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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 18 — Sep. 1, 2008
  • pp: 13699–13706
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Bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique

Yeung Lak Lee, Young-Chul Noh, Chul-Sik Kee, Nan Ei Yu, Woojin Shin, Changsoo Jung, Do-Kyeong Ko, and Jongmin Lee  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 18, pp. 13699-13706 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.013699


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Abstract

We have demonstrated the bandwidth control of a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 (Ti:PPLN) Sﬞolc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique. Up to 2.8 nm of filtering bandwidth was achieved with a simple temperature-gradient-control technique in a 78-mm-long of Ti:PPLN waveguide, which has a 0.2 nm filtering bandwidth at an uniform temperature. We have also analyzed the experimental results with the theoretical calculation which is derived from the codirectional coupled mode equations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

The advance of the electric field poling techniques to fabricate periodically poled ferroelectric materials open new renaissance of nonlinear optics based on a quasi-phase-matching (QPM) device. Among the various periodically poled ferroelectric materials, a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is particularly attractive for various QPM devices due to its large nonlinear coefficient and easy integration. The main application fields of QPM device based on PPLN are all-optical wavelength conversion [1

1. A. Jechow, M. Schedel, S. Stry, J. Sacher, and R. Menzel, “Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3035–3037 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “1.5 µm band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupled structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1004–1006 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2649–2655 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], optical pulse compression [4

4. M. A. Arbore, O. Marco, and M. M. Fejer, “Pulse compression during second-harmonic generation in aperiodic quasi-phase-matching gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 865–867 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], all-optical switching [5

5. T. Suhara and H. Ishizuki, “Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203–1205 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978–980 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and all-optical logic gate [7

7. K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 2776–2782 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-7-2776. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] because periodically reversed spontaneous polarization of lithium niobate gives high conversion efficiency. Actually, the PPLN devices modulate not only the nonlinear optical coefficients but also the electro-optical (EO) coefficients due to the periodically reversed microdomains. The former property has been well utilized in various nonlinear optics fields, during past 15 years after first electric field poling was succeed in LiNbO 3 at room temperature [9

9. M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–346 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. However, the latter property is only studied in high-frequency electro-optic modulator fields for quasi-matching between the traveling velocity of the optical wave and the electrical wave velocity in a waveguide [10

10. Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, a peculiar birefringent narrow band wavelength filter based on a PPLN was proposed by using the latter property [11

11. J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 39, 224–225 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Such kind of the wavelength filter is named Sﬞolc filter [12

12. I. Sﬞolc, “Birefringent chain filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 621–625 (1965). [CrossRef]

]. After first PPLN Sﬞolc filter was proposed [11

11. J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 39, 224–225 (2003). [CrossRef]

], several researchers reported bulk PPLN Sﬞolc filters and waveguide-type Sﬞolc filters [13

13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Most of the researches were focused on filtering wavelength tuning by a temperature change [13

13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 228, 139–143 (2003). [CrossRef]

] or an ultra-violet (UV) illumination method [15

15. J. Shi, J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable Sﬞolc-type filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by UV-light illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 6279–6284 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, “All-optical wavelength tuning in Sﬞolc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 44, 30–32 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and multi-channel wavelength filtering by a waveguide-mode selecting [17

17. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Sﬞolc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2813–2815 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or a local-temperature-gradient technique [18

18. J. Wang, J. Shi, Z. Zhou, and X. Chen, “Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by a local-temperature-control technique,” Opt. Express 15, 1561–1566 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, up to now, no research on active bandwidth control of a PPLN Sﬞolc filter has been reported. In this paper, we demonstrate, for what we believe is the first time, the bandwidth control of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter which has a domain period of 16.6 µm by a temperature-gradient-control technique [19

19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 11, 2813–2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2813. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In the case of narrow band wavelength filtering in a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter [13

13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]

], the power exchange between the two polarization modes in a periodically reversed ferroelectric domain can be described by codirectional coupled mode equations [20

20. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals, (Wiley, New York, 1984), 189–194.

],

ddzAo(z)=iκ(z)Ae(z)eiΔkz,
(1)
ddzAe(z)=iκ*(z)Ao(z)eiΔkz,
(2)

where A o(z) and A e(z) are the field amplitude of the ordinary- and extraordinary-wave modes, respectively, Δk is the wave-vector mismatch and κ is the coupling coefficient. This is given by

κ=iωcno2ne2noneρsin(mπD)mπ,
(3)

where ρ is the rocking angle, D is the duty cycle, n o and n e are the effective refractive indices of the ordinary and extra-ordinarywaves, respectively. When TE-polarization beam is launched into a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, the initial condition at z=0 is given by

Ao(0)=1
(4)
Ae(0)=0.
(5)

Then, the amplitude of a TM-polarized beam at z=L is given by the solution of eq. (1), and eq. (2) as following

Ae2=κ2sin2sLs2,
(6)

where s is given by s 2=κ * κ+(Δk/2)2.

Table 1. Characteristics of Ti:PPLN waveguide

table-icon
View This Table

A 78-mm-long Ti:PPLN waveguide of 16.6 µ m QPM period was used to demonstrate the bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. The waveguide loss at 1280 nm (TM-polarization) was determined by the Fabry-Perot method [21

21. R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).

] to be 0.11 dB/cm. Detail information about the Ti:PPLN waveguide is listed in Table 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic of experimental setup for a bandwidth tunable the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter.

To perform the active bandwidth control of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, we used the temperature-gradient-control technique [19

19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 11, 2813–2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2813. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] along the waveguide. In this way, we can control the filtering bandwidth even with a regular PPLN device that has a uniform periodic QPM gratings. Figure 1 shows the schematic of a bandwidth controllable Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. To obtain the temperature gradient along the waveguide, two Peltier devices were used in a sample holder, one is for heating and the other is for cooling. Through this method, we achieved almost linear temperature gradient along the whole length of a sample [19

19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 11, 2813–2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2813. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The polarization of input beam was adjusted to TE-polarization by a first polarizer and end-fire coupled into the z-cut Ti:PPLN waveguide. The transmitted optical signal through the Ti:PPLN waveguide was analyzed by a second polarizer which is aligned to a TM-polarization direction. The details of experimental setup is described in Ref [13

13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 2. Optical spectrum of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter at room temperature. The scatter (O) and solid line indicate the experimental data and theoretical curve respectively.

In our experiments, the active bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter was performed by temperature-gradient-technique using a specially designed sample holder (Fig. 1). The distribution of the temperature along the Ti:PPLN waveguide T(z) and wave-vector mismatch Δk can be described follows:

T(z)=T(0)+[T(L)T(0)](z/L)
(7)
Δk(z)=2πλ[no(T,z)ne(T,z)]2πΛ,
(8)

where T(0) and T(L) are the temperatures at the input and output positions of the Ti:PPLN waveguide, and Λ is the period of QPM grating. Actually, the temperature induces the change of QPM grating period (Λ) as well as the refractive indices (n o, n e). The influence of the temperature in eq. (8) can be expressed as follows:

δ(ΔkΛ)=δ(Δk)·Λ+Δk·δΛ
=2π[dno/dTdne/dTnone+α]δT,
(9)

where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion. In the case of a Ti:PPLN, the influence of the changes in refractive indices (first term in right hand side of eq. (9)) to the effective grating period is about two orders of magnitude bigger than that of the thermal expansion (second term in right hand side of eq. (9)) [13

13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, we neglected the thermal expansion effects in a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. The temperature gradient along the Ti:PPLN waveguide results in the broadening of bandwidth in the filter, such kind of broadening effect can also be achieved by a chirped QPM grating [19

19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 11, 2813–2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2813. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, “Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1275, (1990). [CrossRef]

]. However, the temperature gradient method allows the active bandwidth control which couldn’t be obtained in the chirped QPM grating method. Moreover, we can use the temperature gradient method not only in a uniform QPM grating but also in a chirped QPM grating sample for the active control of the filtering bandwidth. The transmission curves of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for various temperature gradients are shown in Fig 3. Figure 3(a) and 3(b) show the experimental and the theoretical results, respectively. The theoretical curves of Fig. 3(b) show good agreement with experimental results of Fig. 3(a) except for a 5.47oC case. In the case of a steep slope temperature gradient, we observed large ripples in transmission spectrum. This is mainly caused by several factors including inhomogeneity of refractive index along the Ti waveguide, and so on [26

26. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, “Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596–1604 (1994). [CrossRef]

, 27

27. S. Helmfrid and G. Arvidsson, “Influence of randomly varying domain lengths and nonuniform effective index on second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matching waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 797–804 (1991).

]. As increased of the temperature gradients, the bandwidth of transmitted signal was broadened as you can see in Fig. 3. When the spectrum was broadened, the transmittance spectrum oscillates within bandwidth and transmittance was decreased as a function of spectrum bandwidth. The ripple feature in Fig. 3 is created by the interference among phase-matching conditions [25

25. T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, “Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1275, (1990). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, “Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation,” J. Lighw. Technol. 26, 343–349 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. We can solve this problem using apodized QPM grating which has different duty ratio of inverted mircodomains at the beginning and end parts of QPM grating [28

28. A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, “Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation,” J. Lighw. Technol. 26, 343–349 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 29

29. T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized χ(2) grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1129–1131 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 3. The transmission curves of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. (a)Measured transmission spectra for four different temperature gradients, (b) Theoretical results for transmission spectra for four different temperature gradients.

The bandwidth of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter as a function of temperature gradients is shown in Fig. 4. The theoretical bandwidths are calculated by using eq. (6) and (8). Here we used the effective refractive indices (n o, n e) of a Ti:PPLN as a function of temperature. The values of refractive indices are decided by the dispersion equations of the refractive index changes according to Ti diffusion densities [30

30. E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, “Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method,” J. Lightwav. Technol. 6, 1126–1135 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. The bandwidths of experimental results show more broad than those of theoretical calculation through the almost whole temperature gradient. These kinds of different bandwidths come from the different effective length between the ideal and real Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. The short effective length in the Ti:PPLN waveguide is induced by the difficulties with the fabrication technology in making the same QPM grating in a Ti:LiNbO 3 as originally intended when the QPM mask pattern was designed and homogeneous waveguide [6

6. Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978–980 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 27

27. S. Helmfrid and G. Arvidsson, “Influence of randomly varying domain lengths and nonuniform effective index on second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matching waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 797–804 (1991).

, 31

31. Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, K.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 011104-011104-3 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. At a temperature difference of 5.47 °C at both endfaces of the Ti:PPLN, we achieved about 2.8 nm broad bandwidth in the filter which has a 0.2 nm filtering bandwidth at a uniform temperature. However, in the case of broad transmittance bandwidth, one cannot avoid a trade-off between transmittance and bandwidth. The transmittance of the filter as a function of temperature gradients is shown in Fig. 5. The transmittance decrease dramatically as a function of temperature gradients. To increase the transmittance of broadened bandwidth, the rocking angle, θ control is needed by applying an external dc-field along the Y-axis of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter [22

22. X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2115–2117 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 4. The bandwidth of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. The scatters and dot line indicate experimental results and theoretical calculation, respectively. The theoretical bandwidths are calculated by using eq. (6) and (8).
Fig. 5. The transmittance of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. The scatters and solid line indicate experimental results and theoretical calculation, respectively.

In conclusion, for the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the bandwidth control of a transmission spectrum in a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter that has regular QPM grating (Λ=16.6 µ m). Up to 2.8 nm of filtering bandwidth was achieved with a simple temperature-gradient-control technique in a 78-mm-long Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, which has a 0.2 nm bandwidth at an uniform temperature. Further research is underway to increase of the transmittance even in a broaden bandwidth by applying the electric field along th Y-axis of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. We believe this kind of bandwidth controllable Sﬞolc filter to be very useful for various optical experiments.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by IITA of Korea through the ‘Leading edge R&D Program and MEST of Korea through ’APRI- Research Program of GIST’.

References and links

1.

A. Jechow, M. Schedel, S. Stry, J. Sacher, and R. Menzel, “Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3035–3037 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “1.5 µm band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupled structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1004–1006 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2649–2655 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. A. Arbore, O. Marco, and M. M. Fejer, “Pulse compression during second-harmonic generation in aperiodic quasi-phase-matching gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 865–867 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

T. Suhara and H. Ishizuki, “Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203–1205 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978–980 (2003). [CrossRef]

7.

K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 2776–2782 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-7-2776. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–346 (1993). [CrossRef]

10.

Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 39, 224–225 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

I. Sﬞolc, “Birefringent chain filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 621–625 (1965). [CrossRef]

13.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 228, 139–143 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

J. Shi, J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable Sﬞolc-type filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by UV-light illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 6279–6284 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, “All-optical wavelength tuning in Sﬞolc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 44, 30–32 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Sﬞolc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2813–2815 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Wang, J. Shi, Z. Zhou, and X. Chen, “Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by a local-temperature-control technique,” Opt. Express 15, 1561–1566 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 11, 2813–2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2813. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals, (Wiley, New York, 1984), 189–194.

21.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).

22.

X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2115–2117 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

E. Rabia and A. Arie, “Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter,” Appl. Opt. 45, 540–545 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

L. Chen, J. Shi, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121118-121118-3, (2006). [CrossRef]

25.

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, “Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1275, (1990). [CrossRef]

26.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, “Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596–1604 (1994). [CrossRef]

27.

S. Helmfrid and G. Arvidsson, “Influence of randomly varying domain lengths and nonuniform effective index on second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matching waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 797–804 (1991).

28.

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, “Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation,” J. Lighw. Technol. 26, 343–349 (2008). [CrossRef]

29.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized χ(2) grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1129–1131 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, “Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method,” J. Lightwav. Technol. 6, 1126–1135 (1988). [CrossRef]

31.

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, K.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 011104-011104-3 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters
(130.3730) Integrated optics : Lithium niobate
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 7, 2008
Revised Manuscript: June 23, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 17, 2008
Published: August 21, 2008

Citation
Yeung Lak Lee, Young-Chul Noh, Chul-Sik Kee, Nan Ei Yu, Woojin Shin, Changsoo Jung, Do-Kyeong Ko, and Jongmin Lee, "Bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Šolc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique," Opt. Express 16, 13699-13706 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13699


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References

  1. A. Jechow, M. Schedel, S. Stry, J. Sacher, and R. Menzel, "Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 3035-3037 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2649-2655 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Arbore, O. Marco, and M. M. Fejer, "Pulse compression during second-harmonic generation in aperiodic quasi-phase-matching gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 865-867 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Suhara, and H. Ishizuki, "Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203-1205 (2001). [CrossRef]
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  7. K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993). [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. I. Solc, "Birefringent chain filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 621-625 (1965). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Shi, J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, "Tunable Solc-type filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by UV-light illumination," Opt. Express 14, 6279-6284 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Wang, J. Shi, Z. Zhou, and X. Chen, "Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by a local-temperature-control technique," Opt. Express 15, 1561-1566 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, (Wiley, New York, 1984) pp. 189-194.
  21. R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
  22. X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Rabia and A. Arie, "Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter," Appl. Opt. 45, 540-545 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Chen, J. Shi, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett.  88, 121118-121118-3 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, "Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1275 (1990). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Helmfrid and G. Arvidsson, "Influence of randomly varying domain lengths and nonuniform effective index on second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matching waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 797-804 (1991).
  28. A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-349 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 μm band difference frequency generation using apodized X(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-1131 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988). [CrossRef]
  31. Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, K.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique," Appl. Phys. Lett.  86,011104-011104-3 (2005). [CrossRef]

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