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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 19 — Sep. 15, 2008
  • pp: 14524–14531
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Photonic crystal film with three alternating layers for simultaneous R, G, B multi-mode photonic band-gaps

Byoungchoo Park, Mi-Na Kim, Sun Woong Kim, and Jin Ho Park  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 19, pp. 14524-14531 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.014524


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Abstract

We studied 1-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal (PC) films with three alternating layers to investigate multi-mode photonic band-gaps (PBGs) at red, green, and blue color regions. From simulations, it was shown that PCs with three alternating layered elements of [a/b/c] structure have sharp PBGs at the three color regions with the central wavelengths of 459 nm, 527 nm, and 626 nm, simultaneously. Experimentally, it was proven that red, green, and blue PBGs were generated clearly by the PCs, which were made of multilayers of [SiO2/Ta2O5/TiO2], based on the simulation. It was also shown that the measured wavelengths of the PBGs corresponded exactly to those of the simulated results. Moreover, it was demonstrated that a 1-D PC of [a/b/c] structure can be used for making white organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with improved color rendering index (CRI) for color display or lighting.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In this report, we propose a 1-D multimode PC film with three alternating layered elements of [a/b/c]. By employing this structure, we have demonstrated sharp multimode PBGs at red, green, and blue color wavelength regions simultaneously. The structure of the 1-D PC with three alternating layered elements of [a/b/c] used in this study is shown schematically in Fig. 1(a). On a transparent glass substrate, a stacked 1-D PC ([a/b/c] y, where y is the number of multipliers of the elements) is made from alternating multilayers with low, high, and middle refractive indices, n 1, n 2, and n 3.

2. Simulations

We first explain the theoretical simulations for the designed 1-D PC. The simulation is based on the elements of three alternating layers ([a/b/c]), which were treated as dielectric layers made from alternating multilayers with refractive indices, n 1, n 2, and n 3, as mentioned above. First, in order to see clearly the effect of the third c layer for the structure shown in Fig. 1(a), we simulated a 1-D PC structure of Glass/[TiO 2/SiO 2/Ta 2 O 5]y/Air with y=5, as an example.

Fig. 1. (Color online) (a) Schematic structure of the 1-D PC, structured with three alternating layers ([a/b/c]) with low, high, and middle refractive indices, n 1, n 2, and n 3, respectively. Simulated transmission spectra (b) and calculated DOM spectra (c) for the 1-D PC films of the [a/b/c] structure (black curve) and the [a/b] structure (red curve) by using the material data under the assumption of constant refractive indices.
Fig. 2. (Color online) (a) Simulated transmission spectra of R, G, B multimode PBGs for the 1-D PC films of the [a/b/c] structure (black curve) and the [a/b] structure (red curve) under the assumption of constant refractive indices. (b) Calculated DOM spectra in the green color region for the [a/b/c] structure (black curve) and the [a/b] structure (red curve).

The simulation program was developed by using Berreman’s 4×4 matrix [17

17. D. W. Berreman, “Optics in Stratified and Anisotropic Media: 4×4-Matrix Formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502–510 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. The thickness and refractive index of the layers in the simulation that we considered were 70 nm and 2.34, respectively, for the a layer (TiO 2), 60 nm and 1.46 for the b layer (SiO 2), and 30 nm and 1.97 for the c layer (Ta 2 O 5)[18

18. J.-Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films336, 340–343 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, the center of the PBG was adjusted to be located at a wavelength of 630 nm. The simulation was carried out at normal incidence and the refractive indices of the layers were constant. Under these conditions, we obtained theoretical transmission spectra (black curve) for the PCs, as shown in Fig. 1(b). For comparison, the figure also shows the transmission spectra (red curve) simulated for the [a/b] structure of Glass/[TiO 2/SiO 2]5/Air with parameters of 97.2 nm for the a layer (TiO 2) and 60 nm for the b layer (SiO 2) so that centrer of the PBG was located at a wavelength of 630 nm. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the transmittance spectra for the [a/b/c] structure are quite different from those for the [a/b] structure, although the center wavelengths of the PBGs for both structures are the same. In particular, the high-energy band edge of the PBG for the [a/b/c] structure shows a sharp cutoff, while the low-energy band edge shows a smooth and blunt cutoff, in contrast to the [a/b] structure. The [a/b] structure shows that the high-energy band edge is nearly the symmetric spectral shape of the low-energy band edge. For another comparison, we calculated the DOM[19

19. J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996). [CrossRef]

] of the structures. One can see from Fig. 1(c) that there is a clear difference between the DOMs of the structures. The DOM at the high-energy band edge for the [a/b/c] structure (black curve) is higher than that for the [a/b] structure (red curve), while the DOM at the low-energy band edge for the [a/b/c] structure is lower than that for the [a/b] structure. Thus, it is clear that one can modify the spectral shape and DOM of the PBG mode by introducing the third c layer.

Next, in order to study the simultaneous generation of multimode PBGs, we also simulated the PC structure of [SiO 2/TiO 2/Ta 2 O 5]y with y=11. The thickness and refractive index of the layers in the simulation that we considered were 270 nm and 1.46, respectively, for the a layer (SiO 2), 330 nm and 2.34 for the b layer (TiO 2), and 210 nm and 1.97 for the c layer (Ta 2 O 5). Thus, the centers of the multimode PBGs were adjusted so that they were located at wavelengths of 626 nm, 527 nm, and 459 nm to exhibit red, green, and blue PBGs as the fifth, sixth, and seventh higher-order modes, respectively. The simulation was carried out at normal incidence for a structure of Glass substrate/1-D PC/Air. The considered refractive indices of the layers were constant in the simulation. Under these conditions, we obtained theoretical transmission spectra (black curve) for the PCs, as shown in Fig. 2(a). For comparison, the figure also shows the transmission spectra (red curve) simulated for the [a/b] structure of Glass/[SiO 2/TiO 2]11/Air. Parameters of 270 nm for the a layer (SiO 2) and 507 nm for the b layer (TiO 2) were used, so that the multimode PBGs had the same higher-order modes. It is clear from the figure that three major PBGs corresponding to blue, green, and red can be seen clearly for both the [a/b] and [a/b/c] structures. However, one can also see a clear difference between the bandwidths of the green PBGs for the two structures; the [a/b/c] structure has reduced bandwidth with suppressed oscillations of transmission, which results in narrow bandwidth with a sharp cutoff in the transmission spectra near the green PBG. For another comparison between the [a/b/c] and [a/b] structures, we calculated DOM spectra near the green PBG region. As shown in Fig. 2(b), one can find remarkably modified DOM spectra (black curve) with reduced strength and width for the [a/b/c] structure from those (red curve) for the [a/b] structure. It is therefore evident that it is possible to induce changes in bandwidths, transmittance, and DOM by using the [a/b/c] structure. There are therefore more options for forming the multimode PBGs when an additional c layer is introduced into the optical pitch.

3. Experimental methods

For the experiments, based on the simulation results, a 1-D PC, consisting of 11 stacks of alternative layers of SiO 2, TiO 2, and Ta 2 O 5, was fabricated on a glass substrate (0.7 mm thick) by evaporation at a pressure of 5×10-7 torr using an E-beam evaporator with a deposition rate of 0.1~0.2 nm/s. The thickness of each layer was monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance. The thicknesses of each layer were, respectively, 270±9 nm for SiO 2, 330±7 nm for TiO 2, and 210±7 nm for Ta 2 O 5. The fabricated sample PC was analyzed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and verified by using a multichannel spectrometer for spectral measurement in transmittance mode (HR 4000CG-UV-NIR, Ocean Optics Inc., 0.25 nm resolution).

When fabricating an OLED on a 1-D PC film, in order to form a transparent anode, an indium-tin-oxide (ITO, 75 nm thick, 10–20Ω/sq sheet resistance) layer with a Ta 2 O 5 layer (135 nm) was deposited on the PC film instead of the last Ta 2 O 5 layer (210 nm) at the air side of the PC film. After cleaning the ITO-coated PC film by routine procedures, the organic materials were deposited over the ITO anode regions. Subsequently, a hole injection layer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(4-styrenesulphonate), PEDOT:PSS) and a blended sky-blue light-emitting organic electroluminescent (EL) layer, composed of poly(vinylcarbazole)(PVK), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4 oxadiazole (PBD), and sky-blue light-emitting 4,4’-Bis(4-(diohenylamino)styryl)biphenyl (BDAVBi), were formed on the precleaned ITO anode. The organic layers were about ~140 nm thick. Then, a CsF(1 nm)/Al (~100 nm) cathode layer was formed on the top of the EL layer via thermal deposition at a base pressure below 1×10-6 Torr. In our experiments, two types of OLED devices were fabricated and compared: one OLED without PC film (reference) and one with PC film (sample). Note that, in the OLED devices, the structure of the organic layer and the materials used were identical. Therefore, the electrical characteristics (I-V) were identical in each device. For example, the turn-on voltages of devices were ~4.2 V and the current densities of devices at 10 V were ~41.1 mA/cm 2. The peak luminous efficiency and the maximum brightness of reference were about 3.65 cd/A at 41.1 mA/cm2 (10 V) and about 7,500 cd/m2 (15 V), respectively.

Fig. 3. (Color online) SEM image of the cross-sectional structure (a) and the transmission spectra (b) of the 1-D PC of [a/b/c]=[SiO 2/TiO 2/Ta 2 O 5]11 structure. The black solid curve shows the measured spectra. The red dashed curve shows the simulated spectra while taking into consideration the dispersions of the refractive indices of the materials that were used. Note that the three main experimental PBGs are in good agreement with the simulated results.

4. Results and discussion

Figure 3(a) shows the SEM image of the cross-sectional structure for the fabricated 1-D PC. The SEM image shows that successful formation of uniform layers is realized in 11 stacks of alternative layers of SiO 2, TiO 2, and Ta 2 O 5 on the glass substrate. For verification, optical transmission spectra of the PC film were measured at the normal incidence, shown in Fig. 3(b). From the figure, one can see that well-defined three major PBGs corresponding to blue, green, and red color wavelength regions are evident for the PC film of the [SiO 2/TiO 2/Ta 2 O 5] structure, as was the case in the simulation. In the simulation, the more realistic transmittance spectra were achieved by considering appropriate dispersions of refractive indices of the three

Table 1. The dispersion of the refractive indices of the materials that were used in the transmission simulation, shown in Fig. 3(b)

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layers (see Table 1) and verified by using a commercial software package (demo version of Essential Macleod, Thin Film Center Inc.). As shown in the figure, the three main PBGs are in good agreement with the simulated results (red dashed curve). This is especially so for the spectral positions and the widths of multimode PBGs with the decrease in transmittance for shorter wavelength region that is due to the dispersion effect. From the figure, the evidence is clear that the studied [a/b/c] structure can induce the three clear sharp multimodes of photonic bands.

Next, on the basis of the above information, we prepared light-emitting OLEDs on PC films of [SiO 2/TiO 2/Ta 2 O 5]11 structure in order to verify white light emissions. Figure 4(a) shows the photograph of the operating sample OLED device on the PC film of [a/b/c] structure. As shown in the figure, one can clearly see the bright and whitish emission from the active area of the sample device on the PC film. For the analysis, we measured the EL spectra from the sample and reference OLEDs, as shown in Fig. 4(b). In the figure, the luminance spectra of the reference device show relatively broad emissions (FWHM ~76 nm) with a single emission peak at 495 nm. By contrast, the EL spectra of the sample device clearly show three distinctive features: (1) The luminance spectra show three major characteristic blue, green, and red emissions. Note that these emissions of the sample device cannot be decomposed into the emission of the reference device. (2) The light emissions of the sample at the wavelengths of PBG bands are suppressed, while the light emissions of the three colors between the PBG bands are much enhanced. This indicates that multi-modes of the microcavity have modified the emission rate. (3) There are strong spectral spikes of light emissions due to the multiple interference effect or microcavity effect, which contributes to higher color reproducibility. These effects may induce desirable color variation towards the emission of white light. To confirm this, we also measured the color characteristics of the sample and the reference devices. The observed CIE (the Commission Internationale de LEclairage chromaticity) color coordinates of the sample device were (0.28, 0.36), which is close to a whitish emitter with relatively high color rendering index (CRI) of 70. By contrast, the CIE color coordinates of the referenceOLED were (0.25, 0.38), which indicates the emission of sky-bluish light with a low CRI of 54. Thus, although a sky-bluish light-emitting organic EL layer was used, the shape of the EL spectrum is controlled and adjusted toward white-light emissions. The white color quality is thus improved from that of the reference. This result clearly shows that the OLED on the PC film of [SiO 2/TiO 2/Ta 2 O 5]11 structure can be applied to a improved white light-emitting devices.

Given its easy fabrication and the unique optical characteristics described above, the 1-D PC of [a/b/c] structure provides novel opportunities in photonic applications such as wide-band surface emitting lasers, color displays, and/or lighting.

Fig. 4. (Color online) (a) Photographs of the operating OLED with the PC of [a/b/c] structure at 10 V. The active area of the sample OLED is 3×3 mm2. (b) The EL spectra from the sample OLED (black solid curve) and the reference OLED (red solid curve) at V=10 V.

5. Conclusions

In summary, we investigated the optical characteristics of 1-D PCs of [a/b/c] structure to obtain multimode PBGs at red, green, and blue color regions. It was demonstrated that simultaneous and clear red, green, and blue PBGs were generated by the PCs, which were made of multilayers of [SiO 2/Ta 2 O 5/TiO 2]. It was proven that the measured wavelengths of the PBGs corresponded exactly to the those of the simulated results. Moreover, it was also demonstrated that a 1-D PC of [a/b/c] structure promises to improve the CRI value of white OLEDs. Combining the PCs reported here with the optical devices reported elsewhere will surely lead to light emitting devices that will have a wide range of applications.

6. Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the MIC (Ministry Information and Communication), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) Support program supervised by the IITA (Institute of Information Technology Advancement). (IITA-2008-0801-0018) It was also supported by the Brain Korea 21 Project (2008). Authors thank Dr. Jang and Dr. Ha for helpful discussions.

References and links

1.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997) [CrossRef]

5.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tunable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, “Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 13, 4699–4707 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, “High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, “The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994). [CrossRef]

10.

V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1707–1709 (1998). [CrossRef]

11.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378, 467–469 (1995). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746–749 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, “Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594 (1993). [CrossRef]

15.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308 (1994). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, “Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

D. W. Berreman, “Optics in Stratified and Anisotropic Media: 4×4-Matrix Formulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502–510 (1972). [CrossRef]

18.

J.-Y. Zhang, B. Lim, and I. W. Boyd, “Thin tantalum pentoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD,” Thin Solid Films336, 340–343 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 2008
Revised Manuscript: July 16, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: July 16, 2008
Published: September 2, 2008

Citation
Byoungchoo Park, Mi-Na Kim, Sun Woong Kim, and Jin Ho Park, "Photonic crystal film with three alternating layers for simultaneous R, G, B multi-mode photonic band-gaps," Opt. Express 16, 14524-14531 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-19-14524


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References

  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, I. H. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997) [CrossRef]
  5. K. Busch and S. John, "Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tunable Electromagnetic Vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. F. Jin, C. F. Li, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, and X. M. Duana, Laser emission from dye-doped polymer film in opal photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241101 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P.-T. Lee, T.-W. Lu, J.-H. Fan, and F.-M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity lasers realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic band gap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, "Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient," Nature 378, 467-469 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mater. 14, 746-749 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, F. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, "Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers," Adv. Mater. 13, 1069-1072 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Nakayama, Y. Itoh, and A. Kakuta, "Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 594 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, and T. Miller, "Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Shiga, H. Fujikawa, and Y. Taga, "Design of multiwavelength resonant cavities for white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 19 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. D. W. Berreman, "Optics in Stratified and Anisotropic Media: 4X4-Matrix Formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502-510 (1972). [CrossRef]
  18. In our study, for the E-beam evaporated Ta2O5 film, the estimated refractive index was about 1.970 at 550 nm by ellipsometry. See also J.-Y. Zhang, B. Lim and I. W. Boyd, "Thin tantalum pentoxide films deposited by photo-induced CVD," Thin Solid Films 336, 340-343 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, "Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures," Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107-4121 (1996). [CrossRef]

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