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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijin de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 9 — Apr. 30, 2007
  • pp: 5843–5850
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Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects

Takaaki Ishigure and Yusuke Takeyoshi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 9, pp. 5843-5850 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.005843


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Abstract

A polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores is fabricated by the preform method. Very low loss (0.028 dB/cm at a wavelength of 850 nm) and high bandwidth (83 Gbps for 1 m, estimated) properties are experimentally demonstrated by the new waveguide for the first time. By densely aligning the cores during the preform fabrication, a waveguide with a pitch size of 56 μm and a core diameter of 50 μm is obtained, which is expected to be utilized in high-speed and high-density parallel optical interconnections.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In this paper, we succeeded in fabricating a polymer waveguide with 4-channel circular graded-index (GI) cores for the first time by the preform method. The parabolic refractive index profiles formed in the cores confine the optical signal at the core center well, and thus, the waveguides exhibit very low loss (0.028 dB/cm) and very high bandwidth (estimated to be higher than 83 Gbps·m), which are superior to conventional waveguides with square or rectangular cores with step-index (SI) profiles [7

7. F. E. Doany, P. K. Pepeljugoski, A. C. Lehman, J. A. Kash, and R. Dangel, “Measurement of optical dispersion in multimode polymer waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 31–32.

]. Transmission experiments at a data rate of 12.5 Gbps over 3-m-long waveguide show good eye openings. In addition to the technological advancement, this new waveguide is suited for mass production and has a freedom in structural design such as core diameter and pitch. Fabrication process and characteristics of the waveguides newly fabricated are described in detail in the following sections.

2. Fabrication of polymer waveguide

A large number of fabrication processes for polymer waveguides have been proposed, and most of them utilize lithographic processes or imprinting methods. Therefore, the shapes of the cross-section of core in polymer waveguides are generally designed to be square or rectangular, and the refractive index of the core region is uniform.

On the other hand, the waveguide we propose in this paper is composed of cores with a circular shape, and each of them has a parabolic refractive index profile. In order to fabricate such a polymer waveguide with 4-chnnel circular cores formed by parabolic refractive index profiles, we utilize the preform process. We have already reported the interfacial-gel polymerization technique that is a fabrication process of preforms for high-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fibers (GI POF) [8

8. T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4261–4266 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-Index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449–1456 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. In the interfacial-gel polymerization process, a parabolic refractive index profile in the core region is formed during the polymerization procedure of the preform. In this paper, this preform preparation process is applied to form 4-channel parallel cores in the preforms for the novel waveguides.

At first, test-tube like polymer tubes with outer and inner diameters of 8 mm and 4 mm, respectively, and a length of 30 cm are prepared by acrylate polymer. Next, four polymer tubes obtained are inserted into a polymer container that is also made of the same acrylate polymer, and the tubes are aligned in the container. It is preferable that the polymer container has a rectangular cross-section and be slightly shorter than the aligned tubes.

In this paper, as an example, a large diameter polymer tube with ellipsoidal cross-section is used for the container as shown in Fig. 1 because of the ease of preparation. The inner space of the tube with ellipsoidal cross-section is designed to have a major axis of 40 mm, and a minor axis of 9 mm, so that the four polymer tubes mentioned above can be fit into the inner space and well aligned.

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of waveguide fabrication process by the preform method.

The gap between the aligned polymer tubes and ellipsoidal inner space is filled with the same acrylate monomer, while inside of the aligned polymer tubes is filled with a mixture of acrylate monomer and dopant in order to form parabolic refractive index profiles [9

9. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-Index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449–1456 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Subsequently, the monomer is polymerized in an oil bath to fabricate the preform.

After the polymerization finishes, the preform with ellipsoidal cross-section for waveguide is obtained. The polymer waveguide with 4-channel circular graded-index cores is fabricated by heat-drawing the preform, similar to drawing GI POF [8

8. T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4261–4266 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-Index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449–1456 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The cross-sections of the obtained waveguides are shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). It is found in Fig. 2 that the four cores are aligned, and the circular shape is maintained even after the heat-drawing; the core diameter of the waveguide A is approximately 100 μm, whereas waveguide B is 50 μm. It is noted that the pitch (distance between the adjacent cores, 116 μm in waveguide A and 58 μm in waveguide B) can easily be varied, by adjusting the diameters of the aligned polymer tubes, and heat-drawing condition. For high-density interconnection, small pitch size is preferred, and thus this preform process has a freedom in designing the waveguide structure.

Fig. 2. Photographs of cross-section of waveguides (a)Waveguide A: 100 μm-diameter cores with 116-μm pitch (light beam from a 650-nm LD is coupled to the far-right core) (b)Waveguide B: 50 μm-diameter cores with 58-μm pitch

3. Experimental Results and Discussion

3.1 Refractive index profile, propagation loss, and impulse response function measurements

Refractive index profiles formed in the cores are measured by an interferometric slab method, in which a thin slab sample is cut out of the waveguide. From the observed image by an interference microscope (Mizojiri Optics, TD series), the circular core shape is also confirmed. Figure 3 shows an image of the cross-section of the waveguide B (sliced sample) observed by the interferometric microscope. Contour patterns of concentric interference fringes are observed in the circular core regions, which indicates that a parabolic refractive index profile is formed in each core region. The refractive index profile obtained from the fringe patterns in Fig. 3 is shown in Fig. 4. The index profiles are calculated along the broken line shown in Fig. 3, which connects the centers of three cores. The fringe pattern of the far left core is slightly deformed. This deformation could be caused by an excess stress during the slice sample preparation.

Fig. 3. Interference fringe pattern on the cross-section of polymer waveguide (Waveguide B).
Fig. 4. Refractive index profile obtained from the fringe pattern shown in Fig. 3.

However, in the other three cores, almost the same index profile is formed, and it is found that the core diameter and pitch of this waveguide are approximately 50 μm and 70 μm, respectively. The pitch size obtained from the index profile is slightly larger than the pitch size obtained from the near-field pattern profile (58 μm).

Propagation loss of the waveguides is measured by the cut-back method at a wavelength of 850 nm. It is well known that optical characteristics of multimode waveguides such as loss and bandwidth are strongly affected by launch condition [10

10. J. B. Schlager, M. J. Hackert, P. Pepeljugoski, and J. Gwinn, “Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-μm multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1276–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2443–2448 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and thus, the launching condition in the loss measurement could be an important issue. However, we expect that the circular graded-index core of the waveguide allows for high coupling efficiency with multimode fiber (MMF) with circular core, which would be one of the advantages of this new waveguide. Therefore, in this paper, a 50-μm core MMF with a length of 2 m is utilized for launching a channel of the waveguide, and a 100-μm core MMF probe (1 m) is used to guide the output light from the launched core to a detector for the loss measurements. Figure 5 shows the results of the cut-back process for waveguide C (130-μm core and 154-μm pitch). It is noted that the unit of the horizontal axis is not “cm” but “m,” which means that the waveguide sample is long enough and the loss is low enough to detect the output optical power even after a 5-m transmission. From the slope of the plot in Fig. 5, the propagation loss of each channel is obtained, and they are summarized in Table 1 compared to the loss values of the other two waveguides (waveguide A and B). The average loss of the waveguide C is 0.029 dB/cm, which is lower than those of existing waveguides with rectangular SI cores [12

12. R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-L. Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 29–30.

]. As shown in Table 1, low-loss properties are observed regardless of the core diameter. Since the loss of conventional GI-POFs composed of the same acrylate polymer at 850 nm is 0.025 dB/cm [13

13. T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, and J. W. Fleming, “Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 178–184 (2000). [CrossRef]

], the loss could be decreased to 0.025 dB/cm by reducing the structural irregularity, which is almost achieved in the waveguide A (0.026 dB/cm).

Fig. 5. Results of the loss measurement by the cut-back process for Waveguide C.

Table 1. Propagation Loss of Each Channel in Polymer Waveguide with Circular Graded-Index Cores.

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The remarkably low loss of the new waveguides can be attributed to the graded-index circular core. As mentioned above, conventional polymer waveguides have square or rectangular SI cores. Therefore, by improving the smoothness of the core-cladding boundary, the propagation loss has been reduced [12

12. R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-L. Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 29–30.

]. On the other hand, as the electric field of the modes in graded-index core is confined within the center region [11

11. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2443–2448 (2005). [CrossRef]

], the irregular structure at the core-cladding boundary in the GI-core waveguides has less effect on the propagation loss. Figure 6 shows the near-field patterns (NFP) from a single channel of the waveguide with circular graded-index core (waveguide A, 100-μm diameter) obtained in this paper. Although the core diameter estimated from the refractive index profile is 100 μm, the beam-spot diameter in the NFP in Fig. 6(a) is approximately 60 μm when the core diameter of the launching MMF probe is 100 μm. If the probe fiber is a single-mode fiber with smaller core diameter, the beam-spot diameter in NFP is much smaller than 100 μm as shown in Fig. 6(c).

We already confirmed that the launch condition dependence, i.e. mode-order dependence, on NFP is typical of the GI-core waveguide structure [11

11. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2443–2448 (2005). [CrossRef]

], while the output NFP form SI core is independent of the mode order [10

10. J. B. Schlager, M. J. Hackert, P. Pepeljugoski, and J. Gwinn, “Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-μm multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1276–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. From the results of the NFP, it is found that the core-cladding boundary has less of an effect on the light transmission.

Fig. 6. Observed NFP image (Bottom) and intensity profile on radial direction (Top) from a channel of 100-μm core waveguide (Waveguide A). (a) launched via 100-μm core MMF probe (b) launched via 50-μm core MMF probe (c) launched via 9-μm core SMF probe

3.2 Bandwidth performance and 12.5 Gbps transmission

Fig. 7. Output pulse and reference pulse waveforms of (a) 5-m long waveguide with graded-index core (Waveguide B) and (b) 1-m long SI POF for 850 nm.

Table 2. Output Pulse Broadening and -3dB Bandwidth of a channel in Polymer Waveguide with Circular Graded-Index Cores.

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Fig. 8. Eye diagrams at 12.5 Gbps (a) back-to-back and (b) after propagation through 3-m waveguide (130-μm core).
Fig. 9. Eye diagrams at 10 Gbps for 850 nm (a): after propagation through 1-m waveguide (130-μm core) when optical output power is −12.5 dBm, and (b): after propagation through 1-m SI POF when optical output power is −12.42 dBm.

4. Conclusion

References and links

1.

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, and P. Pleunis, “Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-μm multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1256–1275 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Lash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. & Dev. 49, 755–776 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, and H.-M. Rein, “120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s Testing Station,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2200–2212 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, L.Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, A. Suzuki, S. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, O. Ibaragi, and M. Aoyagi, “40Gb/s parallel optical interconnection module for optical backplane application,” in Proceedings of Electronic Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Society, Singapore, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 367–370.

6.

J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, J. Schaub, C. Schow, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, C. Schuster, L. Shan, C. Patel, C. Tsang, J. Rosner, F. Libsch, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, M. Tan, G. Trott, D. Lin, A. Tandon, and M. Nystrom, “Terabus: a chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Sydney, 2005), pp. 363–364.

7.

F. E. Doany, P. K. Pepeljugoski, A. C. Lehman, J. A. Kash, and R. Dangel, “Measurement of optical dispersion in multimode polymer waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 31–32.

8.

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4261–4266 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-Index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449–1456 (2002). [CrossRef]

10.

J. B. Schlager, M. J. Hackert, P. Pepeljugoski, and J. Gwinn, “Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-μm multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1276–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, “Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2443–2448 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-L. Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 29–30.

13.

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, and J. W. Fleming, “Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 178–184 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 8, 2007
Revised Manuscript: April 20, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 26, 2007
Published: April 27, 2007

Citation
Takaaki Ishigure and Yusuke Takeyoshi, "Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15, 5843-5850 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5843


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References

  1. P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, and P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-μm multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Lash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. & Dev. 49, 755-776 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, and H.-M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s Testing Station," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster,D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, L.Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla,F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst,B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, A. Suzuki, S. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, O. Ibaragi, and M. Aoyagi, "40Gb/s parallel optical interconnection module for optical backplane application," in Proceedings of Electronic Packaging Technology Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Society, Singapore, 2005), Vol. 1, pp. 367- 370.
  6. J. A. Kash, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, J. Schaub, C. Schow, J. Trewhella, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, C. Schuster, L. Shan, C. Patel, C. Tsang, J. Rosner, F. Libsch, R. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, R. Dangel, B. Offrein, M. Tan, G. Trott, D. Lin, A. Tandon, and M. Nystrom, "Terabus: a chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnect," in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Sydney, 2005), pp. 363-364.
  7. F. E. Doany, P. K. Pepeljugoski, A. C. Lehman, J. A. Kash, and R. Dangel, "Measurement of optical dispersion in multimode polymer waveguide," in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 31-32.
  8. T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication," Appl. Opt. 33, 4261-4266 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-Index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1449-1456 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Schlager, M. J. Hackert, P. Pepeljugoski, and J. Gwinn, "Measurements for enhanced bandwidth performance over 62.5-μm multimode fiber in short-wavelength local area networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1276-1285 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, and Y. Koike, "Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2443-2448 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-L. Bona, "Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications," in Proceedings of IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Optical Interconnects & VLSI Photonics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics and Engineering - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, San Diego, 2004), pp. 29-30.
  13. T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, and J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 178-184 (2000). [CrossRef]

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