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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 12 — Jun. 9, 2008
  • pp: 8498–8508
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Toward a low-jitter 10 GHz pulsed source with an optical frequency comb generator

Shijun Xiao, Leo Hollberg, Nathan R. Newbury, and Scott A. Diddams  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 12, pp. 8498-8508 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.008498


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Abstract

We demonstrate low residual timing jitter of 10 GHz pulses from a 1.55 µm optical frequency comb generator based on a doubly-resonant electro-optic modulator. The pulse timing jitter is analyzed, and we illustrate that the pump laser’s linewidth plays a dominant role in the timing jitter. For Fourier frequencies from 1 Hz to 10 MHz, integrated residual timing jitter at 10 GHz was reduced from ~ 94 fs to ~ 8 fs when the pump laser’s linewidth was reduced from ~ 10 MHz to ~ 1 kHz. An electronic servo was used to stabilize the operation point of the comb generator. With the servo, the integrated residual timing jitter was further reduced to ~ 6 fs, and the corresponding residual phase noise power density is -105 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz frequency offset from the 10 GHz pulse carrier.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Our interest in the OFCG is to evaluate its performance for low-noise optical and microwave waveform generation, as well as applications in the generation and distribution of precise time and frequency signals. Recent developments in the stabilization of continuous wave (CW) lasers have provided hertz-level optical linewidths in the visible and near infrared. When combined with an ultra-low-noise 10 GHz microwave signal in the OFCG, this could lead to a unique low-noise source with sub-radian optical phase noise and timing jitter at the femtosecond level. Important for progress along these lines is a clear understanding of the factors that determine the static phase relationship between the comb elements as well as the fluctuations of both the optical and resulting microwave phase of the emitted pulse train. In this paper, we examine the sources of excess phase noise in the pulsed output of the OFCG. We illustrate that the residual phase noise (and integrated timing jitter) on the output pulse train can be suppressed significantly by seeding the OFCG with a narrow-linewidth laser source. Both experiment and analytical results of the timing jitter are presented. These results indicate that when the OFCG is seeded with a narrow-linewidth laser and driven by a low-noise microwave signal [15

15. J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 36–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

], it is possible to achieve low jitter pulses with the OFCG, which will be useful for applications in high-precision metrology, time and frequency distributions, optical pulse shaping and optical arbitrary waveform synthesis.

2. OFCG properties and basic theory

Figure 1 shows the schematic characteristics of the OFCG used in our experiments (OptoComb WTEC-01 [10

10. http://www.optocomb.com/eng/products.html Mention of specific trade names is for technical information only, and does not constitute an endorsement by NIST.

]). The OFCG consists of a LiNbO3 waveguide phase modulator in the structure of F-P cavity. For high modulation efficiency, both the optical field and the microwave field are resonant in the device. The device is compatible with standard single mode fiber and a fiber-coupled CW seed laser feeds the input port. The modulator is driven by a microwave signal, which is combined with a DC offset using a bias-T. For a symmetrical comb spectrum with the largest optical bandwidth, the microwave modulation frequency should be a multiple of the F-P cavity’s free spectral range (FSR). In our case, the modulation frequency is ~10 GHz, which is four times of the F-P cavity’s FSR. The temperature of the F-P cavity and waveguide is stabilized. By adjusting the temperature set point, the resonator mode spacing can be finely tuned around 10 GHz, with a tuning slope of ~ 0.02 MHz/deg in temperature range of 10–60 °C. As indicated in Fig. 1, the comb power spectrum has an approximate double-sided exponentially-decaying shape.

Fig. 1. Schematic principle of the OFCG: ν o is the optical CW seed frequency, fm is the microwave modulation frequency, R is the power reflectivity of the coatings on the two sides of the waveguide, η describes the propagation loss in the waveguide; i.e., 10×log10(η) is the propagation loss through the OFCG waveguide between two coatings. The time t=0 in output pulse trains is referred to a sinusoidal modulation sin(ωmt).

When the modulation frequency is close to a multiple of the free spectral range of the OFCG cavity, the field transmission through the cavity (shown in Fig. 1) is a modified F-P formula [1–3

1. E. I. Gordon and J. D. Rigden, Bell Syst. Tech. J.42, 155 (1963).

, 7

7. T. Saitoh, S. Mattori, S. Kinugawa, K. Miyagi, A. Taniguchi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Modulation characteristic of waveguide-type optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 824–832 (1998). [CrossRef]

],

EtEi(x,t,β)η1R1Rηexp[i2πxiβsin(2πfmt)],
(1)

where η is the single-pass power transmission efficiency in the F-P waveguide, R is the power reflection of the F-P waveguide coating, β=(V/Vπ)π is the modulation index, and x=δν/FSR+Φ/(2π) is the generalized detuning parameter representing the OFCG operation point, where δν=(νo -νcavity) is the relative frequency detuning between the seed laser and the cavity resonance, and Φ is an empirically determined rf-power induced round-trip phase shift. The field transmission is a periodic function of the generalized detuning parameter x (the period=1). For convenience, |x|<½ is assumed in the following discussion. In Eq. (1), it should be mentioned that we ignore the phase delay for the first pass through the waveguide and the dispersion (both material and geometric). The finesse of the lossy F-P cavity is expressed by F/(1-). One effect of the dispersion is to limit the optical bandwidth of the resulting frequency comb [5

5. M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, “Limit of optical-frequency comb generation due to material dispersion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120–2126 (1995). [CrossRef]

].

From Eq. (1), it can be noticed that the transmitted field is pulsed in the time domain, peaking when the phase term in the denominator is zero. For the high-finesse resonance response, each pulse’s duration is much shorter than the modulation period. Based on this analysis, for time intervals around each pulse’s peak, the first-order approximation of Eq. (1) is expressed by

EtEi(δt)η1R(1Rη)+iRηβωmcos(ωmto)δt,
(2)

where δt=t-to and |δt|«1/fm, and to (marked in Fig. 1) is the pulse peak timing position, which satisfies

2πx+βsin(ωmto)=0,
(3)

valid for |x|<β/2π, or

to=1ωmsin1(2πxβ).
(4)

τFWHM=1Fβfm1(2πxβ)2.
(5)

which is a minimum when x is zero. The pulse peak power transmission at δt=0 doesn’t vary with the OFCG operation point, but is determined by the F-P cavity parameters. As shown in Fig. 1 and discussed in Ref. [4

4. M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993). [CrossRef]

], the corresponding spectra for the two pulse trains are single-sided exponentials (the Fourier transform of a Lorentzian) distributed symmetrically on the lower and upper sides of the seed laser frequency with a characteristic 1/e spectral width (2πτFWHM.)-1. The maximum spectral bandwidth is achieved at minimum pulse width or x=0, according to Eq. (5).

We are particularly interested in the timing jitter. From Eq. (4), the root-mean-square (RMS) timing jitter is

τjitter=σxβfm11(2πxβ)2,
(6)

where σx represents the standard deviation of the fluctuation of x. The timing jitter gets smaller when β is larger and at x=0. The standard deviation of the fluctuation of x is determined by the seed laser frequency jitter, Δνseed, the frequency jitter of the F-P cavity resonance, Δνcavity, and the round-trip phase noise, ΔΦ. If these noise sources are uncorrelated, σx can be written as

σx=(ΔυseedFSR)2+(ΔυcavityFSR)2+(ΔΦ2π)2,
(7)

Later we find that the round-trip phase noise also depends on the rf power so that ΔΦ=|/Δβ, where Δβ is the standard deviation of the modulation index fluctuation. From Eq. (7), narrow-linewidth seed lasers, stable optical cavities and low-noise modulation signals are necessary to achieve low timing jitter.

Finally, one more useful result is the time-averaged power transmission, Pavg,. From Eq. (2), we find

PavgPseed=1T0TEtEi(δv,t,ϕ)2dt=2T0Tη(1R)2(1Rη)2+[Rηβωmcos(ωmto)]2t2dt,
(8)

where Pseed is the CW seed power. The factor of two before the integral is due to the two identical pulses in each modulation period. This integral yields

PavgPseed=(1R)2πR(1Rη)β×1(2πxβ)2×arctan[2πRηβ1Rη1(2πxβ)2],
(9)

To briefly conclude this section, the response of the OFCG is determined by its operation point that is represented by the parameter x. The most interesting case is x=0, where the OFCG yields the maximum bandwidth (the narrowest pulse) as well as the lowest residual timing jitter for a fixed modulation index. However, the minimum power transmission also occurs at x=0. Another useful result is the pulse-rate doubling effect for the OFCG at x=0.

3. Experiments of basic OFCG properties

Our OFCG was driven at 10 GHz with a cavity reflectivity of R=0.97 (manufacturer’s specification) and transmission efficiency of η=0.9763 (our calibration), corresponding to a round-trip loss of 0.208 dB. The effective finesse of the optical F-P cavity is 60. In our device, the maximum power transmission is only 30 % (about 5.2 dB loss), which is caused by the waveguide propagation loss (η<1). This loss does not include the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. Figure 2 shows the calculated time-averaged power transmission versus the normalized relative detuning δν/FSR for different modulation indices β and our parameters. (These calculations used Eq. (1) rather than the approximation (2)). As discussed in Section 2, for β<π, each resonance peak symmetrically splits into double peaks, and the power is maximum at detunings approximately equal to β/2π. On other hand, the maximum comb bandwidth occurs at zero detuning, but, the average power loss is also the largest at this point. For modulation index greater than π but less than 2π, the curves repeat but with the center shifted to the position with δν/FSR=1/2.

Fig. 2. Calculated time-averaged power transmission versus the normalized frequency detuning. Φ=0 is assumed. Curves for several different values of β are shown.
Fig. 3. (a). Experimental time-averaged power transmission as a function of the normalized detuning between the cavity and the pump. The blue, green, red and black curves are for different drive RF powers of around 0, 5, 14 and 19 dBm, respectively. (b) Experimental round-trip static phase shift induced by increasing the microwave power applied to the OFCG, presumably due to heating. (c) Experimental time-averaged power transmission vs. frequency detuning for β≈0.72 π (red curve); the reference with β=0 (blue) is also plotted. A, B, C, D and E represent five different frequency detunings. (d) measured spectra (1 nm resolution) at the six operation points.

Figure 3(a) plots the experimentally measured time-averaged power transmission with different modulation indices. By using a sweeping bias voltage to tune the relative frequency detuning parameter δν, the time-averaged optical power was detected by a low-speed (50 MHz bandwidth) photodiode. In general, the agreement with Fig. 2 is excellent, except for the low transmission in the wings. Figure 3(b) plots the measured data (blue circles) of Φ(β) vs. β, where β was calculated from the peak splitting. We found that a quadratic curve was sufficient to fit the data, and this means that the phase shift is proportional to the RF driving power. The phase shift may be attributed to heating of the waveguide that results from increasing RF power. The red curve of Fig. 3(c) plots the experimental time-integrated transmission of the OFCG with a largest modulation index (β≈0.72π), and the blue curve is the reference with zero modulation. For β≈0.72π, we have Φ≈4π, and it is equivalent to set Φ=0 for simplicity. Thus, we have x=δν/FSR. The output spectra at different operation points (A, B, C, D and E) were observed by tuning the bias.

Fig. 4. (a)–(b) Measured output pulses for different OFCG operation points.

4. Measurements of timing jitter

Short-pulse sources with low jitter and high repetition rate are important in a variety of scientific and technological fields [15

15. J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 36–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. However, there have been few reports on timing jitter and phase-noise characteristics of the pulses generated by a modulator-based OFCG. In [12

12. R. P. Kovaich, U. Sterr, and H. R. Telle, “Short-pulse properties of optical frequency comb generators,” Appl. Opt. Lett. 39, 4372–4376 (2000). [CrossRef]

], a rough estimation of the residual timing jitter due to the frequency fluctuation of seed lasers was given. Although the frequency comb spacing is precisely determined by the modulation frequency, large residual timing jitter can still exist due to the fluctuation of the phase of each comb line. As analyzed in Section II, the pulse timing position fluctuates due to random variations of the seed laser’s frequency, the cavity resonance frequency and the modulation power. It is desirable to lock the OFCG cavity to a narrow-linewidth optical seed and use low-jitter modulation for applications requiring the highest stable short-pulse sources. While there has been work on stabilizing the OFCG [5

5. M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, “Limit of optical-frequency comb generation due to material dispersion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120–2126 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, A. Wolf, and H. R. Telle, “A novel stabilization method for an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 574–577 (1999). [CrossRef]

], the effect on timing jitter and corresponding microwave phase-noise was not reported. In this section, we illustrate that the residual phase noise (and integrated timing jitter) can be suppressed significantly by seeding the OFCG with a narrow-linewidth fiber laser rather than a semiconductor DFB laser. With a servo to stabilize the OFCG operation point, the timing jitter and the phase noise can be further reduced.

Section II presented a theoretical expression for the timing jitter (Eq. (6)) and it is interesting to consider the specific parameters relevant to our system. In order to focus on the frequency noise of the seed laser and the cavity, we neglect the fluctuation of the modulation index; i.e., Δβ=0. For our system, FSR=2.5 GHz, β=0.72π and fm=10 GHz. The unlocked F-P cavity’s integrated frequency jitter was measured to be 25 kHz from 1Hz to 10 MHz. From Eq. (6), at x=0, the timing jitter caused by the cavity’s frequency jitter is only about 0.4 fs. In contrast, for our DFB seed laser, we measured Δνseed≈10 MHz, which leads to an estimated timing jitter of about 177 fs at x=0. For timing jitter <~1 fs at fm=10 GHz, narrow-linewidth (<~50 kHz) seed laser is required. We note that for stable longterm operation, the OFCG operation point should also be locked with a servo system.

Figure 5 shows our experimental setup that employs a hybrid optical/microwave phase bridge to measure the residual phase noise of the pulses from the OFCG [19

19. A. L. Lance, W. D. Seal, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurement in the frequency domain,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, (Academic Press, 1984), Vol. 11, 239–289.

]. The lower arm of the bridge incorporates a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) [20

20. http://www.covega.com Mention of specific trade names is for technical information only, and does not constitute an endorsement by NIST.

] which allows us to match the delay of the upper arm without the impractical introduction of long microwave cables. The conversion from microwave to optical (MZM), the 40 meter fiber link, and conversion back to microwave (PD2) was independently verified to have phase noise below that measured for the OFCG. The linewidth of the laser source input to the MZM doesn’t contribute appreciably to the phase noise of the delay matching arm. The delay matching error was ≤5 ns. Thus, for the Fourier frequencies range 1Hz to 10 MHz, the microwave source’s phase noise did not degrade the measured residual phase noise spectrum. In order to obtain a single pulse train at fm from the OFCG, we select one half of the comb spectrum (it is equivalent to select either the lower or upper half of the optical spectrum).

Fig. 5. Experimental setup to measure the residual phase noise of pulses from OFCG. The optical filter is a blocking filter that selects one half comb spectrum corresponding to one fm pulse train. The blocking filter is in the well known reflective Fourier-transform pulse-shaper geometry based on a diffraction grating, and a hard aperture was used to block half the optical spectrum. The variable length fibers were used to match the relative delay. SA: spectrum analyzer. PD is an InGaAs photodiode. MZM: Mach-Zehnder Modulator (Mach-10002 [20]).
Fig. 6. (a). Comb spectrum after the optical filter when the higher-frequency sideband was selected. (b). Measured phase error signal at the mixer IF port as a function of the operating point.

Figure 6(a) illustrates the filtered comb spectrum after the optical filter, where the high-frequency (n≥0) side of the spectrum was selected, corresponding to a 10 GHz pulse train. Before the optical filtering, the OFCG output (power ~ -10 dBm) was amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). As the phase difference is proportional to the timing delay difference between the two arms of the bridge, the error signal at the mixer intermediate frequency (IF) is sensitive to the OFCG operation point. Figure 6(b) shows the phase error signal at different OFCG operation points, measured by sweeping the DC bias. The error signal from the mixer was set to zero volts DC at the operation point A, where the OFCG was stabilized with a servo. The servo is an integrator that efficiently suppresses low-frequency noises. Fluctuations in the mixer output voltage correspond to the relative phase noise and were measured with an FFT spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 7. (a). Measured residual phase-noise PSD SΦ(f) at 10GHz with two different pump lasers. (b) Measured phase-noise PSD with the narrow-linewidth pump laser as well as the servo control system. The gray, orange and green lines indicate mixer noise, spectrum analyzer noise and photodiode shot-noise level, respectively, in our measurement system. The MZM did not add appreciable noise above the mixer noise’s floor.

The relation between the RMS timing jitter and the phase noise is expressed by

τrms=12πfmf=0f=fm2Sφ(f)df,
(10)

where SΦ(f)=2L(f) and L(f) represents the single sideband phase-noise power spectral density (PSD). In practice, we measure the total noise PSD for a certain bandwidth, e.g., 1 Hz to 10 MHz, provided by the FFT spectrum analyzer. From Fig. 7(a), the noise PSD decays quickly and reaches the system noise floor at higher frequencies (~1 MHz). We have not measured the phase noise PSD for the full bandwidth up to fm /2≈5 GHz, although we do not expect any rise in the noise floor above that at 10 MHz. For the measurement floor (black), the 10 GHz integrated phase noise from 1 Hz to 10 MHz is 5.9×10-8 rad2, which corresponds to a timing jitter of 3.9 fs, which is the lowest bound of measurable timing jitter in our current system without servo. Table 1 lists the residual integrated phase noise power (rad2) and the corresponding timing jitter (fs) for two different seed lasers with different linewidth. For each seed laser, two results (with servo and without servo) are presented. Figure 7(b) shows an example of measured phase noise with the fiber laser seed plus servo control. As our measurements were limited to the frequency range of 1 Hz to 10 MHz, for the DFB laser, the obtained timing jitter (94 fs) should be smaller than the theoretical prediction (177 fs at x=0) in Section IV. We believe that the phase noise and the timing jitter could be further reduced with low-noise optical and microwave amplifiers, and high-speed low-noise servo control. Ultimately, an OFCG seeded with a narrow-linewidth frequency stabilized laser and driven by low-noise microwave signals [15

15. J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 36–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

] should provide a stable and low-jitter optical pulse train and frequency comb.

Table 1. Experimental residual phase noise and residual timing jitter for different seed lasers.

table-icon
View This Table

5. Conclusion

Timing jitter characteristics of an OFCG have been presented with theory and experiments. Although this study focused on an OFCG that generates 10 GHz-spaced frequency combs at 1.55 µm, our results can apply to OFCG at other wavelengths and with different modulation frequencies. Two sides of the optical spectrum from the OFCG correspond to two pulse trains with a timing delay varying between zero and half the modulation period. For each pulse train, the delay is sensitive to random drifts of the OFCG operation point, and the noise of the operation point results in excess pulse timing jitter. Analytical results of the timing jitter are derived, and we show that the residual jitter originates from noise of the seed laser frequency, the cavity resonance and the modulation source. Experimentally, for the first time, we have demonstrated residual timing jitter of less than 10 fs (measured bandwidth 1 Hz-10 MHz) for 10 GHz OFCG pulses, which indicates a relative phase uncertainty <7×10-4 radians between two adjacent 10 GHz comb lines. Our results demonstrate that the OFCG is a promising option for a low-timing-jitter, high-repetition-rate short-pulse source.

Acknowledgments

References and Links

1.

E. I. Gordon and J. D. Rigden, Bell Syst. Tech. J.42, 155 (1963).

2.

T. Kobayashi and Y. Matsuo, “Single-Frequency Oscillation using two coupled cavities incorporating a Fabry-Pérot Electro-Optics Modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 217–218 (1970). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Kobayashi, T. Sueta, Y. Cho, and Y. Matsuo, “High-repetition rate optical pulse generator using a Fabry-Perot electro-optical modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 341–343 (1972). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693–2701 (1993). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, “Limit of optical-frequency comb generation due to material dispersion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120–2126 (1995). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54–60 (1998). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Saitoh, S. Mattori, S. Kinugawa, K. Miyagi, A. Taniguchi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Modulation characteristic of waveguide-type optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 824–832 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

B. Widiyatmoko, K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Second-harmonic generation of an optical frequency comb at 1.55 mm with periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 315–317 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Bitou, T. R. Schibli, and K. Minoshima, “Accurate wide-range displacement measurement using tunable diode laser and optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Express 14, 644–654 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

http://www.optocomb.com/eng/products.html Mention of specific trade names is for technical information only, and does not constitute an endorsement by NIST.

11.

G. M. Macfarlane, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Optical comb generator as an efficient short-pulse source,” Opt. Lett. 21, 534–536 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. P. Kovaich, U. Sterr, and H. R. Telle, “Short-pulse properties of optical frequency comb generators,” Appl. Opt. Lett. 39, 4372–4376 (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Kato, K. Fujiura, and T. Kurihara, “Generation of a superstable Lorentzian pulse train with a high repetition frequency based on a Fabry-Pérot resonator integrated with an electro-optic phase modulator,” Appl. Opt. Lett. 44, 1263–1269 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

Z. Jiang, D. Leaird, C. B. Huang, H. Miao, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping on an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 1163–1174 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 36–37 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, “A coupled-cavity monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1698–1700,(1996). [CrossRef]

17.

A. S. Bell, G. M. Mcfarlane, E. Riss, and A. I. Ferguson, “An efficient optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1435–1439 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, A. Wolf, and H. R. Telle, “A novel stabilization method for an optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 574–577 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

A. L. Lance, W. D. Seal, and F. Labaar, “Phase noise and AM noise measurement in the frequency domain,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, (Academic Press, 1984), Vol. 11, 239–289.

20.

http://www.covega.com Mention of specific trade names is for technical information only, and does not constitute an endorsement by NIST.

OCIS Codes
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(320.5390) Ultrafast optics : Picosecond phenomena
(320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: March 12, 2008
Revised Manuscript: May 16, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: May 17, 2008
Published: May 27, 2008

Citation
Shijun Xiao, Leo Hollberg, Nathan R. Newbury, and Scott A. Diddams, "Toward a low-jitter 10 GHz pulsed source with an optical frequency comb generator," Opt. Express 16, 8498-8508 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8498


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References

  1. E. I. Gordon and J. D. Rigden, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 42, 155 (1963).
  2. T. Kobayashi and Y. Matsuo, "Single-Frequency Oscillation using two coupled cavities incorporating a Fabry-Pérot Electro-Optics Modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 217-218 (1970). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kobayashi, T. Sueta, Y. Cho, and Y. Matsuo, "High-repetition rate optical pulse generator using a Fabry-Perot electro-optical modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 341-343 (1972). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, "Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693-2701 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu," Limit of optical-frequency comb generation due to material dispersion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120-2126 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-60 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Saitoh, S. Mattori, S. Kinugawa, K. Miyagi, A. Taniguchi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Modulation characteristic of waveguide-type optical frequency comb generator," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 824-832 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Widiyatmoko, K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Second-harmonic generation of an optical frequency comb at 1.55 mm with periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 24, 315-317 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Bitou, T. R. Schibli, and K. Minoshima, "Accurate wide-range displacement measurement using tunable diode laser and optical frequency comb generator," Opt. Express 14, 644-654 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. http://www.optocomb.com/eng/products.html Mention of specific trade names is for technical information only, and does not constitute an endorsement by NIST.
  11. G. M. Macfarlane, A. S. Bell, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, "Optical comb generator as an efficient short-pulse source," Opt. Lett. 21, 534-536 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. P. Kovaich, U. Sterr, and H. R. Telle, "Short-pulse properties of optical frequency comb generators," Appl. Opt. Lett. 39, 4372-4376 (2000). [CrossRef]
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  20. http://www.covega.com Mention of specific trade names is for technical information only, and does not constitute an endorsement by NIST.

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