OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 13 — Jun. 23, 2008
  • pp: 9821–9828
« Show journal navigation

Reflection equalization of the simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensator based on a phase-only sampled fiber Bragg grating

Ming Li and Hongpu Li  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 13, pp. 9821-9828 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.009821


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (444 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A novel approach for the reflection equalization of a phase-only sampled fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is presented, where the grating is specially designed as a simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensator with channels up to 51. The sampling-function used is given with an analytical form with a linearly-chirped sampling period and is optimized by using the simulated annealing algorithm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

With the increasingly demands for the broad-band and high-speed fiber transmission link, the simultaneous chromatic dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation has become one of the critical issues to be resolved in a long-haul fiber communication system. [1–3

1. U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111–2113 (1995). [CrossRef]

] Various approaches have been proposed to manage the chromatic dispersion. Among them, the multichannel FBG, as one of the fiber-based broad-band promising components, has attracted a great interest due to the low cost, low insertion loss, and high performances for either wavelength filtering or chromatic dispersion management. [3–18

3. F. Ouellette, P. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 31, 899–901 (1995). [CrossRef]

] To date, several kinds of multi-channel FBGs have been proposed and demonstrated as the dispersion compensator, such as the sinc-sampled FBG, [4

4. M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, M. Cole, and R. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842–844 (1998). [CrossRef]

] the superimposed FBG, [5

5. Y. Painchaud, A. Mailloux, H. Chotard, E. Pelletier, and M. Guy, “Multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion and slope compensation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. ThAA5. (2002).

] amplitude and phase sampled FBG, [7–8

7. A. V. Buryak, K. Kolossovski, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Optimisation of refractive index sampling for multichannel FBGs,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 91–98 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and the Talbot-effect based FBG [9

9. Y. T. Dai, X. F. Chen, X. Xu, C. Fan, and S. Z. Xie, “High channel-count comb filter based on chirped sampled fiber Bragg grating and phase shift,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1040–1042 (2005). [CrossRef]

] etc. In particular, the phase-only sampled FBG has attracted much more interest due to its lower index-modulation demanded and the smoother refractive-index profile which is especially compatible with the robust side-writing phase-mask technique. [10–15

10. H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2074–2083 (2003).

] With a diffraction-compensated phase mask, we have firstly demonstrated the phase-only sampled high channel-count FBG, in which almost identical dispersion through all the channels has been obtained, [11

11. H. Li, M. Li, K. Ogusu, Y. Sheng, and J. Rothenberg, “Optimization of a continuous phase-only sampling for high channel-count fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 3152–3160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. J. E. Rothenberg, H. Li, Y. Sheng, J. Popelek, and J. Zweiback, “Phase-only sampled 45 channel fiber Bragg grating written with a diffraction-compensated phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1199–1201 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] but the dispersion slope issues have not been addressed. Lee et al. [13

13. H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broad-band dispersion and dispersion slope dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1091–1093 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Bandwidth equalization of purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broadband dispersion and dispersion slope compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 5595–5602 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] numerically demonstrated a method for the simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation, which is based on the utilization of a purely phase-sampled FBG while the sampling period is chirped. However, the proposed method is based on a discrete phase-only sampling (without an analytical form) and the channel number is limited less than 16, it is not available to the practical fabrication of the multi-channel FBG based on the phase-mask side-writing technique, because the split of phase shifts in the phase-mask caused by the diffraction effect have not been considered. [15

15. H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Advances in the Design and Fabrication of High-Channel-Count Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2739–2750 (2007). [CrossRef]

,16

16. Y. Sheng, J. E. Rothenberg, H. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Zweiback, “Split of phase-shifts in phase mask for fiber Bragg grating” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1316–1318 (2004). [CrossRef]

] Moreover, their solution to address the non-identical bandwidth is based on an assumption that the grating is extremely strong and the reflection is saturated or changeless,[14

14. H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Bandwidth equalization of purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broadband dispersion and dispersion slope compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 5595–5602 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which is unrealistic for a high channel-count FBG due to the limited index-change we can obtain at present. Most recently, full C-band slope-matched dispersion compensator based on a phase-only sampled FBG with 51channel has been experimentally demonstrated. [17

17. M. Morin, M. Poulin, A. Mailloux, F. Trépanier, and Y. Painchaud, “Full C-band slope-matched dispersion compensation based on a phase sampled Bragg grating,” Proceedings of OFC 04, WK1 (2004).

, 18

18. Y. Painchaud, M Poulin, M. Morin, and M. Guy, “Fiber Bragg grating based dispersion compensator slopematched for LEAF fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. OThE2 (2006).

] Due to the utilization of the chirped sampling approach, the resulted reflection spectrum becomes a little distorted. Not only the channel-bandwidths are nonidentical, but also the channel-channel reflection becomes inclined. For the first one, it is generally known and has already been studied to date. [8

8. Q. Wu, C. Yu, K. Wang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, H. Chan, and P. Chu, “New sampling-based design of simultaneous compensation of both dispersion and dispersion slope for multichannel fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 381–383 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. Y. Painchaud and M. Morin, “Iterative method for the design of arbitrary multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings,” OSA Topical meeting BGPP2007, Paper. BTuB1 (2007).

] Since the bandwidth is inversely changed with the magnitude of the dispersion, which in return limits the maximum dispersion slope one can obtain and may be neglected only as the dispersion slope demanded is small enough. In this paper, we concentrate our attentions on the later one although this phenomenon is rarely noticed and could be eliminated if the grating is extremely strong. We demonstrate a simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensator based on a phaseonly sampled FBG with channels up to 51, where the sampling function is continuous one given with an analytical form and thus the split of phase shifts in the phase-mask caused by the diffraction effect can be easily compensated. Moreover, a simple method is proposed to equalize the reflection spectrum distortion by using a specially designed sampling function.

2. Simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation

As is generally known, the sampled FBG is the product of a single-channel seed grating with the sampling function in spatial domain. In general, the induced refractive index-modulation Δn can be expressed as

Δn(z)=Re{Δn1(z)2·exp(i2πzΛ(z))·s(z)},
(1)

where Δn 1(z) is the index-modulation, z is the position along the grating, Λ is the local pitch of a seed grating and it can be expressed as Λ(z)=Λ 0(1-Cg×z) for a linearly chirped FBG, where Λ 0 is the period at the beginning position of grating and Cg is the chirp rate of the grating period. s(z) denotes a sampling function with period of P, in general, it can be expanded in a Fourier series

s(z)=m=Smexp(i2mπzP),
(2)

where m is the Fourier series, Sm is the complex-valued Fourier coefficient. To realize the simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation, we introduce a chirp in the sampling period the same as the reported in Ref. 5

5. Y. Painchaud, A. Mailloux, H. Chotard, E. Pelletier, and M. Guy, “Multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion and slope compensation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. ThAA5. (2002).

, i.e., we make the local sampling period as P(z)=P 0(1+Cs·z), where P 0 is the initial sampling period, Cs is the linear variation coefficient. For a general case of Cs≪1, the sampling function may be expanded and approximately expressed as

s(z)m=Smexp[i2mπzP0(1Cs·z)].
(3)

By substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (1), the index modulation Δn is then given as

Δn(z)=Re{Δn1(z)2m=+exp[i2πzΛ0(1+Ceff·z)]·Smexp[i2mπzP0]},
(4)

where Ceff(=Cg-Cs·mΛ0/P 0) is the equivalent chirp rate of the grating period. It is obviously seen that the chirp in sampling period may be approximately equivalent to the chirp in grating period. Since the dispersion magnitude is inversely proportional to Ceff(which is a linear function of the channel number m), the dispersions in all the channels are no longer identical but changes according to the channel number m, and thus the required dispersion and dispersion slope may be approximately obtained by suitable choosing the value of Cg and Cs, respectively. [9

9. Y. T. Dai, X. F. Chen, X. Xu, C. Fan, and S. Z. Xie, “High channel-count comb filter based on chirped sampled fiber Bragg grating and phase shift,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1040–1042 (2005). [CrossRef]

] From Eq. (4), it is also seen that the absolute value of Δnm(z), i.e. the index modulation for the ghost grating m (channel m), is directly proportional to the Fourier coefficient Sm. Therefore, in order to create a FBG with multiple identical channels, in general, one needs to optimize the phase-only sampling function by making all the in-band (for a given channels N) Fourier coefficients Sm identical. [10

10. H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2074–2083 (2003).

]

To confirm the above proposal, a 51-channel linearly chirped FBG is designed by using a continuous phase-only sampling method. [11–12

11. H. Li, M. Li, K. Ogusu, Y. Sheng, and J. Rothenberg, “Optimization of a continuous phase-only sampling for high channel-count fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 3152–3160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] The FBG is used for dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of a conventional single-mode fiber (central wavelength=1545 nm; dispersion=16.5 ps/nm/km; dispersion slope=0.06 ps/nm2/km) with length of 110 km. Firstly, we write the phase-only sampling function s(z)with the initial sampling period P 0 as s(z)=sb(z)⊗∑mδ(z-mP 0), where sb(z) is the base sampling function in one period which is given as a continuous one with the analytical form: sb(z)=exp[g(z)]. We assume that θg(z) has the general form including many harmonic terms as:

θg(z)=n=1Mαncos(2πnzP0+βn),
(5)

where the number of terms M is minimized, 2M uniform channels could be achieved with M terms in this series since there are two free parameters for each term. By using the simulated annealing algorithm, the parameters αn and βn are optimized to make the channel spectrum flat within the band of interest. [10

10. H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2074–2083 (2003).

] In our case, we purposely eliminated the spatial frequencies from 17 to 21 to effectively avoid the phase-vanishing effect. [11

11. H. Li, M. Li, K. Ogusu, Y. Sheng, and J. Rothenberg, “Optimization of a continuous phase-only sampling for high channel-count fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 3152–3160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] With the same cost function defined in Ref. [10

10. H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2074–2083 (2003).

], we obtain a set of αn, βn with n=1⋯16, 22⋯31 which are listed in table 1. Figure 1(a) shows the phase distribution of the optimized sampling function in a normalized period (1mm), which will be transferred into the phase mask with pre-compensation of the diffraction effect. [11

11. H. Li, M. Li, K. Ogusu, Y. Sheng, and J. Rothenberg, “Optimization of a continuous phase-only sampling for high channel-count fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 3152–3160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] Figure 1(b) shows the obtained channel spectrum in which the non-uniformity over all 51 channels is less than 8.0×10-5, and the diffraction efficiency is larger than 80%.

Table 1. Parameters αn, βn obtained for a 51-Channel Phase-only Sampling Function

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables

Secondly, the sampling function is multiplied by a single channel FBG which is designed with the layer-peeling (inverse scattering) method, the reflection spectrum of the sampled FBG could be calculated with the transfer matrix method. Note that in order to match the dispersion (-1815 ps/nm) and dispersion slope (-6.6 ps/nm2) at the central wavelength of 1545 nm, parameters for the chirp rates Csa and Cg are optimally selected as -0.943×10-4 cm-1 and -1.723×10-5 cm-1, respectively. Figure 2 shows the calculation results without the reflection equalization. Dispersion about - 1815 ps/nm at wavelength of 1545 nm, dispersion slope of - 6.6 ps/nm2 have been successfully obtained, which are almost the same as what we expect. However, as shown in Fig. 2(b), the reflection between all the inter-channels become no longer identical, i.e., the reflections are linearly decreased with the wavelength decrement.

Fig. 1. The 51-channel phase-only sampling function. (a) Phase distribution, and (b) Channel spectrum.
Fig. 2. Design results of the simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation FBG without reflection equalization. (a) Dispersions spectrum, and (b) Reflection spectrum.

3. Equalization of the Inclined Reflection Spectrum

The inclined reflection-spectrum as shown in Fig. 2(b) will more or less affects the performance of optical transmission system especially for those grating with a reflection less than 90% and the Er-doped fiber amplifier is inserted at the same time. To equalize the reflection spectrum, a simple method is proposed and described as follows.

For a linearly chirped FBG, the relationship between the transmission loss TL and the grating parameters may be empirically expressed as [20

20. M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and R. I. Laming, “Custom design of long chirped Bragg gratings: application to gain-flattening filter with incorporated dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 498–500(2000) [CrossRef]

]

TL=(η×Δn)2×D65.447[dB],
(6)

where η denotes the confined coefficient of the electrical field in the fiber core, D (in a unit of ps/nm) denotes the grating dispersion, Δn is in the unit of 10-4. From Eq. (6), it can be seen that once the dispersion in each channel are linearly changed, the corresponding channel reflection will not be identical with each other even if all the Fourier coefficients Sm for a given channel number of N are the same. To equalize this distortion appeared in the reflection spectrum, the value of |Sm|2×|Dm| for each channel should be kept in a constant. Note that the proposal given in Ref. 14

14. H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Bandwidth equalization of purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broadband dispersion and dispersion slope compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 5595–5602 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

for the dispersion-slope compensation with chirped Fourier coefficients Sm is only accurate when the FBG is extremely strong. i.e., the reflection is almost equal to 100%. As a matter of fact, it can be seen from Eq. (4) that any change of the amplitude of Sm will not affect the phase term and thus make no contributions to the dispersion.

Table 2. Obtained Parameters αn, βn for Reflection Equalization

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables

To solve this inclination existed in the reflection spectrum, the value of |Sm|2×|Dm| has been kept in a constant. Firstly, the target Fourier coefficient STm is determined according to the dispersion spectrum shown in Fig. 2(a). Next, a new continuous phase-only sampling function is proposed and optimized with the simulated annealing algorithm. The cost function is defined as

E(x)=M+1M1[SCm(αn,βn)2STm2]2,
(7)

Table 2 shows the optimized αn,βn used for the purpose of the reflection equalization. Figure 3(a) shows the phase distribution of the sampling function. Figure 3(b) shows the obtained channel spectrum in which the sum of the square difference between the target Fourier coefficient |STm|2 and the calculated one |SCm|2 over all 51 channels is less than 4.3×10-9. The Fourier coefficient SCm of the optimized sampling function is almost identical with the target one STm and the diffraction efficiency is larger than 80%. Figure 4(a) shows the effectively equalized reflection spectrum using the new sampling-function. To clearly show the equalization effect, the reflection spectra with and without reflection equalizations are illustrated in Fig. 4(b). It is seen that the maximum channel-channel reflection difference is decreased from 0.03 to 0.004 (i.e., about 1/10). There also exists some reflection fluctuations among the channels, which are attributed to the differences between the resulted Fourier coefficient and the target ones in the optimization process. Figure 5(a) shows the group delay spectra with and without reflection equalization. Seeing from a randomly selected channel as shown in the inset of Fig. 5(a), we can find that the reflection equalization process make no effect on the group delay spectrum (i.e., the dispersion), which in return means that the Fourier coefficient Sm has no relation with the dispersion slope obtained. Figure 5(b) illustrates the group delay ripples of the central channel with and without reflection equalization which indicates that the maximum ripples are both smaller than 0.2 ps.

Fig. 3. Calculation results for the reflection spectrum equalization. (a). Phase distribution, and (b). Spectrum amplitude.
Fig. 4. (a). Equalized reflection spectrum for 51-channel FBG. (b). The reflections of the 51 channels with and without reflection equalizations. R_E: Reflection equalization.
Fig. 5. (a). Group delay spectra with and without the reflection equalization. (b). Group delay ripples of the central channel with and without reflection equalization. G_D: Group delay.
Fig. 6. (a). Index modulations of the multi-channel FBGs with and without reflection equalization. (b). The first and the last channels of the equalized reflection spectra.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we theoretically and numerically demonstrate a simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensator based on a continuous phase-only sampled and sampling-period chirped FBG with channels up to 51. In particular, the inclined reflection spectrum due to the dispersion slope of FBG is successfully equalized by using a specially designed sampling-function in which the Fourier coefficient changes in accordance with the dispersion of each channel. It is believed that any other kind of multi-channel FBGs with non-identical channel-channel characteristics can also be realized with the proposed method.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. This work was also partly supported by the Telecommunications Advancement Foundation and the Kurata Memorial Hitachi Science and Technology Foundation in Japan.

The authors would like to thank Dr. Yves Painchaud for his valuable comments and discussions.

References and links

1.

U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111–2113 (1995). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpää, J. Lyytikäinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Semiconductor mirror for dynamic dispersion compensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2773–2774 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

F. Ouellette, P. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, and B. Eggleton, “Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using sampled fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 31, 899–901 (1995). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, M. Cole, and R. Laming, “Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842–844 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Painchaud, A. Mailloux, H. Chotard, E. Pelletier, and M. Guy, “Multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion and slope compensation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. ThAA5. (2002).

6.

W. H. Loh, F. Q. Zhou, and J. J. Pan, “Sampled fiber grating based-dispersion slope compensator,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1280–1282 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

A. V. Buryak, K. Kolossovski, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Optimisation of refractive index sampling for multichannel FBGs,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 91–98 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

Q. Wu, C. Yu, K. Wang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, H. Chan, and P. Chu, “New sampling-based design of simultaneous compensation of both dispersion and dispersion slope for multichannel fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 381–383 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. T. Dai, X. F. Chen, X. Xu, C. Fan, and S. Z. Xie, “High channel-count comb filter based on chirped sampled fiber Bragg grating and phase shift,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1040–1042 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2074–2083 (2003).

11.

H. Li, M. Li, K. Ogusu, Y. Sheng, and J. Rothenberg, “Optimization of a continuous phase-only sampling for high channel-count fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 14, 3152–3160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. E. Rothenberg, H. Li, Y. Sheng, J. Popelek, and J. Zweiback, “Phase-only sampled 45 channel fiber Bragg grating written with a diffraction-compensated phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1199–1201 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broad-band dispersion and dispersion slope dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1091–1093 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

H. Lee and G. Agrawal, “Bandwidth equalization of purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broadband dispersion and dispersion slope compensation,” Opt. Express 12, 5595–5602 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Advances in the Design and Fabrication of High-Channel-Count Fiber Bragg Gratings,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2739–2750 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

Y. Sheng, J. E. Rothenberg, H. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Zweiback, “Split of phase-shifts in phase mask for fiber Bragg grating” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1316–1318 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Morin, M. Poulin, A. Mailloux, F. Trépanier, and Y. Painchaud, “Full C-band slope-matched dispersion compensation based on a phase sampled Bragg grating,” Proceedings of OFC 04, WK1 (2004).

18.

Y. Painchaud, M Poulin, M. Morin, and M. Guy, “Fiber Bragg grating based dispersion compensator slopematched for LEAF fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. OThE2 (2006).

19.

Y. Painchaud and M. Morin, “Iterative method for the design of arbitrary multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings,” OSA Topical meeting BGPP2007, Paper. BTuB1 (2007).

20.

M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and R. I. Laming, “Custom design of long chirped Bragg gratings: application to gain-flattening filter with incorporated dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 498–500(2000) [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
(260.2030) Physical optics : Dispersion

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: May 20, 2008
Revised Manuscript: June 17, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: June 17, 2008
Published: June 19, 2008

Citation
Ming Li and Hongpu Li, "Reflection equalization of the simultaneous dispersion and dispersion-slope compensator based on a phase-only sampled fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express 16, 9821-9828 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-13-9821


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. U. Peschel, T. Peschel, and F. Lederer, "A compact device for highly efficient dispersion compensation in fiber transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2111-2113 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Isomäki, A. Vainionpää, J. Lyytikäinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Semiconductor mirror for dynamic dispersion compensation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2773-2774 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Ouellette, P. Krug, T. Stephens, G. Dhosi, and B. Eggleton, "Broadband and WDM dispersion compensation using sampled fibre Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 31, 899-901 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ibsen, M. Durkin, M. Cole, and R. Laming, "Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 842-844 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. Y.  Painchaud, A.  Mailloux, H.  Chotard, E.  Pelletier, and M.  Guy, "Multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion and slope compensation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. ThAA5. (2002).
  6. W. H. Loh, F. Q. Zhou, and J. J. Pan, "Sampled fiber grating based-dispersion slope compensator," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 11, 1280-1282 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Buryak, K. Kolossovski, and D. Yu. Stepanov, "Optimisation of refractive index sampling for multi-channel FBGs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 91-98 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Wu, C. Yu, K. Wang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, H. Chan, and P. Chu, "New sampling-based design of simultaneous compensation of both dispersion and dispersion slope for multichannel fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 381-383 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. T.  Dai, X. F.  Chen, X.  Xu, C.  Fan, and S. Z.  Xie, "High channel-count comb filter based on chirped sampled fiber Bragg grating and phase shift," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 1040-1042 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Li, Y. Sheng, Y. Li, and J. E. Rothenberg, "Phased-only sampled fiber Bragg gratings for high channel counts chromatic dispersion compensation," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2074-2083 (2003).
  11. H. Li, M. Li, K. Ogusu, Y. Sheng, and J. Rothenberg, "Optimization of a continuous phase-only sampling for high channel-count fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 14, 3152-3160 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. E. Rothenberg, H. Li, Y. Sheng, J. Popelek, and J. Zweiback, "Phase-only sampled 45 channel fiber Bragg grating written with a diffraction-compensated phase mask," Opt. Lett. 31, 1199-1201 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Lee and G. Agrawal, "Purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broad-band dispersion and dispersion slope dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1091-1093 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Lee and G. Agrawal, "Bandwidth equalization of purely phase-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for broadband dispersion and dispersion slope compensation," Opt. Express 12, 5595-5602 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Li, M. Li, Y. Sheng, and J. E. Rothenberg, "Advances in the Design and Fabrication of High-Channel-Count Fiber Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2739-2750 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Sheng, J. E. Rothenberg, H. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Zweiback, "Split of phase-shifts in phase mask for fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1316-1318 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Morin, M. Poulin, A. Mailloux, F. Trépanier, and Y. Painchaud, "Full C-band slope-matched dispersion compensation based on a phase sampled Bragg grating," Proceedings of OFC 04, WK1 (2004).
  18. Y. Painchaud, M Poulin, M. Morin, and M. Guy, "Fiber Bragg grating based dispersion compensator slope-matched for LEAF fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Paper. OThE2 (2006).
  19. Y. Painchaud and M. Morin, "Iterative method for the design of arbitrary multi-channel fiber Bragg gratings," OSA Topical meeting BGPP2007, Paper. BTuB1 (2007).
  20. M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and R. I. Laming, "Custom design of long chirped Bragg gratings: application to gain-flattening filter with incorporated dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 498-500 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited