value. The temperature dependent Sellmeier equation for lithium niobate is given by Eq. (3) [9

9. D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, n_{e}, in congruent lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. **22**,1553–1555 (1997). [CrossRef]

_{1–4}and B

_{1–3}are constant parameters. From Eq. (1) we can also derive the relationship between the wavelength shift and temperature change, which can be expressed by Eq. (4):

*λ*/dT=−0.588nm/°C [8

8. Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. **228**,139–143 (2003). [CrossRef]

10. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B. Yu, J. Lee, and D. Ko, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti: LiNbO_{3} channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **86**,011104 (2005). [CrossRef]

## 3. Experimental results and discussions

^{3}consists of nine gratings with periods from 20μm to 22μm and a width of 1mm. We use the EXFO optical test system in our experiment, which includes a broadband ASE source with an output wavelength range from approximately 1530nm to 1560nm, as well as an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). To obtain the localized temperature in PPLN, two Peltier devices are placed under the sample. The temperatures of the two sections are controlled by temperature control units.

_{o}and n

_{e}always appears as (n

_{o}-n

_{e}), we only choose the A

_{1}parameter of n

_{e}in the Sellmeier equation given in Eq. (3) to make a correction, changing its value from 4.9048 to 4.9057 in order to describe our sample better. The black and green solid curves are theoretical simulations using this new A

_{1}parameter. For such a correction, the experimental and theoretical results are in agreement. In the later theoretical simulations, we always use this new A

_{1}value and use solid lines to represent all the calculated results. Since it is proven that the rotation angle (±θ) of the optical axes in the positive and negative domains mainly determine the peak transmissivity value, in our calculation we have properly adjusted ∣±θ∣ to make the peak transmissivity value equal to one in order to compare the experimental and theoretical results clearly [7].

*λ*

_{1/2}=1.60

*λ*

_{0}/N≈0.63nm for the single-wavelength case and Δ

*λ*

_{1/2}=1.60

*λ*

_{0}/(N/2)≈1.3nm for the double-wavelength case. The experimental FWHMs are 0.68nm and 1.5nm, respectively. They also agreed well with the theoretically estimated FWHMs.

*λ*/ΔT is approximately −0.598nm/°C. The solid line in Fig. 4 gives the theoretically calculated value from the Sellmeier equation given in Eq.(3) with the new corrected A

_{1}parameter. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical simulation as well. Within a temperature range only limited by the temperature control device, and according to the measured dependence between the wavelength shift and temperature change, we can realize a corresponding wavelength tuning range for this kind of filter. And in such a wavelength range, the output transmission peaks can be tuned to any needed wavelengths by properly controlling the temperature distribution according to future applications.

## 4. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase matched nonlinear interactions and devices,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. |

2. | L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation in bulk periodically poled LiNbO |

3. | K. Mizuuchi and K. Yamamoto, “Waveguide second-harmonic generation device with broadened flat quasi-phase-matching response by use of a grating structure with located phase shifts,” Opt. Lett. |

4. | Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, “Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO |

5. | X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. |

6. | J. H. Shi, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Observation of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. |

7. | L. J. Chen, J. H. Shi, X. F. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, “Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

8. | Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, “Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. |

9. | D. H. Jundt, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, n |

10. | Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B. Yu, J. Lee, and D. Ko, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti: LiNbO |

11. | A. Yariv and P. Yeh, |

**OCIS Codes**

(120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters

(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate

(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

**ToC Category:**

Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

**History**

Original Manuscript: December 7, 2006

Revised Manuscript: January 30, 2007

Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2007

Published: February 19, 2007

**Citation**

Jinghe Wang, Jianhong Shi, Zhuoer Zhou, and Xianfeng Chen, "Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO_{3} by a local-temperature-control technique," Opt. Express **15**, 1561-1566 (2007)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-4-1561

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### References

- R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched nonlinear interactions and devices," J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 549-592 (1997). [CrossRef]
- L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, "Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102-2116 (1995). [CrossRef]
- K. Mizuuchi and K. Yamamoto, "Waveguide second-harmonic generation device with broadened flat quasi-phase-matching response by use of a grating structure with located phase shifts," Opt. Lett. 23, 1880-1882 (1998). [CrossRef]
- Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, "Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3719-3721 (2000). [CrossRef]
- X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. H. Shi, X. F. Chen, Y. P. Chen, Y. M. Zhu, Y. X. Xia, Y. L. Chen, "Observation of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Chen, J. H. Shi, X. F. Chen, and Y. X. Xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1211118 (2006).
- Y. M. Zhu, X. F. Chen, J. H. Shi, Y. P. Chen, Y. X. Xia, and Y. L. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003). [CrossRef]
- D. H. Jundt, "Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equation for the index of refraction, ne, in congruent lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1553-1555 (1997). [CrossRef]
- Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B. Yu, J. Lee, and D. Ko, "Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti: LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011104 (2005). [CrossRef]
- A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystal: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984), Chap. 5.

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