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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 8 — Apr. 16, 2007
  • pp: 4493–4498
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Non-collinear CPOPA seeded by an Yb3+-doped self-starting passive mode-locked fiber laser

Hongying Wang, Hongjun Liu, Xiaoli Li, and Wei Zhao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 8, pp. 4493-4498 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.004493


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Abstract

Using a home-made seed at 1053 nm from a Yb3+-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser of 1.5 nJ/pulse, 362 ps pulse duration with a repetition rate of 3.842 MHz, a compact, low cost, stable and excellent beam quality non-collinear chirped pulse optical parametric amplifier omitting the bulky pulse stretcher has been demonstrated. A gain higher than 4.0×106, single pulse energy exceeding 6 mJ with fluctuations less than 2% rms, 14 nm amplified signal spectrum and recompressed pulse duration of 525 fs are achieved. This provides a novel and simple amplification scheme.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Chirped pulse optical parametric amplification (CPOPA) is an attractive technique for the generation of ultrashort laser pulses with high-peak powers [1–8

1. Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free Petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 281–293 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The idea of CPOPA, proposed by Dubietis et al. [9

9. A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88, 437–440 (1992). [CrossRef]

], combines the optical parametric amplification (OPA) with the chirped pulse amplification (CPA). The CPOPA [10–15

10. R. Butkus, R. Danielius, A. Dubietis, A. Piskarskas, and A. Stabinis, “Progress in chirped pulse optical parametric amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 693–700 (2004). [CrossRef]

] technique offers significant advantages over other schemes, such as high gain per single pass, a broad gain bandwidth, high output beam quality because of low heat deposition and a small B integral, energy combining of uncorrelated and incoherent pump beams, phase-conjugated output signal and idler pulses and a high contrast ratio owing to a low level of pre-pulses, amplified spontaneous emissions. In CPA, the amplified spontaneous emission generates a long pedestal, spectral clipping and phase distortions lead to an additional background near the main pulse. In CPOPA, since there is no gain outside this time window defined by the pump pulse, only the pedestal caused by parametric superfluorescence which is within the gain time window will be amplified.

Parametric amplification [16–19

16. H. Yoshida, E. Ishii, R. Kodama, H. Fujita, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Izawa, and T. Yamanaka, “High-power and high-contrast optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in β-BaB2O4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28, 257–259 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is an instantaneous nonlinear optical frequency conversion process, efficient amplification can only be achieved by matching the duration and the phase of pump and seed pulses. One method of matching pulse durations uses a nanosecond (ns) pump. In this scheme the seed pulse is stretched to a sub-nanosecond range in a grating stretcher, which makes entire system complicated and bulky.

To overcome this limitation above, seeded by a home-made Yb3+-doped self-starting passively mode-locked fiber laser omitting dispersion compensation outside the cavity, a compact, low cost, stable and excellent beam quality (M2=1.2) non-collinear chirped pulse optical parametric amplification (NCPOPA) omitting the bulky pulse stretcher and pumped by ns pulse has been demonstrated in this paper. The integrated fiber laser without dispersion compensation is capable of delivering several hundreds picoseconds chirped pulse, as a result, the pulse stretcher has been omitted. This scheme is useful to the production of a relatively compact and low cost NCPOPA system. Overall net gain of higher than 4.0×106 and single pulse energy exceeding 6 mJ with fluctuations less than 2% rms have been achieved. Amplified spontaneous fluorescence constitutes less than 1% of the total output pulse energy. The 14 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) amplified signal spectrum and the 14 nm (FWHM) idler pulse spectrum have been observed. We also demonstrate that the output pulse can be compressed to 525 femtosecond (fs).

2. Experimental setup

The schematic diagram of NCPOPA based on Yb3+-doped fiber laser is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Experimental setup of the CPOPA system HWP: Half-wave-plate, TFP: Thin-film-polarizer, PC: Pockels cell

The signal pulse was generated by a home-made Yb3+-doped self-starting passively mode-locked fiber laser operating at 3.8 MHz and using pairs of diffraction gratings for dispersion compensation outside the laser cavity, which centered at 1053 nm with 10 nm (FWHM) spectrum bandwidth. Figure 2 shows the details on the fiber laser. It consists of a mode-locked oscillator and a power amplifier. The pump source is a fiber-coupled single mode laser diode (LD) operating at the wavelength of 976 nm. Pump light is coupled into the optical loop through a 976 nm/1053 nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The polarization insensitive isolator (ISO) ensures a unidirectional operation cavity. Coupler 1 is the output coupler of the laser. In our fiber laser, the combination of coupler 2 (coupling ratio is 50:50) and coupler 3 (coupling ratio is 97:3) acts as the asymmetric couple. Power of 97% after the coupler 3 goes into the cavity. The operation of the mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser relies on the different phase shifts between counter-propagating pulses in the loop. A single input is split into two counter-propagating pulses with different intensities. When the two pulses propagate in the loop, they have different phase shifts induced by self-phase modulation (SPM). Finally, they recombine at the coupler 2 synchronously. If we select a most suitable coupling ratio of coupler 3 and the positions of polarization controllers (PC1 and PC2), the laser will be much easy self-starting. The Yb3+-doped fiber laser showed the excellent long term stability under the temperature stabilized ultra-clean environmental condition, so the mode-locking operation could be hardly influenced by the external environment.

Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the fiber laser

As a seed source, we used the 362 picoseconds (ps) (FWHM) [see Fig. 3] chirped pulse by omitting dispersion compensation outside the cavity.

Fig. 3. Broad-band oscillograph trace of the chirped seed pulse with the width duration of 362 ps

The seed beam at 10 Hz repetition rate leaving the Pockels cell was collimated by the 1.8:1 lens telescope and injected into the first OPA stage. The diameter of the horizontally polarized seed beams after the telescope was roughly 2.5 mm in the first OPA stage. The energy of the seed pulse injected into the first class OPA stage was 1.5 nJ. The output of the first OPA stage was resized by a 1:1.1 beam expanding telescope to ∼2.8 mm diameter. The resulting signal pulse was injected into the second OPA stage.

The pump pulse was generated by a commercial Q-switched single-longitudinal mode seeded by Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm (Continuum Powerlite 8010), which produces a 10Hz pulse train of 800 mJ, 6 ns (FWHM) pulse. The pump laser output was split into two beams and the maximum pump pulse energy of each stage was 150 mJ. The energy of both pump pulses can be continuously adjusted using a combination of a half-wave plate and a thin film polarizer, which allows gradual increase of pump power and reduced probability of optical damage. The vertically polarized pump beam of each stage was collimated by 2.7:1 telescope to the diameter of ~3 mm and then sent to the nonlinear crystal.

The timing system utilizes a Stanford Research Systems DG-535 signal generator and a 5046E (MEDOX Inc.). The measured jitter of our timing system is less than +/-0.5 ns.

BBO crystal was chosen as the nonlinear medium because of its high effective nonlinear coefficient. The first and second stage crystals had a cross-section of 6 mm×6 mm and their lengths were 16 mm. Both antireflection-coated crystals were cut at 22.86° to provide the largest possible gain bandwidth and to facilitate type I non-collinear angular phase matching with an external non-collinear angular between the seed and the pump of 1.1°. Each crystal was mounted on precision polarizer holder, where there was a precision translation stage and precision rotary stage below it to optimize the phase matching angle and the non-collinear angle between the pump and the seed beams.

3. Results and discussion

We first examined the amplification gain of this NCPOPA system based on Yb3+-doped fiber laser by using a laser energy meter. The gain is defined as the ratio of amplified energy to the input signal energy. Figure 4 shows the amplification gain versus different pump intensities dependence for each individual stage. Each point of the curve represents the average value over 600 shots.

The energy of the input seed pulse was 1.5 nJ, corresponding to a 84 W/cm2 intensity. As can be seen from the Fig. 4(a), a maximum gain of ∼3740 was obtained for the first stage with a 350 MW/cm2 pump intensity. The output signal from the first stage served as the input signal to be amplified in the second stage. A saturated gain of ∼1100 was achieved at this stage with a 350 MW/cm2 maximum pump intensity [Fig. 4(b)]. The overall net gain from the two-stage OPA reached 4.0×106, corresponding to the final output energy of 6 mJ with fluctuations less than 2% rms.

Fig. 4. Experimental gain of the amplifier versus the pump pulse intensity:(a) the first CPOPA stage and (b) the second CPOPA stage.

In combination with a measurement of the NCPOPA output power with and without seeding, the remaining amount of superfluorescence in the presence of seed light can be estimated to be less than ∼1% of the total output power.

The spectrum of the input seed and final amplified output was measured with HR2000 spectrometer (Ocean Optics). Figure 5(a) shows the measured seed and final amplified pulse spectrum with a bandwidth of 10 nm and 14 nm (FWHM), respectively. At the same time, we examined the spectrum of the output idler pulse with a bandwidth of 14 nm (FWHM) centered at 1075 nm as shown in Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 5. Measured spectrum of (a) input seed pulse and amplified signal pulse, (b) idler pulse obtained by the NCPOPA

The spatial intensity profile for the amplified output signal is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Beam spatial profile for the output signals (M2=1.2)

The temporal intensity profile of the recompressed signal pulse is shown in Fig. 7. The measured pulse duration is 525 fs (FWHM).

Fig. 7. The temporal intensity profile of the recompressed signal pulse

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel CPOPA system that utilizes a home-built integrated fiber laser omitting dispersion compensation and delivering several hundreds picoseconds chirped pulse as a seed source, which omits the bulky pulse stretcher. This scheme does not introduce additional complexity before the amplification. This system is remarkably compact, economical and stable. And we have also achieved an excellent beam quality after amplification. The overall net gain of the two-stage OPA higher than 4.0×106 and single pulse energy exceeding 6 mJ with fluctuations less than 2% rms are reached. The 14 nm (FWHM) amplified signal spectrum, the 14 nm (FWHM) idler pulse spectrum and recompressed pulse duration of 525 fs have been observed. Since the broadband mode-locked Yb3+-fiber laser [20–21

20. P. Adel and C. Fallnich, “High-power ultra-broadband mode-locked Yb3+-fiber laser with 118 nm bandwidth,” Opt. Express 10, 622–627 (2002). [PubMed]

] has been demonstrated, broadband NCPOPA based on the fiber laser will be obtained in the future.

Acknowledgments

This project is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (under Grant<Project>No. 60408002) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shannxi Province in China (under Grant<Project> No. 2004F02).

References and links

1.

Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, “Prepulse-free Petawatt laser for a fast ignitor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40, 281–293 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

I. N. Ross, John L. Collier, P. Matousek, Colin N. Danson, D. Neely, Ric M. Allott, Dave A. Pepler, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and K. Osvay, “Generation of terawatt pulses by use of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2422–2427 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, “The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 144, 125–133 (1997). [CrossRef]

4.

X. Yang, Z. Xu, Y. Leng, H. Lu, L. Lin, Z. Zhang, R. Li, W. Zhang, D. Yin, and B. Tang, “Multiterawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1135–1137 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal’shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, I. V. Yakovlev, S. G. Garanin, S. A. Sukharev, N. N. Rukavishnikov, A. V. Charukhchev, R. R. Gerke, and V. E. Yashin, “200 TW 45 fs laser based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 14, 446–454 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H. Kiriyama, N. Inoue, Y. Akahane, and K. Yamakawa, “Prepulse-free, multi-terawatt, sub-30-fs laser system,” Opt. Express 14, 438–445 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, S. Akamatsu, M. Mori, Y. Tohyama, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, H. Fujita, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, S. Sakabe, H. Nishimura, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, “Progress of fast ignitor studies and Petawatt laser construction at Osaka University,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 2202–2207 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

I. Jovanovic, B. J. Comaskey, C. A. Ebbers, R. A. Bonner, D. M. Pennington, and E. C. Morse, “Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier as an alternative to Ti: Sapphire Regenerative Amplifiers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2923–2929 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88, 437–440 (1992). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Butkus, R. Danielius, A. Dubietis, A. Piskarskas, and A. Stabinis, “Progress in chirped pulse optical parametric amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 693–700 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1369–1371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control,” Opt. Lett. 30, 78–80 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N. Ishii, L. Turi, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, and A. Baltuška, “Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30, 567–569 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y. Stepanenko and C. Radzewicz, “High-gain multipass noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211120–211123 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. Stepanenko and C. Radzewicz, “Multipass non-collinear optical parametric amplifier for femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14, 779–785 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

H. Yoshida, E. Ishii, R. Kodama, H. Fujita, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Izawa, and T. Yamanaka, “High-power and high-contrast optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in β-BaB2O4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28, 257–259 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, M. J. Guardalben, J. Puth, and J. D. Zuegel, “High-conversion-efficiency optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification system using spatiotemporally shaped pump pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1245–1247 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

I. Jovanovic, C. A. Ebbers, and C. P. J. Barty, “Hybrid chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1622–1624 (2002). [CrossRef]

19.

V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, M. J. Guardalben, J. Puth, and J. D. Zuegel, “5Hz, 250 mJ optical parametric chirped-pulseamplifier at 1053 nm,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1843–1845 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

P. Adel and C. Fallnich, “High-power ultra-broadband mode-locked Yb3+-fiber laser with 118 nm bandwidth,” Opt. Express 10, 622–627 (2002). [PubMed]

21.

J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1340–1342 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(320.7160) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast technology

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 25, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 19, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: March 21, 2007
Published: April 3, 2007

Citation
Hongying Wang, Hongjun Liu, Xiaoli Li, and Wei Zhao, "Non-collinear CPOPA seeded by an Yb3+-doped self-starting passive mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Express 15, 4493-4498 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-4493


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References

  1. Y. Kitagawa, H. Fujita, R. Kodama, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, H. Kitamura, T. Kanabe, S. Sakabe, K. Shigemori, N. Miyanaga, and Y. Izawa, "Prepulse-free Petawatt laser for a fast ignitor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 40,281-293 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. I. N. Ross, J. L. Collier, P. Matousek, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, R. M. Allott, D. A. Pepler, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and K. Osvay, "Generation of terawatt pulses by use of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Appl. Opt. 39, 2422-2427 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, "The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 144, 125-133 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. X. Yang, Z. Xu, Y. Leng, H. Lu, L. Lin, Z. Zhang, R. Li, W. Zhang, D. Yin, and B. Tang, "Multiterawatt laser system based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Lett. 27, 1135-1137 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. V. V. Lozhkarev, G. I. Freidman, V. N. Ginzburg, E. V. Katin, E. A. Khazanov, A. V. Kirsanov, G. A. Luchinin, A. N. Mal'shakov, M. A. Martyanov, O. V. Palashov, A. K. Poteomkin, A. M. Sergeev, A. A. Shaykin, I. V. Yakovlev, S. G. Garanin, S. À. Sukharev, N. N. Rukavishnikov, À. V. Charukhchev, R. R. Gerke, and V. E. Yashin, "200 TW 45 fs laser based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," Opt. Express 14, 446-454 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kiriyama, N. Inoue, Y. Akahane, and K. Yamakawa, "Prepulse-free, multi-terawatt, sub-30-fs laser system," Opt. Express 14, 438-445 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, S. Akamatsu, M. Mori, Y. Tohyama, R. Kodama, K. A. Tanaka, H. Fujita, H. Yoshida, S. Matsuo, T. Jitsuno, T. Kawasaki, S. Sakabe, H. Nishimura, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, "Progress of fast ignitor studies and Petawatt laser construction at Osaka University," Phys. Plasmas 9,2202-2207 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. I. Jovanovic, B. J. Comaskey, C. A. Ebbers, R. A. Bonner, D. M. Pennington, and E. C. Morse, "Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier as an alternative to Ti:Sapphire Regenerative Amplifiers," Appl. Opt. 41, 2923-2929 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Dubietis, G. Jonušauskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal," Opt. Commun. 88,437-440 (1992). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Butkus, R. Danielius, A. Dubietis, A. Piskarskas, and A. Stabinis, "Progress in chirped pulse optical parametric amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B 79,693-700 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, G. Arisholm, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Phase-preserving chirped-pulse optical parametric amplification to 17.3 fs directly from a Ti:sapphire oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1369-1371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "High-power parametric amplification of 11.8-fs laser pulses with carrier-envelope phase control," Opt. Lett. 30, 78-80 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Ishii, L. Turi, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Fuji, F. Krausz, and A. Baltuška, "Multimillijoule chirped parametric amplification of few-cycle pulses," Opt. Lett. 30, 567-569 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Stepanenko and C. Radzewicz, "High-gain multipass noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211120-211123 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Stepanenko and C. Radzewicz, "Multipass non-collinear optical parametric amplifier for femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 779-785 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Yoshida, E. Ishii, R. Kodama, H. Fujita, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Izawa, and T. Yamanaka, "High-power and high-contrast optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in β-BaB2O4 crystal," Opt. Lett. 28,257-259 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, M. J. Guardalben, J. Puth, and J. D. Zuegel, "High-conversion-efficiency optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification system using spatiotemporally shaped pump pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1245-1247 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. Jovanovic, C. A. Ebbers, and C. P. J. Barty, "Hybrid chirped-pulse amplification," Opt. Lett. 27, 1622-1624 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, M. J. Guardalben, J. Puth, and J. D. Zuegel, "5Hz, 250 mJ optical parametric chirped-pulseamplifier at 1053 nm," Opt. Lett. 30, 1843-1845 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Adel and C. Fallnich, "High-power ultra-broadband mode-locked Yb3+-fiber laser with 118 nm bandwidth," Opt. Express 10, 622-627 (2002). [PubMed]
  21. J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, "Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1340-1342 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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