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Optics Express

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 16 — Aug. 4, 2008
  • pp: 11727–11734
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Sub-100 fs two-color pump-probe spectroscopy of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes with a 100 MHz Er-fiber laser system

A. Gambetta, G. Galzerano, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 16, pp. 11727-11734 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.011727


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Abstract

An extremely compact and versatile near-infrared two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy apparatus based on an amplified Er-fiber laser system is presented and applied to the characterization of the relaxation dynamics of single-wall carbon nanotubes with fundamental absorption in the 2 μm spectral region. By implementing a fast-scan technique, dynamics as long as 3 ps are acquired in 5 s with a relative sensitivity of 10−4 and a temporal resolution below 100 fs at 2 μm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Two color pump-probe experiments with femtosecond light pulses are a key tool for studying ultrafast dynamics of a great variety of materials and systems, and provide unique information of elementary photophysical processes occurring in atoms, molecules, and solids [1-3

1. S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, “Excitation of a Breather Mode of Bound Soliton Pairs in Trans-Polyacetylene by Sub-Five-Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The most widely used configurations are based on amplified Ti:sapphire systems delivering very high energy pulses with kHz repetition rate. Due to the high pulse energy, the efficiency of nonlinear processes such as optical parametric amplification is strongly enhanced, and broadly and independently tunable pump and probe pulses can be easily synthesized [4

4. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. This gives Ti:sapphire systems extremely high versatility and temporal resolution [5

5. C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadely tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, due to the limited repetition rate, quite long measurements with low modulation frequency and lock-in detection are required, resulting in sensitivity not exceeding 1 part per 104. At the expense of tuning capabilities and temporal resolution, sensitivities as high as 1 part per 106 can be achieved combining the use of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), which operates at hundreds MHz repetition rate [6

6. W. S. Pelouch, P. E. Powers, and C. L. Tang, “Ti:sapphire-pumped high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1070–1072 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with high-speed acusto-optical modulators. Both approaches, however, suffer from high system complexity and cost.

In this paper we present a novel system for pump-probe experiments in the near-infrared region at 100 MHz repetition rate, based on a compact and cost-effective Er-fiber laser. The system uses a fast-scan technique, allowing us to acquire 3-ps long dynamics with sub-100-fs temporal resolution, with sensitivity as high as 1 part per 104, for measurements averaged over a 5-s acquisition time. A detailed description of the system performances is provided, and an application to the characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is discussed. A 370 fs relaxation time around 2 μm is found, which is promising in view of exploiting such materials as fast saturable absorbers for passively mode-locked Tm and Ho lasers [7

7. G. Galzerano, M. Marano, S. Longhi, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Sub-100-ps amplitude-modulation mode-locked Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 laser at 2.06 μm” Opt. Lett. 28, 2085–2087 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental apparatus

The pump-probe apparatus is driven by a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser (Toptica FFS) with two optically amplified branches delivering ~65 fs pulses centered at 1.55 μm with 100 MHz rep-rate and 250 mW average output power. One of the branches is coupled to a highly nonlinear fiber generating an octave-spanning supercontinuum (SC) from 1 to 2.3 μm. In our configuration, the first branch is used to excite the sample, while the SC output is spectrally filtered by an f-f spectral shaper to provide a single probe pulse with a narrower band, tunable from 1.6 to 2.3 μm. As shown in Fig. 1, the spectral shaper is composed by a SF10 prism used with Brewster incidence and at minimum deviation, a folding spherical concave mirror with a 1 m radius of curvature, a flat mirror placed in the Fourier plane, and a variable slit placed in front of the mirror. Adjustments of the horizontal position and of the width of the slit allow, respectively, tuning and tailoring of the probe spectrum. It is worth noting that the SF10 prism is chosen since it introduces negligible group-velocity dispersion in the 1.8-2.2 μm spectral range used in experiments reported in this paper. In the pump probe experiments the optical delay is periodically varied, in a fast scan configuration [8

8. M. J. Feldstein, P. Vöhringer, and N. F. Scherer, “Rapid-scan pump- spectroscopy with high time and wave-number resolution: optical-kerr-effect measurements of neat liquids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1500–1510 (1995). [CrossRef]

], by a retro-reflector mounted on an electro-mechanical shaker placed in the probe-arm. By driving the shaker with a triangular wave function at 26 Hz, the optical delay can be varied up to ~3 ps. If longer dynamics are to be studied, the system can be operated in a more conventional slow-scan configuration with pump intensity modulation, lock-in detection, and step-by-step change of the optical delay through a PC-controlled motor stage placed on the probe arm [9

9. M. Punke, F. Hoos, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, N. Linder, and K. Streubel, “High-repetition-rate white-light pump-probe spectroscopy with a tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1157–1159 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Pump and probe beams are independently focused on the sample down to spot sizes of 75 and 32 μm, respectively. For the pump beam we use a BK7 lens with a focal length of 250 mm while for the probe beam we adopt a 100 mm lens in CaF2 to minimize dispersion-induced probe broadening. The probe optical power is measured with an extended InGaAs detector placed at the output of a PC-controlled monochromator allowing for wavelength resolved acquisition of the pump-probe dynamics. In the fast-scan mode, a digital oscilloscope triggered by the shaker modulation signal allows the pump-probe trace to be visualized, averaged and recorded with extremely fast acquisition times.

Fig. 1. Near-infrared two-color pump-probe set-up

3. System performance

The two main features of a system exploiting a SC light for high temporal resolution pump-probe experiments are, in the spectral domain, the filtering and tuning ability, and, in the temporal domain, the possibility of synthesizing a single short pulse (secondary probe pulses could indeed induce parasitic excitation of the sample).

The SC light delivered by the laser source covers more than an octave of spectrum and exhibits, as shown by the spectra reported in Fig. 2(a)-(d), two well distinct peaks at opposite positions with respect to the central wavelength at 1550 nm. Their wavelength can be easily tuned by acting on the chirp of the pulse entering the nonlinear fiber: for negligible chirp the spectrum covers the broadest range, from ~1 to ~2.3 μm (a), while, for increasing chirp, narrower spectra with modified peak positions are obtained (see evolution from (b) to (d)). By means of the spectral shaper described in Section 2, the main peaks can be extracted, and, in the long wavelength region adopted in the experiments, very clean tunable spectra as those reported in Fig. 3(a) can be obtained. The width of these spectra supports approximately 32 fs long pulses with an average power of about 20 mW. In the time domain the pulses associated with the spectra reported in Fig. 3(a) are nearly transform-limited as a result of soliton-like propagation in the non-linear fiber. The experimentally measured pulse-width is about 40 fs, as retrieved from autocorrelation measurement reported in Fig. 3(b). It is worth noting that, in the short wavelength region, the SC pulses are no longer transform-limited, and an SF10 prims compressor module is required for combing spectral shaping with dispersion compensation [10

10. F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Widely tunable sub-30-fs pulses from a compact erbium-doped fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 29, 516–518 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The overall temporal resolution of the pump-probe set-up amounts to ~76 fs, which results from the convolution of the 40 fs probe pulses with 65 fs pump pulses. In the case the pump is provided by the short wavelength SC peaks, the temporal resolution can be further reduced to 56 fs.

Fig. 2. From (a) to (d): SC spectra for increasing chirp of the pulses coupled into the highly nonlinear fiber.

Fig. 3. (a): SC spectra at the output of the spectral shaper. (b): intensity autocorrelation trace of the pulses with spectrum centered at 1.95 μm.
Fig. 4. Electrical power spectrum of the laser intensity noise as measured with a fast extended InGaAs detector (black line) together with the measured noise floor (light blue line).

4. Pump probe dynamics of SWCNTs

The carrier dynamics of SWCNTs has been extensively studied over the past years, employing time resolved spectroscopy [12-20

12. T. Hertel, R. Fasel, and G. Moos “Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles: A Time-Domain Study,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 449–465 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Excitonic states play a key role in the radiative and nonradiative process within semiconducting SWCNTs [16-18

16. Y. Z. Ma, L. Valkunas, S. L. Dexheimer, S. M. Bachilo, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Optical Excitations in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Evidence for Exciton-Exciton Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157402 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Typically, time resolved spectroscopy reveals a multicomponent relaxation dynamics, with a fast component about 1 ps or less and a slow component, which lasts from tens of ps to 100 ns. The long life component is associated with the radiative transition responsible for the IR photoluminescence [15

15. G. N. Ostojic, S. Zaric, J. Kono, M. S. Strano, V. C. Moore, R. H. Hauge, and R. E. Smalley, “Interband Recombination Dynamics of Resonantly-Excited Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 117402 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fast component is usually associated to nonradiative processes such as carrier thermalisation [12

12. T. Hertel, R. Fasel, and G. Moos “Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles: A Time-Domain Study,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 449–465 (2002). [CrossRef]

], intersubband relaxation from the higher exciton manifold states [18

18. M. Jones, W. K. Metzger, T. J. McDonald, C. Engtrakul, R. J. Ellingson, G. Rumbles, and M. J. Heben, “Extrinsic and Intrinsic Effects on the Excited-State Kinetics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 7, 300–306 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], relaxation within exciton levels [21

21. H. Ye Seferyan, M. B. Nasr, V. Senekerimyan, R. Zadoyan, and V. A. Apkarian, “Transient Grating Measurements of Excitonic Dynamics in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The dark Excitons Bottleneck,” Nano Lett. 6, 1757–1760 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], exciton energy transfer within nanotube bundles [22

22. P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, P. Hu, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanotube Bundles: Evidence for Exciton Energy Transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 137402 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], exciton-exciton annihilation [16

16. Y. Z. Ma, L. Valkunas, S. L. Dexheimer, S. M. Bachilo, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Optical Excitations in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Evidence for Exciton-Exciton Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157402 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and Auger recombination [23

23. F. Wang, G. Dukovic, E. Knoesel, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid Auger recombination in optically excited semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 241403 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In large SWCNT bundles, charge transfer of the photoexcited carriers from semiconducting to metallic tubes was also suggested [14

14. J.-S. Lauret, C. Voisin, G. Cassabois, C. Delalande, P. Roussignol, O. Jos, and L. Capes, “Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Despite much progress in the study of excitons in SWCNTs, the nature of the relaxation dynamic is not fully understood, and further efforts would be useful for the optimisation of this material for various photonics applications [24

24. J. Lefebvre, S. Maruyama, and P. Finnie, “Photoluminescence: Science and Application,” Topics in Appl. Phys. 111, 287–320 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 25

25. G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, N. Chiodo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, U. Morgner, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, and A. C. Ferrari, “Passive mode locking by carbon nanotubes in a femtosecond laser written waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231115 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 5. Optical absorption of SWCNTs.

We test the pump-probe configuration by studying the temporal dynamics of SWCNTs designed to provide fast saturable absorption around 1.8-2 μm, which is a particularly interesting region for mode-locking of broadband active media such as Tm and Ho-doped fibres. We use commercially available SWCNTs (CarboLex Inc, USA) grown by arc discharge. 1 mg of SWCNTs is dispersed in 20 ml of dimethylformamide (DMF) by 1 hour strong ultrasonication. The suspension is then centrifuged for 30 minutes at 2800 RPM to remove big aggregates. Finally, the supernatant solution is spray-coated onto a quartz substrate. The optical absorption measured with a Perkin Elmer Lambda 950 spectrometer is shown in Fig. 5. A broad band with a maximum at 1850 nm corresponds to absorption of semiconducting SWCNTs with diameters between 1.3 and 1.6 nm, as also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Figure 5 also shows the background spectrum coming from the quartz substrate.

The fast scan technique allows us to perform particularly rapid measurements. For every wavelength selected by the monochromator, a 2.5 ps temporal dynamic is recorded and averaged 128 times by the oscilloscope in a 5 s time window. By changing the monochromator wavelength in steps of 20 nm, a full transient spectrum ranging from 1.8 to 2.2 μm is acquired in less than 3 min, which is roughly the time required for taking one scan at fixed wavelength in a slow scan configuration.

The ΔT/T signal, which is proportional to the electronic population excited on upper energy levels by the pump pulse [1

1. S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, “Excitation of a Breather Mode of Bound Soliton Pairs in Trans-Polyacetylene by Sub-Five-Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is plotted in Fig. 6(a) on a bi-dimensional chart as a function of probe wavelength and pump-probe time delay: horizontal cuts of the chart give insight into the time evolution of the absorption spectrum, while vertical cuts provide the relaxation dynamics for given wavelengths. In particular, Fig. 6(b) reports the transient spectra as acquired at a 0, 300 and 2000 fs delay (dotted horizontal lines in section a)), while Fig. 6(c) reports the temporal evolution of the population at a 2 μm wavelength (dotted vertical line in (a)), for different pump power levels.

Fig. 6. (a) ΔT/T signal of the SWCNT plotted on a bidimensional chart as a function of time delay and probe wavelength. (b) Transient spectrum at different delays: zero (blue curve), 300 fs (green curve) and 2000 fs (red curve). (c) Pump probe traces (normalized) for increasing pump power.

5. Conclusions

A new system for ultrafast spectroscopy based on an amplified Er-doped fiber laser is presented and characterized. The system provides a cost effective solution for pump-probe experiments with temporal resolution below 100 fs, spectral tunability from 1 to 2.3 μm and high sensitivity both with fast and slow scan configurations. It has been successfully applied to the pump-probe characterization of large diameter SWCNTs, with a photo-bleaching band centered around 1.9 μm and a relaxation time as low as 370 fs, promising for the realization of fast saturable absorbers in the longest wavelengths near-IR region.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge Prof. Guglielmo Lanzani for precious discussion on experimental results. ACF acknowledges funding from EPSRC grants GR/S97613/01, EP/E500935/1, The Leverhulme Trust, the Isaac Newton trust and The Royal Society-Brian Mercer Award for Innovation.

References and links

1.

S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, “Excitation of a Breather Mode of Bound Soliton Pairs in Trans-Polyacetylene by Sub-Five-Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. Weichert, C. Riehn, V. V. Matylitsky, W. Jarzęba, and B. Brutschy, “Time-resolved rotational spectroscopy of para-difluorobenzene∙Ar,” J. Mol. Struct. 612, 325–337 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

Y.-C. Chen, Y.-W. Chen, J.-J. Su, J.-Y. Huang, and I. A. Yu, “Pump-probe spectroscopy of cold 87Rb atoms in various polarization configurations,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043808 (2001) [CrossRef]

4.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, “Two-color pump-probe system broadely tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30fs temporal resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

W. S. Pelouch, P. E. Powers, and C. L. Tang, “Ti:sapphire-pumped high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1070–1072 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

G. Galzerano, M. Marano, S. Longhi, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Sub-100-ps amplitude-modulation mode-locked Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 laser at 2.06 μm” Opt. Lett. 28, 2085–2087 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. J. Feldstein, P. Vöhringer, and N. F. Scherer, “Rapid-scan pump- spectroscopy with high time and wave-number resolution: optical-kerr-effect measurements of neat liquids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1500–1510 (1995). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Punke, F. Hoos, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, N. Linder, and K. Streubel, “High-repetition-rate white-light pump-probe spectroscopy with a tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1157–1159 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Widely tunable sub-30-fs pulses from a compact erbium-doped fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 29, 516–518 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. A. Moon, “Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775–1778 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Hertel, R. Fasel, and G. Moos “Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles: A Time-Domain Study,” Appl. Phys. A 75, 449–465 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor Carbon Nanotubes as Ultrafast Switching Materials for Optical Telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15, 534–537 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

J.-S. Lauret, C. Voisin, G. Cassabois, C. Delalande, P. Roussignol, O. Jos, and L. Capes, “Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

G. N. Ostojic, S. Zaric, J. Kono, M. S. Strano, V. C. Moore, R. H. Hauge, and R. E. Smalley, “Interband Recombination Dynamics of Resonantly-Excited Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 117402 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. Z. Ma, L. Valkunas, S. L. Dexheimer, S. M. Bachilo, and G. R. Fleming, “Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Optical Excitations in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Evidence for Exciton-Exciton Annihilation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 157402 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

Z. Zhu, J. Crochet, M. S. Arnold, M. C. Hersam, H. Ulbricht, D. Resasco, and T. Hertel, “Pump-probe spectroscopy of exciton dynamics in (6,5) carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 3831–3835 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Jones, W. K. Metzger, T. J. McDonald, C. Engtrakul, R. J. Ellingson, G. Rumbles, and M. J. Heben, “Extrinsic and Intrinsic Effects on the Excited-State Kinetics of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 7, 300–306 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

O. J. Korovyanko, C.-X. Sheng, Z. V. Vardeny, A. B. Dalton, and R. H. Baughman, “Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Excitons in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017403 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. Manzoni, A. Gambetta, E. Menna, M. Meneghetti, G. Lanzani, and G. Cerullo, “Intersubband Exciton Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 207401 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

H. Ye Seferyan, M. B. Nasr, V. Senekerimyan, R. Zadoyan, and V. A. Apkarian, “Transient Grating Measurements of Excitonic Dynamics in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The dark Excitons Bottleneck,” Nano Lett. 6, 1757–1760 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, P. Hu, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanotube Bundles: Evidence for Exciton Energy Transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 137402 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

F. Wang, G. Dukovic, E. Knoesel, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of rapid Auger recombination in optically excited semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 241403 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

J. Lefebvre, S. Maruyama, and P. Finnie, “Photoluminescence: Science and Application,” Topics in Appl. Phys. 111, 287–320 (2008). [CrossRef]

25.

G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, N. Chiodo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, U. Morgner, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, and A. C. Ferrari, “Passive mode locking by carbon nanotubes in a femtosecond laser written waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231115 (2006). [CrossRef]

26.

T. Hasan, V. Scardaci, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Dispersibility and stability improvement of unfunctionalized nanotubes in amide solvents by polymer wrapping,” Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 3551–3555 (2006)

OCIS Codes
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
(320.7150) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast spectroscopy

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: May 21, 2008
Revised Manuscript: July 11, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: July 15, 2008
Published: July 22, 2008

Citation
A. Gambetta, G. Galzerano, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and M. Marangoni, "Sub-100 fs pump-probe spectroscopy of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes with a 100 MHz Er-fiber laser system," Opt. Express 16, 11727-11734 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11727


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References

  1. S. Adachi, V. M. Kobryanskii, and T. Kobayashi, "Excitation of a Breather Mode of Bound Soliton Pairs in Trans-Polyacetylene by Sub-Five-Femtosecond Optical Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 027401 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Weichert, C. Riehn, V. V. Matylitsky, W. Jarz�?ba, and B. Brutschy, "Time-resolved rotational spectroscopy of para-difluorobenzene·Ar," J. Mol. Struct. 612, 325-337 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. Y.-C. Chen, Y.-W. Chen, J.-J. Su, J.-Y. Huang, and I.A. Yu, "Pump-probe spectroscopy of cold 87Rb atoms in various polarization configurations," Phys. Rev. A 63, 043808 (2001) [CrossRef]
  4. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Manzoni, D. Polli, and G. Cerullo, "Two-color pump-probe system broadely tunable over the visible and the near infrared with sub-30fs temporal resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. W. S. Pelouch, P. E. Powers, and C. L. Tang, "Ti:sapphire-pumped high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 17, 1070-1072 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Galzerano, M. Marano, S. Longhi, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, "Sub-100-ps amplitude-modulation mode-locked Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 laser at 2.06 μm" Opt. Lett. 28, 2085-2087 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Feldstein, P. Vöhringer, and N. F. Scherer, "Rapid-scan pump- spectroscopy with high time and wave-number resolution: optical-kerr-effect measurements of neat liquids," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12,1500-1510 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Punke, F. Hoos, C. Karnutsch, U. Lemmer, N. Linder, and K. Streubel, "High-repetition-rate white-light pump-probe spectroscopy with a tapered fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1157-1159 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Widely tunable sub-30-fs pulses from a compact erbium-doped fiber source," Opt. Lett. 29, 516-518 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. Moon, "Optimization of signal-to-noise ratios in pump-probe spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1775-1778 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Hertel, R. Fasel, and G. Moos "Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles: A Time-Domain Study," Appl. Phys. A 75, 449-465 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, "Semiconductor Carbon Nanotubes as Ultrafast Switching Materials for Optical Telecommunications," Adv. Mater. 15, 534-537 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. J.-S. Lauret, C. Voisin, G. Cassabois, C. Delalande, P. Roussignol, O. Jos, and L. Capes, "Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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