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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 7 — Apr. 2, 2007
  • pp: 4205–4215
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Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons

Roman Kiyan, Carsten Reinhardt, Sven Passinger, Andrei L. Stepanov, Andreas Hohenau, Joachim R. Krenn, and Boris N. Chichkov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 7, pp. 4205-4215 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.004205


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Abstract

Advanced femtosecond laser technology allows the fabrication of arbitrary 2D and 3D dielectric micro- and nanoscale structures by two-photon polymerization (2PP). In this paper, we present first investigations on excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on dielectric 2D structures fabricated on metal surfaces with this technology. Straight and curved line- and dot- structures built of the negative-tone photoresist ORMOCER (organically modified ceramic) are investigated by plasmon leakage radiation microscopy. Polarization dependent excitation efficiencies and focusing of SPPs are investigated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The ongoing miniaturization in today’s innovative technologies has triggered the emergence of nanotechnology. Within this field intense research efforts in, e.g., material science, chemistry, electronics or microscopy are conducted, often combined into interdisciplinary programs. When it comes to optics, however, one finds the nanoscale to be out of reach: diffraction limits the spatial resolution to a value given by about half the light wavelength. To overcome this limitation is of great interest for both basic research and technological applications.

Since the beginning of the 1990’s, metals have been investigated for their potential in downsizing optics beyond the diffraction limit [1

01. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424,824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited in metal nanostructures were identified as promising candidates to serve that need. SPPs are resonant electromagnetic surface wave modes constituted by a light field coupled to a collective oscillation of conduction electrons at the interface of a metal and a dielectric [2

02. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988), Chap. 2.

]. The corresponding electromagnetic fields are strongly localized at the interface. Thus, if the interface is formed by a nanostructure, it is the spatial dimension of the nanostructure rather than the light wavelength that determines the spatial extension of the SPP field. Recently, the feasibility of nanooptics based on metal nanostructures was experimentally demonstrated and elements such as SPP mirrors, beam splitters, and interferometers were realized [3–8

03. I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, “Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,3877 –3880 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we apply state-of-the-art femtosecond laser technology as a powerful tool for the fabrication of 2D SPP structures. The advantage of this method is the simplicity of the structuring setup. Above all no vacuum and complicated sample preparation technique are required. The application of ultrashort laser pulses provides various options for surface structuring. One of them, two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique [9

09. J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt. Express 12,5221–5228 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31,1307–1309 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is very promising for the fabrication of plasmonic components. By polymerization of the monomer material directly on the substrate surface and subsequent covering with thin silver or gold films arbitrary shaped structures can be generated. These structures serve as scatter centers by defect-excitation of SPP on the metal surface. Moreover, the creation of dielectric structures on the metal surface offers the unique possibility for a simple, rapid, and low-cost fabrication of SPP waveguides and devices like splitters and couplers.

The fabrication of the SPP structures by 2PP of negative photo resist with femtosecond laser radiation is described in section 2. In section 3, we discuss leakage radiation microscopy [6

06. A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30,1524–1526 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

07. A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005). [CrossRef]

] as the experimental technique for the characterization of SPP excitation and propagation. Sections 4 to 6 discuss the SPP excitation properties of surface line and point defects and the focusing properties of dielectric lenses, respectively.

2. Fabrication of dielectric structures for SPP excitation

Dielectric structures are fabricated by two-photon polymerization (2PP) of the commercial inorganic-organic hybrid polymer ORMOCER® mixed with the Irgacure 369 photo-initiator (Microresist Technology). This material is sensitive to UV radiation and is transparent in the near-IR so that femtosecond laser pulses from a Ti: Sapphire laser can be focused into the volume of the liquid ORMOCER®. The high photon density in the waist of the focused laser beam creates conditions for two-photon absorption by the initiator molecules. That causes radical generation and initiates the polymerization of the ORMOCER®.

The 2PP fabrication scheme is outlined in Fig. 1. For structuring, the ORMOCER® has been sandwiched between two 18 mm × 18 mm soda-lime glass slides of 150 μm thickness each. The distance between the two slides is set by a thin plastic frame spacer to 100 μm. The laser beam is focused by the microscope objective through the upper glass slide and the ORMOCER® onto the top surface of the lower slide. On this surface the SPP structures are generated. The lower slide may also carry a metal layer to create structures on the metal surface. A Nikon 100× oil-immersed microscope objective with numerical aperture (NA) of 1.3 is used to focus the laser pulses.

Fig. 1. Outline of 2PP fabrication.

For the investigations, a femtosecond oscillator Tsunami from Spectra Physics is used. This system delivers laser pulses at 780 nm with a duration of 60 fs (FWHM) and a repetition rate of 80 MHz. In our experiments, average powers up to 40 mW are used. Power adjustment is accomplished by means of a half-wave plate together with a polarizing beam splitter cube.

The sample can be roughly positioned by a stepper-motor-controlled xyz-positioning system from Physik Instrumente. During the structuring process the sample is fixed and the beam is scanned through the microscope objective with a galvo-scanner system from Scanlab. The writing speed for generating the structures is 40 μm/s. In this way areas of 40 μm × 40 μm can be microstructured, before the curvature of the image field leads to large deviations of the focal position and reduction of the laser pulse intensity. When the substrate surface is scanned by the laser focus, polymerization of the ORMOCER® occurs along the trace of the focus and the SPP structures are generated on the substrate surface. Refractive index of the polymerized ORMOCER® at 632 nm is 1.56. The refractive indices of the uncured and the cured material differ slightly, allowing online optical observation of the polymerization process. After completion of the laser inscription, the non-illuminated non-polymerized material is removed with 4-methyl-2-pentanone.

Fig. 2. SEM image of dielectric stripes and bends fabricated on gold.

In order to create structures on a metal surface, the lower glass slide is covered with a thin metal film. In all investigations reported here gold is used, the gold layers of 50 nm thickness are prepared by sputtering.

To fabricate SPP structures like waveguides, bends, and beam splitters with a smooth surface quality, the focal position is set directly on the gold surface. The laser power is adjusted initially to 6 mW and increased to 14 mW, while the structure is scanned a few times. The resulting structures show a very good surface quality. A SEM image of stripes and bends fabricated on a gold surface with this procedure are shown in Fig. 2. Typical width of the fabricated structures is in the range of 200 nm – 1 μm. The minimum achievable height is of about 300 nm.

3. Experimental technique for SPP imaging

For imaging the spatial profile of SPPs excited and propagating on a gold thin film deposited on a glass substrate, we use leakage radiation (LR) microscopy. LR is emitted from the metal-glass interface during plasmon propagation [2

02. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988), Chap. 2.

,6

06. A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30,1524–1526 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as phase matching between the SPP and the LR wave in the glass substrate sets the LR emission to a characteristic angle θSPP . This angle depends on the dielectric functions of the substrate material (glass) εd , the superstrate (air) εa, the metal layer εm and on the metal layer thickness d .

In our experiments, glass substrates covered with a 50 nm gold layer and air as the superstrate are used. The structure parameters are thus εd = 2.25, εa = 1, εm = -10.97 at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. From the SPP dispersion relation and the phase matching condition k SPP{εd,εa,εm,d) = -√εd k 0 sinθSPP between the SPP wave vector kSPP and the LR wave vector √εd k 0, the angle of the LR appearance is calculated to be 43.8° [11

11. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This angle is above the critical angle of total internal reflection in the glass substrate (θC = 41.8°) and LR has thus to be detected with the use of a high NA oil-immersion objective. The detected LR represents the SPP spatial intensity distribution at the metal-air interface.

Fig. 3. Experimental setup for SPP leakage radiation detection.

The setup of the LR microscope is shown in Fig. 3. SPPs are excited by the polarized beam from 632.8 nm He-Ne laser focused onto the gold layer side of the sample carrying the dielectric SPP structures. A microscope objective with 40× magnification and NA = 0.63 is used for the laser beam focusing. The minimum excitation spot size of about 2 μm diameter is achieved in the waist of the focused laser beam. Through a dichroic mirror and the same objective, the sample is illuminated by white light. This gives an opportunity for the simultaneous recording of the SPP field distribution at the metal-glass interface via LR microscopy and imaging the dielectric structures applied for SPP generation. The emitted LR is collected by a 100× microscope objective (Zeiss) with a NA adjustable between 0.7 and 1.3, and imaged onto color CCD camera. In order to suppress the directly transmitted laser beam that could saturate the CCD camera and mask weak SPP signals, a spatial filter is introduced into the imaging system. The spatial filter effectively blocks the Gaussian laser beam propagating along the optical axis of the system. However, the LR which is emitted at high angles with respect to the optical axis is not affected [12

12. A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,091117 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

The acceptance angle α of the oil immersed microscope objective is given by α = arcsin(NA/noil). For NA = 0.7 and NA = 1.3 of the variable NA objective, α is calculated to be 27.5° and 59.1°, respectively. Detection of the plasmon LR is possible if NA> 1.062 (α> 43.8°). This estimation is confirmed experimentally as shown in Fig. 4. Here, LR images are recorded with the different values of the NA given above. Note that the images in Fig. 4 were recorded without spatial filtering of the radiation collected by output microscope objective. With NA = 0.7 only the transmitted laser beam can be detected and no LR is visible, see Fig. 4a. The LR is collected by the immersion objective only if the NA of the objective is larger than NA≈1. Fig. 4b shows the LR image for a NA of 1.3 where both transmitted excitation laser beam and plasmon LR are present. In the following experiments the microscope objective is used with the NA set to maximal value of 1.3.

Fig. 4. Detection of the leakage radiation with a microscope objective set to different numerical apertures, NA = 0.7 (a) and NA = 1.3 (b). The spot and arrow in the SEM image in the inset indicate the laser focus position and SPP propagation direction, respectively.

4. SPP excitation on dielectric line structures

Dielectric line structures were fabricated by 2PP technique as described above. A typical line structure is shown in Fig. 5. Despite the simple geometry of this structure interesting observations can be made upon SPP excitation.

First, the spot size of the excitation beam together with the wave front curvature in the plane of the metal surface play a crucial role in the formation of transversal intensity profile of the generated SPP. If the excitation beam is focused onto the sample surface, the SPP excitation takes place in the beam waist area. This guarantees a minimum excitation spot size with a flat wave front. SPPs with divergent intensity profiles are generated by line structures with this type of excitation. However, the SPP intensity profile can be modified drastically if the curvature of the wave front of the excitation spot is modified. Specifically, a spherical wave front [13

13. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals. Propagation and control of laser radiation (Wiley-Interscience, 2002), Chap. 2.

] projected onto line dielectric structure can causes focusing of the generated SPP. A straightforward way to create wave front shapes for SPP focusing is proper defocusing of the excitation beam with respect to the excitation plane. To demonstrate this effect, a sequence of images of the SPP intensity distribution was recorded while changing the longitudinal positions of the input microscope objective. Mustered together these images form a movie (Movie 1, 1.1 MB) that demonstrates the transformation of the SPP intensity distribution when shifting the focal position of the input objective. Movie 1 actually starts when the input beam is focused onto the sample surface, so that SPP excitation is achieved by a focus with 2 μm diameter and flat wave front (the radius of wave front curvature is infinity). Gradually the radius of the wave front curvature at the sample surface is decreasing by longitudinal shift of the objective and reaches a minimum value when the objective shift is about 5 μm. The excitation spot size is increased simultaneously. Several images taken at different positions of the input objective are shown in Fig. 6. In the same figure the correspondent position of the waist of the excitation laser beam with respect to the sample surface is illustrated.

Fig. 5. SEM image of the dielectric line structure applied for SPP excitation.
Fig. 6. LR images of SPPs excited on a dielectric line within the laser beam waist area (a), at a 5 μm distance off from the beam waist (b), and 15 μm off from the beam waist (c).

The exponential SPP intensity decay along the propagation direction caused by ohmic losses and leakage radiation significantly limits the degree to which spatial SPP field profiles can be tailored. Despite of this complication, focusing of the plasmon excited on dielectric line structure is clearly demonstrated in Fig. 6. For comparison, focusing of SPPs exited on a scratch in a gold film is shown in Movie 2 (2.4 MB).

The polarization dependence of the SPP excitation efficiency on straight dielectric line structures was investigated. The LR images for different orientations of the linear polarization of the exciting HeNe-laser beam, which was rotated by a half-wave plate, are analyzed. For the qualitative characterization of according SPP excitation efficiencies, the intensity of the LR was measured at a distance of 5 μm from the dielectric line. As shown in Fig. 7, the LR intensity demonstrates the expected sinusoidal dependence on the angle of the polarization direction relative to the line structure.

Fig. 7. LR intensity of LR as a function of the polarization orientation of the exciting laser beam. 0° and 180° refer to the polarization direction orthogonal to the line structure.

5. Focusing plasmons by continuous dielectric lens

To demonstrate further potential of 2PP for SPP generation, curved polymer structures were fabricated. The SEM image of one such structure is shown in Fig. 8. The structure is a ring segment with about 10 μm radius. Illumination by a laser beam orthogonal to the sample surface leads to SPP excitation at each elementary line segment of the structure. The directions of propagation of the excited SPPs are perpendicular to the local line elements. As for any wave based process, the SPP field distribution resulting from the excitation on the curved dielectric structure is a sum of the elementary SPP wave fields generated by each of the elementary line segments of the structure. Both, the wave front shape of the excitation beam at the sample surface and the geometry of the curved dielectric structure add to specific phase relations of the elemental SPP fields. The intensities of the elemental SPP fields are defined by the intensity distribution of the excitation beam in the excitation plane and the polarization dependent local excitation efficiencies.

Fig. 8. SEM image of the “continuous” dielectric ring segments applied for SPP excitation.

In the case of SPP excitation with the ring segment, several interesting phenomena can be observed. SPPs excited by a laser beam focused onto the sample surface demonstrate relatively strong divergence caused by the small size of the laser spot and the flat phase front in the excitation area. However, the direction of SPP propagation depends on the location of the laser spot on the ring structure. As it is shown in Fig. 9, the direction of SPP propagation is orthogonal to the structure curvature in the excitation point. If the sample is laterally shifted to illuminate different parts of the ring structure the SPP propagation direction is modified in accordance with the structure curvature. This SPP propagation direction modification is illustrated in Movie 3 (0.34 MB). In all cases, the exciting laser beam is polarized vertically with respect to the image frame.

Fig. 9. LR images of SPPs excited at the focus waist of the exciting laser beam. The direction of SPP propagation is determined by the local curvature of the dielectric ring segment at the excitation point.
Fig. 10. LR image of SPP focusing due to uniform excitation of the dielectric ring section structure.

As in case of dielectric line structures, SPP focusing by dielectric ring structures can be achieved due to proper phase front conditions of the excitation beam. In addition, however, SPPs generated on the ring structures can be focused simply due to the specific ring geometry. In order to demonstrate this type of the SPP focusing, the same dielectric ring structure as in Figure 9 was illuminated by a laser beam spot with a diameter of about 10 μm. This excitation spot size and proper positioning of the laser spot on the dielectric structure guarantee a uniform phase distribution of the excitation field over the whole ring segment. Again, the polarization of the exciting laser beam is vertical. Such a large excitation spot covers the whole dielectric structure, so that practically each elementary segment of the ring contributes to SPP excitation. Although polarization mismatch leads to reduced efficiency of SPP excitation at the structure ends, focusing of the resulting plasmon is observed in this experimental configuration. The according LR image of the focused SPP is shown in Figure 10. The waist of the focused plasmon is located at the geometrical center of the dielectric ring segment. In Figure 11 a cross-cut through the focused SPP in Figure 10 is shown, revealing a SPP FWHM waist size of about 2.7 μm.

Fig. 11. Cross-cut through the SPP focus (in horizontal direction) corresponding to Fig. 10.
Fig. 12. LR images of focused SPPs excited on dielectric ring segment structures. The polarization orientation of the exciting laser beam is vertical (a), horizontal (b), – 45° (c), and + 45° (d). The angles in (c) and (d) are measured with respect to the vertical direction.

By moving the ring segment structure through the 10 μm spot size results in varying SPP excitation and focusing conditions, as illustrated in Movie 4 (0.28 MB). The best focusing result is obtained if the excitation beam covers the whole ring segment, i.e. the beam axis is collocated with the geometrical center of the ring. In this case clear image of the focused plasmon is achieved. As becomes evident from the movie, due to large size of the excitation beam, both, inner and outer sides of the ring segment are involved in SPP generation. As a result, SPPs propagating inside and outside the ring are observed. The former is focused and the latter is divergent with an angle governed by the curvature of the dielectric ring segment.

We investigated as well the polarization dependence of the SPP intensity distribution. As reported above, a vertical polarization (with respect to the image frame) of the excitation beam defines a quite symmetric SPP field profile with respect to the SPP propagation direction. Figure 12 and Movie 5 (0.58 MB) illustrate how the field profile of the focused SPP is modified when the polarization orientation of the excitation laser beam is rotated. A maximum signal is always observed along the direction parallel to the polarization. For non-vertical polarization directions, the SPP field profile is asymmetric, which can be explained by the non-symmetric geometric excitation conditions. Furthermore, a horizontally polarized beam does not generate any SPPs. Again, all these observations are perfectly consistent with the model of a SPP field generated by contributions of SPP fields generated on each elementary line segment of the dielectric structure.

5. Focusing plasmons with a dot dielectric lens

Another example of 2PP fabricated dielectric structures for SPP excitation is shown in Fig. 13. This ring segment is formed by individual polymer dots. Experimental LR images of the SPPs generated by this structure are shown in Fig. 14 and Fig. 15. Specific features of the SPP fields are observed due to discontinuous nature of the dielectric structure. The LR image presented in Fig. 14a was obtained when the structure was illuminated by a laser beam with about 3 μm diameter focus centered at the position indicated in the inset. Thereby, a spatially well confined SPP beam is generated with a horizontally polarized laser beam. This observation corresponds to SPP generation on the continuous dielectric ring segment (compare with Fig. 9). However, when predominantly the outer side of the dot ring segment is illuminated by a vertically polarized laser beam, two non-collinear SPP beams are generated (Fig. 14b) which are not observed in case of the continuous dielectric ring segment.

Fig. 13. SEM image of the “dot” dielectric ring segments. The in-plane size of the polymer dot is of about 350 nm, distance between centers of dots is 850 nm.

Fig. 14. LR images of SPP excitation on the “dot” dielectric ring segment by horizontally (a) and vertically (b) polarized laser beam. The spots and arrows in the SEM image in the insets indicate the laser focus position and SPP propagation directions, respectively.
Fig. 15. LR images of focused SPPs exited on the “dot” dielectric ring segment. In order to make low-intensity details visible grey levels in the right image are saturated.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, laser fabrication of dielectric 2D surface plasmon polariton structures on metal surfaces by two-photon induced polymerization of a high refractive index inorganic-organic hybrid polymer has been studied. Optical properties of the fabricated dielectric SPP structures have been investigated by imaging of the leakage radiation generated by the SPPs. Effective excitation and focusing of the SPPs have been demonstrated with different metal-dielectric structures.

The demonstrated results on excitation and manipulation of SPP fields and simplicity of the fabrication technique, through two-photon induced polymerization, provide interesting prospects for applications of these metal-dielectric structures in future plasmonic devices.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Network of Excellence “Plasmo-Nano-Devices” for financial support. We are grateful to the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant No. 06-02-08147 for financial support of A. L. Stepanov.

References and Links

01.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424,824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

02.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988), Chap. 2.

03.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, “Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,3877 –3880 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

04.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, J. Mait, and C. C. Davis, “Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects,” Phys. Rev. B 56,1601–1611 (1997). [CrossRef]

05.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762–1764 (2002). [CrossRef]

06.

A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, A. Drezet, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 30,1524–1526 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

07.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005). [CrossRef]

08.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440,508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

09.

J. Serbin, A. Ovsianikov, and B. Chichkov, “Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties,” Opt. Express 12,5221–5228 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31,1307–1309 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,091117 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals. Propagation and control of laser radiation (Wiley-Interscience, 2002), Chap. 2.

14.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles, ” submitted for publication in J. Appl. Phys.

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: February 23, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 23, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: March 23, 2007
Published: April 2, 2007

Citation
Roman Kiyan, Carsten Reinhardt, Sven Passinger, Andrei L. Stepanov, Andreas Hohenau, Joachim R. Krenn, and Boris N. Chichkov, "Rapid prototyping of optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 15, 4205-4215 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4205


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References

  1. W. L.  Barnes, A.  Dereux, and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H.  Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988), Chap. 2.
  3. I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877 - 3880 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J.  Serbin, A.  Ovsianikov, B.  Chichkov, "Fabrication of woodpile structures by two-photon polymerization and investigation of their optical properties," Opt. Express 12, 5221-5228 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C.  Reinhardt, S.  Passinger, B. N.  Chichkov, C.  Marquart, I. P.  Radko, S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006). [CrossRef]
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