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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 19 — Sep. 15, 2008
  • pp: 14588–14596
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Experimental determination of coupled-microring filter parameters via pole-zero extraction

Ashok M. Prabhu, Hai Ling Liew, and Vien Van  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 19, pp. 14588-14596 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.014588


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Abstract

A method for directly extracting the coupling coefficients, the resonant frequency detunings and the loss of an Nth-order serially-coupled microring resonator filter from the measured power spectral responses is presented. The device parameters are obtained from the through-port complex transfer function, which is constructed from the experimentally extracted poles and zeros of the filter. We applied the method to determine the parameters of a symmetric microring doublet fabricated in the Siliconon-Insulator material platform. Simulated spectral responses using the extracted parameters showed good agreement with the measured data. The extracted parameters along with the poles and zeros of the device provide important information about the fabrication process and can be used to guide the post-fabrication trimming of high-order microring filters.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Microring resonators have been shown to have promising applications in optical spectral engineering, such as high-order filtering [1

1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997). [CrossRef]

3

3. V. Van, “Synthesis of elliptic optical filters using mutually-coupled microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 584 (2007). [CrossRef]

], dispersion compensation [4

4. G. Lenz and C. K. Madsen, “General optical all-pass filter structures for dispersion control in WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1248 (1999). [CrossRef]

], and group delay engineering [5

5. F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line,” Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By arranging multiple resonators in a suitable coupling configuration, the spectral response of the device can be tailored to meet the requirements of a specific application. Due to its simple topology and relative ease of fabrication, the serial coupling configuration has been the most widely used, and devices based on this configuration have been demonstrated in various material systems [6

6. J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320 (2000). [CrossRef]

9

9. F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 11934 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Serially-coupled microring devices are often designed to have spectral responses with a flat-top passband and sharp skirt roll-off, which can be achieved by proper placement of the poles and zeros of the drop-port and through-port transfer functions of the device [10

10. V. Van, “Circuit-based method for synthesizing serially-coupled microring filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2912 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. However, due to fabrication errors, the coupling parameters of the fabricated device are in general deviated from the designed values and the resonant frequencies of the microring resonators are always detuned from each other, causing the poles and zeros of the filter to be displaced from the desired locations. As a result, the fabricated device usually does not exhibit the desired spectral characteristics, and a post-fabrication index trimming method such as thermo-optic tuning is usually required to correct for the resonant frequency mismatch to optimize the spectral response. In order to expedite the process of spectral optimization, it is important to know the locations of the poles and zeros of the fabricated device, as well as the values of its parameters such as the coupling coefficients, the resonant frequency detunings and the loss in the microring resonators. Also, knowledge of the fabricated device parameters provides important information about the fabrication process, such as the process bias, uniformity, yield and repeatability.

In spite of their significance, to date there is no systematic method available for extracting the microring device parameters from the measured spectral responses. The difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that a relatively large number of unknown parameters, namely the coupling coefficients, the resonant frequencies and the loss in the microrings, need to be determined from just a few available measurements, which typically are the drop-port and through-port transmitted power responses. The conventional approach for determining the device parameters is to perform simulations of the microring device with the parameters varied by trial and error until some level of agreement is obtained between the simulated and measured transmission responses. For high order filters consisting of many microrings, the coupling parameters, the resonant frequency detunings and the microring loss affect the filter responses in a complex way, making the above trial-and-error approach a very time-consuming if not impractical process. Also, the values of the parameters obtained may not correspond to the physical device structure.

In this paper we show that it is possible to directly determine all the parameters of a general N th-order serially-coupled microring filter simply by measuring its transmission responses at the drop port and through port. In our approach, the poles and zeros of the filter are first experimentally determined from the measured power spectral responses, from which the complex transfer function at the through port of the filter can be constructed. Knowledge of the through-port transfer function then enables the coupling coefficients, the resonant frequency detunings and the loss in the microrings to be extracted. To demonstrate the proposed parameter extraction technique, we applied the procedure to extract the parameters of a symmetric microring doublet fabricated in the Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material system. Symmetric microring doublet structures are of special interest because they can serve as simple building blocks in a parallel-cascaded array for constructing more complicated filter responses, such as those containing transmission zeros [11

11. H. L. Liew and V. Van, “Exact realization of optical transfer functions with symmetric transmission zeros using the double-microring ladder architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol.26 (to be published).

]. In the realization of such a filter, knowledge of the parameters of the microring doublet in each stage is important for post-fabrication spectral optimization of the device response. We show that using the extracted device parameters, the spectral characteristics of the microring doublet can be reconstructed which are in good agreement with the measured responses.

Fig. 1. Schematic of an Nth-order serially-coupled microring filter.

2. Device model and parameter extraction procedure

We describe in this section the theoretical approach of the proposed parameter extraction technique, which is based on the energy coupling formalism of serially-coupled microring filters. Subsection A shows how the device parameters can be extracted from the complex transfer function at the through port of the device. Subsection B shows how the poles and zeros of the filter can be experimentally determined from the measured power spectral responses, which can then be used to construct the complex transfer functions of the filter.

2.1 Parameter extraction from the through-port complex transfer function

Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of an N th-order serially-coupled microring filter. Each microring resonator k is assumed to have non-identical resonant frequency denoted by ωkο +Δωk, where ωο is a reference frequency chosen near the passband center and Δωk is the amount of detuning of ωk from ω0. For simplicity we assume that the microring resonators have identical intrinsic loss caused by waveguide sidewall scattering, material absorption, bending and coupling losses, which result in an effective decay rate γL in the amplitude of the energy stored in each resonator. The rates of energy coupling between adjacent microrings are denoted by the coupling coefficients µk, k=1 to N - 1. Microrings 1 and N are also coupled to the input and output waveguides via coupling coefficients µο and µN, respectively, which lead to additional energy loss at a rate of γο2 ο/2 in microring 1 and γN2 N/2 in microring N. Denoting ak as the energy amplitude in microring k, the rates of change in the energy amplitudes in the microrings due to loss and mutual couplings are given by [1

1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997). [CrossRef]

]

da1dt=(jω1γLγ0)a1jμ1a2jμ0si,
dakdt=(jωkγL)akjμk1ak1jμkak+1,k=2,3,N1,
daNdt=(jωNγLγN)aNjμN1aN1.
(1)

Assuming harmonic time dependence akejωt, the above equations can be solved to give the following continued-fraction expression for the energy amplitude a 1 in microring 1:

a1=jμ0sis+r1+γ0+μ12s+r2+μ22s+r3++μN12s+rN+γN,
(2)

where s=j(ω-ωο) and rkL-jΔωk. At the through port of the filter, we have

st=sijμ0a1,
(3)

where si and st represent the input and through-put energy signals, respectively. Denoting Tt (s)=st/si as the complex transfer function at the through port, we rearrange (3) to get

1Tt(s)=jμ0a1si=μ02s+r1+γ0+μ12s+r2+μ22s+r3++μN12s+rN+γN.
(4)

Expressing Tt (s)=R(s)/Q(s), where R(s) and Q(s) are polynomials of degree N with leading coefficient of 1, we can write

1Tt(s)=Q(s)R(s)Q(s)=μ02M(s)Q(s),
(5)

Q(s)M(s)=(s+a)+b·N(s)M(s),
(6)

which upon comparison with (4) gives Re{a}=γLο, Im{a}=-Δω1, and b2 1. Next, M(s) is divided by N(s) to obtain r 2 and µ2, and the procedure is repeated until all the parameters rk and µk, kN, are extracted. Finally the energy coupling parameters µk and the intrinsic energy decay rate γL are converted to the field coupling parameters κk and the power attenuation constant α (m-1) in the ring waveguides via the relations [1

1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997). [CrossRef]

]

and

κk=μkTrt,k=0,N,
κk=μkTrt,1k<N1,
and
α=2γLvg,
(7)

where Trt=1/FSR is the round trip time of the microring resonators and vg is the group velocity in the microring waveguides.

2.2. Pole-zero extraction from the power spectral responses

The above procedure provides a systematic way to directly extract the device parameters if the complex transfer function Tt(s) at the through port of the microring filter is known. The through-port transfer function Tt(s) along with the drop-port transfer function Td(s) can be constructed by extracting the poles and zeros of the filter from the measured spectral responses of the transmitted powers at the drop port and through port. For a serially-coupled microring filter, the transfer functions can be expressed as

Td(s)=Kk=1N(spk),
(8)
Tt(s)=k=1N(szk)k=1N(spk),
(9)

where pk are the poles of the filter, zk are the zeros of the through-port transfer function, and K is a constant. The measured power spectral responses at the drop port and through port are

Td(ω)2=K2k=1Njωpk2=K2k=1Nω+jpk2,
(10)
Tt(ω)2=k=1Njωzk2k=1Njωpk2=k=1Nω+jzk2k=1Nω+jpk2.
(11)

To extract the poles and zeros, we define two new power ratios P 1 and P 2 as

P1(ω)=1Td(ω)2=1K2k=1Nω+jpk2,
(12)
P2(ω)=Tt(ω)2Td(ω)2=1K2k=1Nω+jzk2,
(13)

which are polynomials of degree 2N with real coefficients. In the parameter extraction procedure, P 1(ω) and P 2(ω) are obtained by performing least-square polynomial fit on the curves 1/|Td(ω)|2 and |Tt(ω)|2/|Td(ω)|2 computed from the power spectral measurements. From (12) and (13) it is seen that the roots of P 1(ω) and P 2(ω) appear in conjugate pairs as {-jpk, jp*k} and {-jzk, jz*k}, respectively, for k=1 to N. Thus the poles and zeros of the filter are simply the roots of P 1 and P 2, respectively, which have been rotated by 90° in the s-plane. Let {uk, u*k} and {vk, v*k} be the roots of P 1 and P 2, respectively, for k=1 to N. Since all the poles of a microring filter must lie in the left-half of the s-plane, we choose those roots in the set {juk, ju*k} which have negative real parts as the poles of the filter. For most microring filters of interest such as the Butterworth and Chebyshev types, the zeros lie on the imaginary axis or in the left-half s-plane, so they can be chosen from the set {jvk, jv*k} which have zero or negative real parts. In the more general case, some zeros may also lie in the right-half s-plane, in which case one can refer to the original filter design to choose the appropriate zeros from the set {jvk, jv*k} jvk jvk. Finally the complex transfer function Tt(s) at the through port can be constructed from the extracted poles and zeros according to (9).

3. Parameter extraction of an SOI microring doublet

We applied the above parameter extraction procedure to experimentally determine the parameters of a double microring filter fabricated in the Silicon-on-Insulator material system. Note that even for this simple device, there are six independent parameters to be extracted: Δω1, Δω2, µο, µ1, µ2 and γL. The device was fabricated on an SOI wafer consisting of a 340nm silicon layer on a 1µm buried oxide layer. To obtain strong field confinement we designed the waveguides to have a width of 450nm. Figure 2(a) shows a schematic of the filter structure, which consists of two serially-coupled microracetracks with bending radii R=5µm and straight waveguide coupling lengths of 2.5µm. The designed coupling gaps were g ο=g 2=200nm and g 1=350nm, corresponding to calculated field coupling coefficients of ρο2=0.27 and ρ1=0.05 for the TE polarization. The theoretical coupling values were determined using the strongly coupled-mode theory [12

12. S.-L. Chuang, “Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499 (1987). [CrossRef]

] with the waveguide modes numerically computed from the two-dimensional index profile of the waveguides.

The device was patterned using a Raith 150 E-Beam Lithography System with polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) as the electron-beam resist. After developing the chip in an MIBK:IPA (1:3) developer, the resist pattern was transferred to the silicon layer by inductively-coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP RIE). The PMMA was then removed and the device was cleaved to expose the waveguide facets for fiber butt-coupling. Figures 2(b) and 2(c) show SEM images of the fabricated device and the coupling gap between the two microracetracks. From the SEM image we measured the bus-to-ring coupling gaps to be g ο=204 ± 5nm and g 2=206 ± 5nm, and ring-to-ring coupling gap g 1=337 ± 5nm. These values correspond to average calculated field coupling coefficients of ρο2=0.2744 and ρ1=0.0609.

Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of a symmetric microring doublet; (b) SEM image of an SOI microring doublet; (c) SEM image of the coupling gap between the two microracetracks.
Fig. 3. Measured (red and black dots) and simulated (green and purple solid lines) spectral responses at the drop port and through port of the microring doublet: (a) wavelength scan across two FSRs; (b) passband response at the 1.544µm center wavelength.

Table 1. Roots of the power ratios P1(ω/ωc) and P2(ω/ωc) and the extracted poles and zeros of the filter.

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Fig. 4. (a) Measured power ratios P 1 and P 2 (dots) and their least-square fourth-degree polynomial fits (solid lines); (b) pole-zero diagram showing the roots of P 1 and P 2 (black x and o), the extracted poles and zeros (red x and o) and the designed poles and zeros (blue x and o) of the microring doublet.

Table 2. Extracted device parameters of the SOI microring doublet.

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From the extracted poles and zeros of the filter we constructed the through-port transfer function Tt(s) and applied the parameter extraction procedure in Section 2A to determine the device parameters. The resulting values for the coupling coefficients, the resonant frequency detunings and the loss in the microracetracks are summarized in Table 2. The theoretical coupling values as computed from the measured coupling gaps are also shown in the table for comparison. The extracted bus-to-ring coupling values κο and κ2 show that there is a 32% mismatch between the two values, as well as an 8% discrepancy between the average value of κο and κ2 and the theoretical value. The extracted ring-to-ring coupling coefficient κ1 is also about 12% larger than the theoretical value. The discrepancies between the extracted and theoretical coupling values can be attributed to random fabrication variations as well as fluctuations in the power spectral measurements due to Fabry-Perot oscillations. These oscillations introduced errors in the polynomial fits of P 1 and P 2 in Fig. 4(a), resulting in uncertainties in the extracted poles and zeros. From Table 2 it is seen that fabrication errors also caused a relative detuning of 8.6GHz (or 0.07nm) in the resonant frequencies of the two microracetracks. The extracted propagation loss in the microracetracks is 38dB/cm. This figure is higher than a loss figure of 29dB/cm which we obtained from an independent measurement using a single add/drop circular microring with a 5µm radius fabricated on the same SOI platform. The excess loss in the microracetracks compared to the circular ring is due to scattering from the junctions between the bent and straight waveguide sections in the microracetracks. With further optimization of the fabrication process, we expect the propagation loss in the microring waveguides to be further reduced.

From the extracted device parameters we computed the spectral responses of the device using power coupling analysis and plotted the results on top of the measured data in Fig. 3 (green and purple lines). It is seen that apart from the Fabry-Perot oscillations in the measured data, the computed responses are in good agreement with the measured responses. In particular, the computed drop-port response replicates the ripples in the passband and exhibits the same skirt roll-off as the measured response. The bandpass spectral shape is also repeated at the correct FSR intervals, which closely match with the measured data.

The extracted coupling coefficients and microring loss in Table 2 can yield valuable information about the fabrication process variations. By performing characterization of the same device in different dies or on different wafers, statistical correlation between the process parameters and the device parameters can be established. This information can in turn be used to predict the process yield as well as the expected variations in the device performance. Also, the extracted resonant frequency detunings of the microring resonators in Table 2 and the pole-zero diagram in Fig. 4(b) can be used to guide the post-fabrication optimization of the device response. For example, in the thermo-optic trimming of the microrings using micro heater elements, from the values of the frequency detunings one can determine the exact voltages to be applied to the heating elements to correct for the frequency mismatch. The extracted poles and zeros of the optimized device can then be compared to those of the filter design to provide a feedback measure of the trimming process.

4. Conclusion

We showed that the parameters of an N th-order serially-coupled microring filter, including the resonant frequency detunings, can be experimentally extracted simply from the spectral measurements of the transmitted powers at the drop port and through port of the device. We also showed that the poles and zeros of the device can be determined from these measurements. The dominant source of errors in the proposed method was found to be the Fabry-Perot oscillations in the measured data, which introduced uncertainties in the polynomial least-square fits of the power ratios. With a good design of the fiber-waveguide couplers to minimize reflections at the waveguide facets, the accuracy of the extracted parameters and the fit between the simulated and measured spectral responses can be further improved. We expect the parameter extraction method to be useful in providing important information about the fabrication process, as well as in assisting in the post-fabrication trimming of high-order microring filters.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge funding for this work by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

References and links

1.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

C. K. Madsen, “Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1136 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

V. Van, “Synthesis of elliptic optical filters using mutually-coupled microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 584 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

G. Lenz and C. K. Madsen, “General optical all-pass filter structures for dispersion control in WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1248 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line,” Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “High order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

T. Barwicz, M. Popovic, P. Rakich, M. Watts, H. Haus, E. Ippen, and H. Smith, “Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis,” Opt. Express 12, 1437 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 11934 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

V. Van, “Circuit-based method for synthesizing serially-coupled microring filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2912 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

H. L. Liew and V. Van, “Exact realization of optical transfer functions with symmetric transmission zeros using the double-microring ladder architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol.26 (to be published).

12.

S.-L. Chuang, “Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499 (1987). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(230.4555) Optical devices : Coupled resonators

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: July 29, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 25, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 26, 2008
Published: September 2, 2008

Citation
Ashok M. Prabhu, Hai Ling Liew, and Vien Van, "Experimental determination of coupledmicroring filter parameters via pole-zero extraction," Opt. Express 16, 14588-14596 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-19-14588


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References

  1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Madsen, "Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1136 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. V. Van, "Synthesis of elliptic optical filters using mutually-coupled microring resonators," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 584 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Lenz and C. K. Madsen, "General optical all-pass filter structures for dispersion control in WDM systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1248 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, "Error-free continuously-tunable delay at 10 Gbit/s in a reconfigurable on-chip delay-line," Opt. Express 16, 8395 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, "High order filter response in coupled microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, "Very high order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Barwicz, M. Popovic, P. Rakich, M. Watts, H. Haus, E. Ippen, and H. Smith, "Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis," Opt. Express 12, 1437 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15, 11934 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Van, "Circuit-based method for synthesizing serially-coupled microring filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2912 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. H. L. Liew and V. Van, "Exact realization of optical transfer functions with symmetric transmission zeros using the double-microring ladder architecture," J. Lightwave Technol. 26 (to be published).
  12. S.-L. Chuang, "Application of the strongly coupled-mode theory to integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 499 (1987). [CrossRef]

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