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Optics Express

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 16 — Aug. 4, 2008
  • pp: 12181–12189
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Self-advanced fast light propagation in an optical fiber based on Brillouin scattering

Sanghoon Chin, Miguel Gonzalez-Herraez, and Luc Thévenaz  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 16, pp. 12181-12189 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.012181


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate an extremely simple technique to achieve pulse advancements in optical fibers by using both spontaneous amplified and stimulated Brillouin scattering. It is shown that the group velocity of a light signal is all-optically controlled by its average power while it propagates through an optical fiber. The signal generates an intense back-propagating Stokes emission that causes a loss on the signal through depletion. This narrowband loss gives rise to a fast light propagation at the exact signal frequency. The Stokes emission self-adapts in real time to the Brillouin properties of the fiber and to a wide extent to the signal bandwidth.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The dynamic control of the speed of a light signal propagating through an optical medium by an active modification of the group velocity, commonly known under the denomination of “slow & fast light”, finds an interesting field of application in optical networking, microwave photonics and photonic signal processing [1-4

1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “‘Slow’ and ‘Fast’ light,” Ch. 6 in Progress in Optics43, E. Wolf ed., (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), 497–530. [CrossRef]

]. Several principles have been demonstrated to realize this control, among them, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) [2

2. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 m/s in an ultracold atomic gas, ” Nature 397, 594–598, (1999). [CrossRef]

] and coherent population oscillation (CPO) [3-4

3. P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation,” Opt. Express 13, 9909–9915 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These phenomena require specially prepared media (atomic vapors, crystals, rare earths) with long-lifetime transitions. A promising way to make these techniques more practical is to exert this control in a conventional optical fiber. Demonstrations of this possibility have been carried out along the past three years, using different amplification phenomena such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) [5-6

5. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) [7

7. J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A.L. Gaeta, “Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 13, 6092–6098 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and parametric amplification [8

8. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13, 6234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among these techniques, SBS presents two main advantages: first, given its large efficiency, an extremely wide group velocity control can be carried out at still reasonable power levels [9

9. M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, Gonzalez Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005). [CrossRef]

]; second, the spectrum of the interaction can be engineered to fit different requests in terms of bandwidth and distortion of the signal [10-13

10. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Gain-assisted pulse advancement using single and double Brillouin gain peaks in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 9758–9765 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For instance, a two-tone pump spectrum can give rise to fast light in gain regime if the frequency separation between the pumps is correctly chosen [10

10. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Gain-assisted pulse advancement using single and double Brillouin gain peaks in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 9758–9765 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, the bandwidth of SBS-induced gain can be increased arbitrarily by actively broadening the pump spectrum using a random modulation of the pump laser current [11

11. M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,“ Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef]

], to ultimately reach a 12 GHz bandwidth [12

12. Z. Zhu, Andrew M. C. Dawes, Daniel. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and Alan. E. Willner, “Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201–206 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The possibility to spectrally superpose Brillouin gain and loss spectra gives another degree of freedom to design innovative schemes, such as a further extension of the bandwidth up to 25 GHz [13

13. K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, “25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 217–219 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the generation of delays without amplitude change [14

14. S. Chin, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 10684–106924 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

These former results show that stimulated Brillouin scattering offers an unmatched flexibility for an all-optical control of the pulse delay in a fiber. However, considering practical issues, this approach shows two actual drawbacks: first, this scheme inevitably requires an external pump source; second, the frequency separation between the pump and probe lasers has to be constant and precisely controlled within typically a 1 MHz uncertainty. These requirements force a certain complexity in the experimental system, which should be preferably avoided in many practical applications. In this paper, we demonstrate that a light signal with a sufficient average component can make itself speed up along the fiber without any external pump source. The working principle is the following: when the signal power grows beyond a certain critical power - commonly denominated Brillouin threshold - a significant Stokes component is generated at a frequency downshifted νB below the signal. This Stokes wave, in turn, acts as a Brillouin pump to create an absorption peak in the transmission spectrum of the fiber at the signal wavelength, hence creating advancement on the signal pulse. In short, simply controlling the power of the signal entering the fiber eventually determines its advancement. This configuration is considerably simpler than all the previously reported techniques and may serve as a practical basic concept for several applications.

2. Principle

Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers results from the interference of two counter-propagating waves. For a definite frequency difference between the waves νB=νpump -νprobe called the Brillouin shift, this interference generates an acoustic wave through the process of electrostriction. This acoustic wave, in turn, causes a periodic modulation of the refractive index which eventually transfers a fraction of the pump intensity into the probe wave. As the probe wave grows, the amplitude of the interference is larger, the acoustic wave is more sustained and the scattering process turns more efficient. This stimulation effect globally manifests through an exponential growth of the probe wave. Thus, SBS can be considered as a narrowband amplification process, in which a strong pump wave produces a narrowband gain (~30 MHz) in a spectral region around νpump-νB. Following a similar reasoning, the power transfer from the pump to the probe can be assimilated to a loss for the pump. So, by simply swapping the relative spectral positions of pump and probe, the pump will cause a narrowband loss for the probe around νpump+νB. These narrowband gain/loss processes are associated to sharp index changes, around which there is a positive/negative variation of the effective group index in the fiber [1

1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “‘Slow’ and ‘Fast’ light,” Ch. 6 in Progress in Optics43, E. Wolf ed., (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), 497–530. [CrossRef]

,5

5. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

It is important to point out, however, that the process of SBS may be initiated without the need of an external probe wave. The background energy present in the fiber in ambient conditions causes the presence of thermally activated acoustic waves that spontaneously scatter the light from the pump. This noise-scattered seed light initiates the stimulation and is thus gradually amplified if it lies within the SBS gain spectrum. This can eventually lead to a considerable amount of power that is back-reflected at the Stokes wavelength νpump-νB. A useful quantity in this case is the Brillouin critical power Pc, which is conventionally defined as the power of the input CW light necessary to have an equal amount of power present in the backscattered Stokes wave in the fictitious case of an absence of depletion. For a uniform fiber, this critical power can be estimated [15

15. R. G. Smith, “Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering” Appl. Opt. 11, 2489–2494 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as Pc=21Aeff/(gBLeff), where gB is the Brillouin gain coefficient, Aeff is the nonlinear effective area of the fiber and Leff is the nonlinear effective length. In long conventional optical fibers with L>Leff, this critical power is about 5 mW at a wavelength of 1550 nm and can thus be easily reached using off-the-shelf DFB lasers.

The basic idea of the self-induced fast light scheme is to avoid using a distinct pump wave to modify the signal propagation conditions through SBS. This is simply realized by delivering a sufficiently powerful average signal into the fiber, above the Brillouin critical power Pc. Seeded by noise, the process of stimulated Brillouin scattering will generate a substantial Stokes signal, which in turn will induce through depletion a narrowband loss for the signal, as depicted in Fig. 1. Associated to this narrowband loss, a spectral region of anomalous dispersion is induced, in which the temporal envelope of the signal will experience advancement through fast light.

The advantage of this configuration is that the signal is continuously and accurately centered in the spectrum of the loss resonance created by the spontaneously amplified Stokes wave. The pump-signal frequency difference automatically compensates for any environmental and wavelength changes and remains perfectly stable without the need of any optical component or instrument (such as external modulators, microwave generators, etc.) typically used in other configurations [5

5. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, Gonzalez Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005). [CrossRef]

,10

10. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Gain-assisted pulse advancement using single and double Brillouin gain peaks in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 9758–9765 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. S. Chin, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 10684–106924 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, in case of very large gain as in the present situation, the state of polarization of the Stokes wave is precisely identical to that of the signal at the fiber input since the SBS interaction coherently transfers photons from the pump to the Stokes wave and preserves their state of polarization [16

16. L. Thévenaz, A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “All-optical polarization control through Brillouin amplifier,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)2008, paper: OML7.

]. Thus, in these conditions, the polarization of the strongly amplified Stokes wave experiences a pulling effect and eventually aligns to the pump polarization. This holds for a common standard fiber with a reasonably low birefringence value. This secures a maximum efficiency and stability for the interaction, and hence the highest possible advancement for a given input power.

Fig. 1. Principle of the configuration to generate self-advanced fast light. The signal is powerful enough to generate a strong amplified spontaneous Stokes wave, which in turn depletes the signal wave. The depletion is assimilated to a narrowband loss spectrum.

When addressing the delay-bandwidth characteristics and the efficiency of a slow & fast light scheme, it is important to know the spectral width of the Brillouin resonance. The bandwidth of the gain/loss process is obtained from the convolution of the intrinsic Brillouin spectral distribution with the pump spectrum [11

11. M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,“ Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In our case, it is important to realize that the Stokes signal is not purely monochromatic, since it builds up from a noise-seeded SBS process and will therefore present a certain spectral distribution [17

17. A. Yeniay, J-M. Delavaux, and J. Toulouse “Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Gain Spectra in Optical Fibers” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1425–1432 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. For low input power the spontaneous Brillouin noise shows a linewidth close to the intrinsic Brillouin linewidth ΔνB. However, for higher input power, the linewidth experiences a dynamic narrowing. This narrowing stabilizes when the critical power is reached and a significant depletion of the input signal is observed [17

17. A. Yeniay, J-M. Delavaux, and J. Toulouse “Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Gain Spectra in Optical Fibers” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1425–1432 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. In our case, significant advancement of the signal starts to take place when the signal power exceeds the Brillouin critical power, hence when significant pump depletion starts to occur. In these conditions, the spectral width of the amplified spontaneous Brillouin emission should remain moderate and constant for all input powers [17

17. A. Yeniay, J-M. Delavaux, and J. Toulouse “Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Gain Spectra in Optical Fibers” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1425–1432 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. We must therefore expect a power-invariant loss spectral distribution for the signal, since it is essentially given by the convolution of the Stokes wave spectrum with the natural Brillouin gain, both being constant for all the relevant input powers in the present experimental conditions.

The power of the signal must also be considered as constant when time-averaged during fiber transit, so that an amplified spontaneous Stokes emission showing a constant power is generated and no time jitter is observed on the delays. Practically this condition requires that the fiber length must be much longer than the typical periodicity of the signal, or equivalently a large number of symbols (> 100-1000) forming the data pattern must simultaneously propagate through the fiber. Under this condition each separate symbol in the data stream taken individually has a negligible impact on the amplitude of the Stokes wave and therefore experiences a Brillouin loss actually similar to that produced by an external constant pump. This makes the system behave identically to a standard Brillouin fast light configuration in terms of distortion and limitation.

3. Experiments and Results

The experimental setup realized to demonstrate the self-advanced fast light through SBS is shown in Fig. 2. A 12-km-long conventional dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) with a Brillouin shift of 10.6 GHz and a FWHM gain bandwidth of approximately 27 MHz is used as the SBS gain/loss medium. To generate the signal we used a commercial distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) operating at a wavelength of 1532 nm. The output of the laser is modulated using an external electro-optic modulator to produce a pulse train with a width of 45 ns (FWHM) at a 5 kHz repetition rate. With this periodicity, only one pulse is present at a time over the entire optical fiber, so that any cross-interaction between adjacent pulses during propagation is avoided at a first stage. The signal includes a definite DC component obtained simply by adjusting the DC bias applied to the EOM. This DC component is essentially responsible for the creation of the Stokes wave. As we will show below, in a realistic fiber system a sufficiently long pulse sequence present in the fiber would equally generate the Stokes component responsible of the pulse advancement. The DC power is approximately 14 % of the peak power of the pulse, but creates a much larger integrated gain over the fiber length considering the very low pulse repetition rate. Then this compound signal is strongly boosted using a high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with ~30 dBm saturation power before it is launched into the DSF. The signal power is controlled with a variable optical attenuator (VOA) after being amplified by the EDFA. The strong DC component present on the signal generates a strong backward Brillouin Stokes at a frequency downshifted νB below the pulse signal frequency. This Stokes wave causes an absorption peak in the spectral transmission of the fiber at the frequency of the input signal, which consequently experiences fast light conditions.

Fig. 2. Experimental configuration to realize the self-pumped pulse advancement based on both amplified spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering. EOM; electro-optic modulator, EDFA; Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, VOA; variable optical attenuator, DSF; dispersion shifted fiber.

This is observed at the fiber output by measuring with a fast detector the temporal advancement of the pulse signal for different input signal powers. To perform this measurement we controlled the amplitude of the pulse at the input of the detector with a variable optical attenuator so as to avoid any possible biasing of the trace from an amplitude-dependent time response of the detector. The higher the input power, the stronger the Stokes wave, the deeper the peak absorption is and the faster the pulse will travel.

Fig. 3. (a). measured optical powers of the Stokes waves and transmitted signals (b) linewidths of the generated Brillouin Stokes waves recorded in the ESA, by use of the delayed homo-heterodyne system.
Fig. 4. Temporal traces of the signal pulse after propagating through the dispersion shifted fiber for different input signal powers, showing clear advancements.

Fig. 5. Temporal advancements of the signal pulses as a function of the signal average power.

This logarithmic dependence is actually a direct consequence of the total power transfer from the signal to the Stokes power above the Brillouin critical power Pc. The effective total loss A experienced by the signal is defined as

PoutPin=eA

where Pin and Pout represents the input and output signal power, respectively. Since above the Brillouin threshold the signal output power Pout saturates to a constant value Psat, the effective loss simply depends on the input signal power Pin following this relationship:

A(Pin)=ln(PoutPin)=ln(PsatPin)

The temporal advancement being proportional to the effective total loss A and Psat being constant, the logarithmic dependence on the input power comes out immediately from this simple description.

To demonstrate that this technique can also be used for a data stream with negligible DC component we modified the pulse repetition rate to 20 MHz, so that it reasonably simulates a real sequence of bits when averaged over the fiber length. The pulses in this case have a FWHM of 14.22 ns, hence the duty cycle is 30%. The DC component is reduced to a negligible fraction of the pulse peak power in this case. Figure 6(a) shows the pulse train for 2 different signal powers – one below the critical power and one at the maximum possible value using our setup – and the pulse advancement is again clearly visible. Figure 6(b) shows the advancement as a function of the signal power, with a maximal obtained fractional delay of 0.42. The slope is in this case 0.35 ns/dBm. It must be pointed out that the power of the data stream time-averaged over the fiber length must remain constant to avoid any time jittering at the output, requiring a steady fraction of bits “1” with respect to the total number of bits.

Fig. 6. (a). Temporal traces of the data streams for a signal power below the critical power (solid line) and at maximum signal power realized in our setup (dashed line). (b) Signal advancement as a function of the average signal power, showing the logarithmic dependence over the Brillouin critical power at 10 dBm.

The main limit for the maximum possible advancement in this configuration is caused by the onset of the 2nd order SBS amplified Stokes emission. Once the backward Stokes reaches its own critical power for SBS, there will be a forward Stokes wave downshifted by 2νB below the frequency of the input signal. This wave will deplete the backward Stokes wave and hence make the advancement saturated. This places a fundamental limit to the range of signal power suitable to produce a delaying effect.

Fig. 7. (a). Measured spectra of the Stokes emission by the delayed self-homodyne technique, for different pulse widths at a constant normalized repetition rate. (b) Measured Stokes linewidth as a function of the measured signal bandwidth.

4. Conclusions

In this paper the possibility to generate tunable delays in optical fibers based on Brillouin slow & fast light without additional pumping source is experimentally demonstrated. Through the process of spontaneous amplified Brillouin scattering the signal generates a Stokes wave that in turn depletes the signal and creates a narrowband loss. The delaying effect only depends on the Stokes wave power that is simply varied by changing the average signal input power. The implementation of such a delaying scheme turns out to be extremely simple and requires a very limited number of optical devices, since the generation of the pump and the delaying effect are all produced by a single segment of optical fiber. This inherent simplicity should have an evident positive impact on the stability, the reliability and the economic dimension of the actual delay line. This scheme offers also some clear advantages, such as the perfect self-adaptation of the Stokes emission to spectrally match the loss resonance with the signal spectrum, even in changing environmental conditions. Moreover the self-generated pump spectrum adapts to a large extent to the average bandwidth of the signal, thus maintaining the complexity low even for broadband signals.

The principle is equally demonstrated for isolated pulses and for pulse trains at high repetition rate, anticipating its suitability for an implementation in real digital or analog systems.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the support from the Swiss National Science Foundation through project 200021-109773 and the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science through project TEC2006-09990-C02-02.

References and links

1.

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, “‘Slow’ and ‘Fast’ light,” Ch. 6 in Progress in Optics43, E. Wolf ed., (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), 497–530. [CrossRef]

2.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 m/s in an ultracold atomic gas, ” Nature 397, 594–598, (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation,” Opt. Express 13, 9909–9915 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room temperature solid,” Science 301, 200–202 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13, 82–88 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable All-Optical Delays via Brillouin Slow Light in an Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, and A.L. Gaeta, “Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 13, 6092–6098 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13, 6234–6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, Gonzalez Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Gain-assisted pulse advancement using single and double Brillouin gain peaks in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 9758–9765 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, “Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,“ Opt. Express 14, 1395–1400 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

Z. Zhu, Andrew M. C. Dawes, Daniel. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and Alan. E. Willner, “Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201–206 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, “25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 217–219 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Chin, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 10684–106924 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

R. G. Smith, “Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering” Appl. Opt. 11, 2489–2494 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

L. Thévenaz, A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “All-optical polarization control through Brillouin amplifier,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC)2008, paper: OML7.

17.

A. Yeniay, J-M. Delavaux, and J. Toulouse “Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Gain Spectra in Optical Fibers” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1425–1432 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, (Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall, 1998) Chap. 5, pp. 185–188.

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

ToC Category:
Slow and Fast Light

History
Original Manuscript: March 20, 2008
Revised Manuscript: July 25, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: July 25, 2008
Published: July 30, 2008

Citation
Sanghoon Chin, Miguel Gonzalez-Herraez, and Luc Thevenaz, "Self-advanced fast light propagation in an optical fiber based on Brillouin scattering," Opt. Express 16, 12181-12189 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-12181


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References

  1. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, "�??Slow�?? and �??Fast�?? light," Ch. 6 in Progress in Optics43, E. Wolf, ed., (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2002), 497-530. [CrossRef]
  2. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 m/s in an ultracold atomic gas, " Nature 397, 594-598, (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express 13, 9909-9915 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow-light propagation in a room temperature solid," Science 301, 200-202 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Express 13, 82-88 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable All-Optical Delays via Brillouin Slow Light in an Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,153902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi and A.L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 6092-6098 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering," Opt. Express 13, 6234-6249 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Y. Song, M. Gonzalez Herráez and L. Thévenaz, "Gain-assisted pulse advancement using single and double Brillouin gain peaks in optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9758-9765 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Gonzalez Herráez, K. Y. Song and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Zhu, AndrewM. C. Dawes, Daniel. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang and Alan. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Chin, M. Gonzalez Herráez and L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 10684-106924 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering" Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Thévenaz, A. Zadok, A. Eyal and M. Tur, "All-optical polarization control through Brillouin amplifier," Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2008, paper: OML7.
  17. A. Yeniay, J-M. Delavaux and J. Toulouse "Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Gain Spectra in Optical Fibers" IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1425-1432 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement, (Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall, 1998) Chap. 5, pp. 185-188.

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