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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 13 — Jun. 23, 2008
  • pp: 9951–9957
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SHG phase matching in GaSe and mixed GaSe1-xSx, x≤0.412, crystals at room temperature

Hong-Zhi Zhang, Zhi-Hui Kang, Yun Jiang, Jin-Yue Gao, Feng-Guang Wu, Zhi-Shu Feng, Yury M. Andreev, Grigory V. Lanskii, Alexander N. Morozov, Elena I. Sachkova, and Sergei Yu. Sarkisov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 13, pp. 9951-9957 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.009951


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Abstract

The optical properties of p-type GaSe and mixed GaSe1-x S x , x=0.04, 0.023, 0.090, 0.133, 0.175, 0.216, 0.256, 0.362, 0.369, and 0.412, crystals were studied to reveal the potentials for phase matching and frequency conversion. Comparative experiment on Er3+:YSGG and CO2 laser SHG at identical experimental conditions is carried out at room temperature. Any change in polytype structure of GaSe1-x S x was not found.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Nonlinear ε-GaSe crystal has many of attractive physical properties [1

1. N. C. Fernelius, “Properties of gallium selenide single crystal,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 28, 275–353 (1994). [CrossRef]

] and, in particular, has been applied for extreme wide range generation from 2.7 to 38.4 µm and further to 58.2–3540 µm range [2

2. W. Shi and Yu. J. Ding, “A monochromatic and high-power terahertz source tunable in the ranges of 2.7–38.4 and 58.2–3540 µm for variety of potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635–1637 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Unfortunately, its application has been held back by very low mechanical properties: near zero hardness in Mohs and easy cleaving [1

1. N. C. Fernelius, “Properties of gallium selenide single crystal,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 28, 275–353 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, it is well known that GaSe lattice well incorporates different doping elements, such as In [3

3. D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and S [4

4. S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006). [CrossRef]

] with noticeable modification of mechanical and optical properties. Doped crystals grown in accordance with chemical composition GaSe:GaS → GaSe1-xSx are the only mid-IR crystal with end GaSe crystal that can meet the requirements for mid-IR nonlinear optical devices pumped by high peak power picosecond Nd:YAG, or femtosecond Ti:Sapphire and Cr:Forsterite lasers due to a shift of transparency range towards shorter wavelength with doping leading to a reduction of linear and nonlinear absorption. Doping with light Al also results in the shift of the transparency range towards shorter wavelength but leading to drastic degradation in optical quality even at low (by 0.1–2 mass%) level of Al content [4

4. S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

There is extensive information on the refractive index dispersion in GaSe [10–17

10. G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective material for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

] and GaS [7

7. K. R. Allakhverdiev, R. I. Guliev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “An investigation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaSxSe1-x crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 947–949 (1982). [CrossRef]

]. However, the experimental results on frequency conversion in mixed crystal GaSe1-xSx, x=0.2, 0.4 and even 0.8 were reported only in one study (in contradiction to data on the crystal structure [5–9

5. K. Allakhverdiev, F. Ismailov, L. Kador, and M. Braun, “Second-harmonic generation in GaS crystals,” Solid State Commun. 104, 1–3 (1997). [CrossRef]

]) [7

7. K. R. Allakhverdiev, R. I. Guliev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “An investigation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaSxSe1-x crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 947–949 (1982). [CrossRef]

]. Phase matching (PM) in GaSe1-xSx crystals in optical devices have not been studied in detail and any experimental data for PM angles are not available yet. In present study we report the PM properties for SHG in pure p-type GaSe and mixed GaSe1-xSx, x=0.04, 0.023, 0.090, 0.133, 0.175, 0.216, 0.256, 0.362, 0.369, 0.412, crystals at room temperature (RT).

2. Model estimations

Some of the available dispersion equations for GaSe1-xSx crystals are reported in Table 1.

Table 1. Sellmeier Constants for GaSe1-xSx Crystals

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Eq. (1): n 2=A4+B2+C+Dλ2+Eλ4;

Eq. (2): n 2=A+B/(λ2+C)+Dλ2;

Eq. (3): n 2=A+B2+C4+D6+Eλ2/(λ2F).

Here Δλ is the validity range, Eq. is the equation type;

“o” and “e” indices denote ordinary and extraordinary waves respectively.

Birefringence (B) dispersion curves estimated with available dispersion data for pure GaSe crystals are depicted in Fig. 1(a) and estimated SHG PM diagrams in Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 1. Dispersion of B (a) and SHG PM diagrams (b) for pure GaSe. Points show available experimental data; PM diagrams estimated with data of [13] and [14] are coincident. Source of the data is identified in the figure insets; F.2 and F.3 are formula numbers.

Estimated SHG PM diagrams for mixed GaSe1-xSx crystals are displayed in Fig. 2 in comparison with PM diagrams for moderate [16

16. K. R. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, A. Kulibekov Gulubayov, A. A. Kaya, J. Goldstein, N. Fernelius, S. Hanna, and Z. Salaeva, “Corrected infrared Sellmeier coefficients for gallium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093515-1-6 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and high [16

16. K. R. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, A. Kulibekov Gulubayov, A. A. Kaya, J. Goldstein, N. Fernelius, S. Hanna, and Z. Salaeva, “Corrected infrared Sellmeier coefficients for gallium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093515-1-6 (2005). [CrossRef]

] quality GaSe, and doped GaSe:Er(0.5%) crystals with α≈5 cm-1 (Fig. 1 in [13

13. K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995). [CrossRef]

]).

Fig. 2. SHG PM diagrams for pure GaSe after [13], GaSe1-xSx after [7] and imitation diagrams (dashed lines). Points are this study experimental data for crystals studied (labeled in the figure inset by number reported in Table 1/mixing ratio.

In Fig. 2 it is seen that SHG PM diagrams estimated for centrosymmetric GaS (x=1) and GaSe1-xSx crystals with use the dispersion data of [7

7. K. R. Allakhverdiev, R. I. Guliev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “An investigation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaSxSe1-x crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 947–949 (1982). [CrossRef]

] are in unrealistic position to that of GaSe (x=0) crystal. Short-wavelength transparency end is at 0.48 µm for GaS (x=1) and at 0.62 µm for GaSe (x=0) [19

19. G. A. Akhundov, N. A. Gasanova, and M. A. Nizametdinova, “Optical absorption, reflection, dispersion of GaS and GaSe layer crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, K109–K113 (1966). [CrossRef]

] that is why shorter-wavelength position of GaS and GaSe1-xSx PM diagrams may be supposed. But in Fig. 2(a) shift of the GaSe1-xSx PM diagrams versus x is noticeable to longer-wavelength range, so as its irregularity at wavelength range λ<7.62 µm. In principle, it can be due to GaSe1-xSx composition and/or crystal structure change with x. PM diagrams for GaSe:Er(0.5 mass%), α=5 cm-1 [17

17. Ch.-W. Chen, Yu-K. Hsu, J. Y. Huang, and Ch.-Sh. Chang, “Generation properties of coherent infrared radiation in the optical absorption region of GaSe crystal,” Opt. Express 14, 10636–10644 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], has reasonable trend to that for lower quality GaSe crystals.

3. Experimental details

p-type pure GaSe and GaSe1-xSx single crystals used in this study were grown by the Bridgeman-Stockbarger method [15

15. E. Takaoka and K. Kato, “Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2755–2759 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Sliced off samples (Table 2) have been used without any additional treatment and polishing and some of them had visual defects such as broken layers and local layer pieces on the lone of high optical quality faces.

Table 2. Parameters of GaSe and GaSe1-xSx crystals and SHG PM angles

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Electron probe microanalysis was used to determine mixing ratio x=0.04, 0.023, 0.090, 0.133, 0.175, 0.216, 0.256, 0.362, 0.369, and 0.412. The GaSe1-xSx crystals with different x form red to yellow color with respect to the increase of the sulfur composition. Transparency spectra were recorded with spectrophotometer TU-1901, Puing Corp, China: Δλ=0.2-0.9 µm range, spectral resolution 0.05 nm and ATAVAR 360 FT-IR spectrophotometer, ThermoNicolet, USA: Δλ=2.5-25 µm, Δν=4 cm-1. These transparency spectra are depicted in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 3. Short-wavelength transparency spectra (a) and absorption coefficient (b) of GaSe, GaSe1-xSx and GaSe:In crystals.

Calculated spectra of absorption coefficients are shown in Fig. 3(b). Point measurements with CO2 laser exclude an influence of surface defects on the absorption coefficient estimations and show that for all crystals α≤0.1-0.2 cm-1 that couldn’t be determined with higher accuracy due to small thickness of the crystals. The only pure GaSe crystal #18 has α≈0.25 cm-1.

Traditional SHG optical set-up is used. Leading pulse of line-tuneable CO2 laser with TEM00 mode selection, 600 Hz pulse-repetition frequency and 500 W peak power is of 120 ns FWHM followed by 1 μs tail. ZnSe 50 mm focal length lens is applied for focusing of Ø3.5 mm pump beam into the room temperature crystal. Step-motor-drive rotational stage RCA100, Zolix Instruments Co., Ltd, with positioning accuracy 4.5″ is used for determination of the PM angles. UV-FIR monochromator SBP300, Zolix Instruments Co., Ltd.: 66 gr/mm grating and RT pyroelectric detector MG-30, Russia: Δλ=2-20 µm, NEP=1.5·10-9 W/cm·Hz1/2 are applied to measure wavelengths and record SHG pulses, respectively. Digital storage oscilloscope TDS3052, Tektronix Inc., Δf=500 MHz, is used to display pulses time shape-form. The residual pump radiation was blocked by two 3 mm LiF plate located close to the nonlinear crystal and detector. Homemade Q-switched 250 ns Er3+:YSGG operating at λ=2.79 µm with Ø3 mm TEM00 beam also was used as a pump source. Its high pulse output energy, up to 24.5 mJ, let us to carry out SHG experiments without use of focusing lenses.

4. Result and discussions

In Fig. 3(a) it is seen that transparency spectra for GaSe1-xSx, x=0-0.405, crystals are linearly shifting toward shorter wavelength with x, as it was supposed accounting shorter-wavelength transparency cut-off of GaS [19

19. G. A. Akhundov, N. A. Gasanova, and M. A. Nizametdinova, “Optical absorption, reflection, dispersion of GaS and GaSe layer crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, K109–K113 (1966). [CrossRef]

]. PM angles are gradually decreasing versus x for Er3+:YSGG SHG and gradually increasing for CO2 laser SHG (Fig. 2). Step changes in SHG efficiencies were also not observed. Linear shift of the short-wavelength transparency end, gradual shift of Er3+:YSGG and CO2 laser SHG PM angles (Table 2), and SHG efficiency with x confirms that p-type GaSe1-xSx studied is a continuous series of mixed crystals without change of polytype. This result is in agreement with data of Ref. [19

19. G. A. Akhundov, N. A. Gasanova, and M. A. Nizametdinova, “Optical absorption, reflection, dispersion of GaS and GaSe layer crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, K109–K113 (1966). [CrossRef]

]. From Fig. 2 it is also seen that the spectral derivative of PM diagram at Er3+:YSGG laser wavelength is a few times to spectral derivative at CO2 laser wavelengths, but PM angle changes with x for Er3+:YSGG SHG is about a half to changes for CO2 laser SHG. It can be explained by small (~0.07 µm) shift of short-wavelength transparency end in comparison with ~4.0 µm shift of long-wavelength transparency end of GaSe1-xSx crystals towards shorter wavelength and by possible shift of PM diagrams to upper positions [7

7. K. R. Allakhverdiev, R. I. Guliev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “An investigation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaSxSe1-x crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 947–949 (1982). [CrossRef]

]. For easy understanding of this point imitation diagrams are depicted in Fig. 2 by dashed lines. No evident domain structure of the crystals was found in the measurements. The error margin of ±15-20″ of the measurements was due to local deformations of the crystal surfaces and long time instabilities of the facility parts.

Stoichiometric variations in GaSe crystals of different origin are another reason for the scatter in phase matching experimental data. PM angles for Er3+:YSGG SHG in moderate optical quality pure GaSe crystals #1 and #15 (α≤0.1-0.2 cm-1) with about 1 mass% excess of Se content are of 49.25° and 49.29°, they are of 39.48° and 39.38° for CO2 laser 9.58 µm emission line SHG. These PM angles are in good coincidence with PM angles estimated with dispersion equations of [13

13. K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995). [CrossRef]

] designed for close quality GaSe (α=0.05 cm-1) to the crystals studied. SHG PM angles for lower quality, α≈0.25 cm-1, pure GaSe #18 with about 1.5 mass% excess in Ga content are of 50.03° and 40.15°, respectively for these lasers, showing trend to PM diagram designed for lower quality (α≈0.25 cm-1) doped GaSe:Er(0.5%) crystal [17

17. Ch.-W. Chen, Yu-K. Hsu, J. Y. Huang, and Ch.-Sh. Chang, “Generation properties of coherent infrared radiation in the optical absorption region of GaSe crystal,” Opt. Express 14, 10636–10644 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Conclusion

High optical quality, α≤0.1-0.2 cm-1, mixed single crystals of p-type GaSe1-xSx, x=0.04, 0.023, 0.090, 0.133, 0.175, 0.216, 0.256, 0.362, 0.369, and 0.412, are grown and studied. Through transparency spectra, PM conditions and efficiency for Er3+:YSGG and CO2 laser SHG at room temperature it was determined that polytype structure of the p-type GaSe1-xSx is not changing with x in spite of predominantly different polytype structure of end GaSe (x=0) and GaS (x=1) crystals at RT. These crystals are useful for application in nonlinear devices. SHG PM diagrams for GaSe1-xSx crystals are shifting with x to shorter-wavelength range in full coincidence with shorter wavelength transparency cut-off of GaS and possibly to upper position, as it goes from available data. SHG efficiency in GaSe0.91S0.09 is 2.4 times of pure GaSe. It was shown that up to 1° difference in SHG PM angles can be caused by the difference in the GaSe astoichiometry.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by NSFC (No.10334010, 10774059), the doctoral program foundation of institution of High Education of China and the National Basic Research Program (2006BC921103), joint grant of RBRF (07 02 92001 HHC_a) and NSCT (96WFA0600007). One of the authors (G.L.) also gratefully acknowledges Russian Science Support Foundation and Presidium SB RAS.

References and links

1.

N. C. Fernelius, “Properties of gallium selenide single crystal,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 28, 275–353 (1994). [CrossRef]

2.

W. Shi and Yu. J. Ding, “A monochromatic and high-power terahertz source tunable in the ranges of 2.7–38.4 and 58.2–3540 µm for variety of potential applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635–1637 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, “Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium,” Opt. Lett. 22, 775–777 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Das, C. Ghosh, O. G. Voevodina, Yu. M. Andreev, and S. Yu. Sarkisov, “Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 43–46 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Allakhverdiev, F. Ismailov, L. Kador, and M. Braun, “Second-harmonic generation in GaS crystals,” Solid State Commun. 104, 1–3 (1997). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Serizawa, Yo. Sasaki, and Yu. Nishina, “Polytypes and excitons in GaSe1-xSx mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 490–495 (1980). [CrossRef]

7.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, R. I. Guliev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “An investigation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaSxSe1-x crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 947–949 (1982). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Pérez León, L. Kador, K. R. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, and A. A. Kaya, “Comparison of the layered semiconductors GaSe, GaS, and GaSe1-xSx by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103103-1/5 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

C. H. Ho, C. C. Wu, and Z. H. Cheng, “Crystal structure and electronic structure of GaSe1-xSx series layered solids,” J. Cryst. Growth 279, 321–328 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective material for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

11.

G. B. Abdullaev, K. R. Allakhverdiev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, E. Yu. Salaev, A. D. Savel’ev, and V. V. Smirnov, “Parametric frequency conversion of IR radiation in GaSe crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 665 (1975). [CrossRef]

12.

T. A. McMath and J. C. Irwin, “Indices of refraction of GaS and GaSe,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 38, 731–737 (1976). [CrossRef]

13.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65–18 µm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995). [CrossRef]

14.

N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, V. Balakrishna, M. Marable, R. Meyer, N. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, and D. Zelmon, “Far-infrared conversion materials: Gallium selenide for far-infrared conversion applications,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 37, 47–102 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

E. Takaoka and K. Kato, “Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2755–2759 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

K. R. Allakhverdiev, T. Baykara, A. Kulibekov Gulubayov, A. A. Kaya, J. Goldstein, N. Fernelius, S. Hanna, and Z. Salaeva, “Corrected infrared Sellmeier coefficients for gallium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093515-1-6 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

Ch.-W. Chen, Yu-K. Hsu, J. Y. Huang, and Ch.-Sh. Chang, “Generation properties of coherent infrared radiation in the optical absorption region of GaSe crystal,” Opt. Express 14, 10636–10644 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Atuchin, G. V. Lanskii, A. N. Morozov, L. D. Pokrovsky, S. Yu. Sarkisov, and O. V. Voevodina, “Growth, real structure and applications of GaSe1-xSx crystals,” Materials Science and Engineering B 128, 205–210 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

G. A. Akhundov, N. A. Gasanova, and M. A. Nizametdinova, “Optical absorption, reflection, dispersion of GaS and GaSe layer crystals,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, K109–K113 (1966). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Schluter, J. Camassel, S. Kohn, J. P. Voitchovsky, Y. R. Shen, and M. L. Cohen, “Optical properties of GaSe and GaSxSe1-x mixed crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3534–3547 (1976). [CrossRef]

21.

L. Kador, D. Haarer, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and E. Yu. Salaev, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation at 789.5 nm in a GaSe crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 731–733 (1996). [CrossRef]

22.

G. B. Abdullaev, K. R. Allakhverdiev, M. E. Karasev, V. I. Konov, L. A. Kulevskii, N. B. Mustafaev, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, Yu. M. Starodumov, and N. I. Chapliev, “An efficient CO2 laser SHG in GaSe crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 494–498 (1989). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 10, 2008
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: May 27, 2008
Published: June 20, 2008

Citation
Hong-Zhi Zhang, Zhi-Hui Kang, Yun Jiang, Jin-Yue Gao, Feng-Guang Wu, Zhi-Shu Feng, Yury M. Andreev, Grigory V. Lanskii, Aleksander N. Morozov, Elena I. Sachkova, and Sergei Y. Sarkisov, "SHG phase matching in GaSe and mixed GaSe11-xSx, x0.412, crystals at room temperature," Opt. Express 16, 9951-9957 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-13-9951


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References

  1. N. C.  Fernelius, "Properties of gallium selenide single crystal," Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 28, 275-353 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. W.  Shi and Yu. J.  Ding, "A monochromatic and high-power terahertz source tunable in the ranges of 2.7-38.4 and 58.2-3540 ?m for variety of potential applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635-1637 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. D. R.  Suhre, N. B.  Singh, V.  Balakrishna, N. C.  Fernelius, and F. K.  Hopkins, "Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium," Opt. Lett. 22, 775-777 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S.  Das, C.  Ghosh, O. G.  Voevodina, Yu. M.  Andreev, and S. Yu.  Sarkisov, "Modified GaSe crystal as a parametric frequency converter," Appl. Phys. B 82, 43-46 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. K.  Allakhverdiev, F.  Ismailov, L.  Kador, and M.  Braun, "Second-harmonic generation in GaS crystals," Solid State Commun. 104, 1-3 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. H.  Serizawa, Yo. Sasaki, and Yu. Nishina, "Polytypes and excitons in GaSe1-xSx mixed crystals," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 48, 490-495 (1980). [CrossRef]
  7. K. R.  Allakhverdiev, R. I.  Guliev, E. Yu.  Salaev, and V. V.  Smirnov, "An investigation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of GaSxSe1-x crystals," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 947-949 (1982). [CrossRef]
  8. C.  Pérez León, L.  Kador, K. R.  Allakhverdiev, T.  Baykara, and A. A.  Kaya, "Comparison of the layered semiconductors GaSe, GaS, and GaSe1-xSx by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103103-1/5 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. C. H.  Ho, C. C.  Wu, and Z. H.  Cheng, "Crystal structure and electronic structure of GaSe1-xSx series layered solids," J. Cryst. Growth 279, 321-328 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. G. B.  Abdullaev, L. A.  Kulevskii, A. M.  Prokhorov, A. D.  Savel'ev, E. Yu.  Salaev, and V. V.  Smirnov, "GaSe, a new effective material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-92 (1972).
  11. G. B.  Abdullaev, K. R.  Allakhverdiev, L. A.  Kulevskii, A. M.  Prokhorov, E. Yu.  Salaev, A. D.  Savel??ev, and V. V.  Smirnov, "Parametric frequency conversion of IR radiation in GaSe crystal," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 665 (1975). [CrossRef]
  12. T. A.  McMath, and J. C.  Irwin, "Indices of refraction of GaS and GaSe," Phys. Stat. Sol.(a) 38, 731-737 (1976). [CrossRef]
  13. K. L.  Vodopyanov and L. A.  Kulevskii, "New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the 0.65-18 ?m spectral region," Opt. Commun. 118, 375-378 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. N. B.  Singh, D. R.  Suhre, V.  Balakrishna, M.  Marable, R.  Meyer, N.  Fernelius, F. K.  Hopkins, and D.  Zelmon, "Far-infrared conversion materials: Gallium selenide for far-infrared conversion applications," Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 37, 47-102 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. E.  Takaoka and K.  Kato, "Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2755-2759 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. K. R.  Allakhverdiev, T.  Baykara, A.  Kulibekov Gulubayov, A. A.  Kaya, J.  Goldstein, N.  Fernelius, S.  Hanna, and Z.  Salaeva, "Corrected infrared Sellmeier coefficients for gallium selenide," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 093515-1-6 (2005). [CrossRef]
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