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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 2 — Jan. 21, 2008
  • pp: 710–717
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Large optical birefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites

Jorge Alejandro Reyes-Esqueda, Carlos Torres-Torres, Juan Carlos Cheang-Wong, Alejandro Crespo-Sosa, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, Cecilia Noguez, and Alicia Oliver  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 2, pp. 710-717 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000710


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Abstract

A large optical birefringence of oriented Ag nanoellipsoids embedded in silica was measured using an ellipsometric technique. The two main surface plasmon resonances associated with the axes of the ellipsoid were tuned, allowing us to quantify the light transmission through the samples when placed and rotated between crossed and parallel polarizers. This birefringence can be physically associated with the selective optical absorption of one component of the linear polarization of the incident light with respect to the anisotropic axis of the sample, depending on the wavelength used to perform the measurement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In this paper, we show that the controlled deformation of Ag nanoparticles embedded in silica allows us to obtain a highly anisotropic optical material that shows a large birefringence ten times larger than that of quartz, due to a selective absorption of one component of the linear polarization of the incident light with respect to the anisotropic axis of the sample, depending on the wavelength used to perform the measurement. We show first the theoretical analysis of the birefringence of this kind of materials when it is placed between a polarizer-analyzer system, which is allowed to rotate. Then we will show the samples’ preparation, the experimental setup as well as the experimental results thus obtained.

2. Theoretical analysis

As it has been stated above, optical properties of metallic NPs depend largely on their size and shape [1–4

1. C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C. 111, 3806–3819 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In the particular case of anisotropic NPs, their orientation is also a major issue that has to be controlled in order to get a macroscopic anisotropic response, which would allow a possible technological application. As it has been shown previously [6

6. A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]

], metallic spheroidal NPs exhibit two optical SP resonances, each one associated with one of their two main axes. To analyze the optical anisotropy, or birefringence, of the sample, we have used an ellipsometric technique where we measured the light transmission through our samples when placed and rotated between crossed and parallel polarizers. The mathematical details about the analysis of our ellipsometric measurements are given throughout in [18

18. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this paper, we show the main points of such analysis. The experimental setup shown in Fig. 1(a) measures the birefringence, Δnα=np(ψ)-ns, experienced by the probe beam when traversing the sample. The subscripts s and p in the expression refer to the linear optical eigenpolarization components in which can be decomposed the probe beam, when traveling in the direction k (normal to the sample’s surface, sample) at an internal angle ψ of propagation to the normal of the deformed NP, NP, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The corresponding refraction index are ns and np, and the superscript α is the angle between the incident electric field and axis x. The linearly polarized incident light may contain both of the linear eigenpolarizations, while the analyzer may be oriented parallel or crossed to transmit the linear polarization state parallel or orthogonal to the incident light, respectively.

Fig. 1. (a) Experimental setup for birefringence measurements. L stands for a lens, PD for a photodiode, BS for beam splitter, P for polarizer, A for analyzer and λ/2 for a half-wave retarder. (b) Projection into the incidence plane of the NP and the index ellipsoid associated with the anisotropic nanocomposite.

With respect to the axis system of Fig. 1(b), NP’s normal can be represented by the vector

N̂NP=(sinψ0cosψ).
(1)

In consequence, the associated normalized eigenpolarization vectors will be [18

18. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

ŝ=(010),p̂=(100),
(2)

and, since the probe beam propagates parallel to the normal of the macroscopic sample, k// sample, which makes a ψ 1=49 deg angle with the NP’s normal, one can suppose that the light is refracted just until it arrives to the NP’s surface according to the Snell’s law sinψ=nhostnNPeffsinψ1 . This angle ψ 1 between both normals is the same angle between the major axis of the NP and the sample’s surface, and it is a consequence of the Si irradiation as explained below into the experimental section.

On the other hand, the orientation of the incident electric field, E in, will be determined by the polarizer orientation, which allows resolving it into the two eigenpolarization components of the optically anisotropic nanocomposite, Es=Ê in·ŝ and Ep=Ê in·, where Êin=(cosαsinα0) is the unitary incident electric field and α is the angle of the polarizer from x to y. Therefore, the birefringence for such a light path will be Δnα=np(ψ)-ns, where the p-polarization will experience a refraction index np, while the s-polarization will experience ns. In order to be able to relate it to the measured intensity, we define complex transmission factors for these two eigenpolarizations, which correspond to the transmitted electric field, as

Es(α)=Asexp(iπLΔnαλ)EsŝandEp(α)=Apexp(iπLΔnαλ)EpP̂,
(3)

where As and Ap are the measured amplitude transmission factors for each eigenpolarization, L is the interaction length, i.e. the thickness of the NPs layer, and λ is the free-space incident wavelength. For the transmitted light, when the axes of the polarizer-analyzer system are aligned, it can be shown [19

19. A. L. González, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and C. Noguez, “Surface plasmon resonances of elongated noble metal nanoparticles,” to be published.

] that the detected intensity at a given in-plane polarization α is given by

I(α,0)=As2sin4α+Ap2cos4α+12AsApsin22αcos2πLΔnαλ,
(4)

while when they are crossed, the detected intensity is given by

I(α,π2)=14sin22α[As2+Ap22AsApcos2πLΔnαλ].
(5)

We will measure these two intensities, obtaining A 2 p, A 2 s and the birefringence of the nanocomposite as explained into the results section.

3. Experimental

3.1 Synthesis and deformation of silver nanoparticles

As reported before [6

6. A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]

], we used high-purity silica glass plates (20×20×1 mm3), NSG ED-C (Nippon Silica Glass) as host matrices, where Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by implanting 2 MeV Ag2+ ions at room temperature. The system was then thermally annealed at 600 C in a 50% N2+50% H2 reducing atmosphere. The Ag-ion fluence and projected range were 5×1016 Ag/cm2 and 0.9 µm, respectively, as measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Ion implantation and RBS analysis were performed at the 3 MV Tandem accelerator (NEC 9SDH-2 Pelletron). Optical absorption spectra show the formation of silver NPs, with a single narrow surface plasmon located at 391 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of around 41 nm, which is characteristic of spherical-like shaped NPs of 6 nm diameter [6

6. A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]

], as it is shown in Fig. 2. Afterwards, the silica plate was cut into several pieces and each piece was irradiated at room temperature with 8 MeV Si ions. The Si irradiation was performed under an angle off normal of θ=-41±0.5 deg. Each sample was irradiated at different Si fluences in the range of 0.1-2.0×1016 Si/cm2 in order to induce a deformation in the Ag NPs. We show also in Fig. 2 a typical absorption spectrum from the NPs deformed with 0.5×1016 Si/cm2 taken at normal incidence. It can be observed now two peaks, which are located at 375 and 470 nm, corresponding to the SP resonances of a NPs’ geometry of prolate spheroids [6

6. A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. As shown too in [6

6. A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]

], the silver NPs are randomly located, i.e., they do not form chains or any other kind of arrangement, which can induce another type of optical anisotropy. On the other hand, the optical spectra resulted very sensitive to light polarization, thus proving the alignment of the NPs.

Fig. 2. Optical absorption spectra of the nanocomposite a) after Ag-ion implantation and thermal annealing; b) and c) after a subsequent Si-ion irradiation; d) extinction ratio for this sample (see below). The spectra for the deformed NPs were taken for polarizations nearly b) perpendicular and c) parallel to the major axis of the nanocomposite, respectively.

3.2 Optical measurements

Optical absorption spectra were collected with an Ocean Optics Dual Channel S2000 UV-visible spectrophotometer. For the ellipsometric measurements, we used the setup shown in Fig. 1(a) at wavelengths of 532 and 355 nm from a PL2143A 26 ps-pulsed EKSPLA laser system. Although the theoretical analysis was done by supposing a rotating incident electric field, in our setup it is the sample that performs the rotation, equivalently.

4. Results and discussion

We have performed the birefringence measurements at 532 and 355 nm, which are close to the surface plasmon resonances associated with the major (470 nm) and the minor (375 nm) axes of the oriented prolate-spheroid NPs, as discussed above. Fig. 3 shows a typical measurement at 532 nm. For α=0 and α=π/2, we obtain A 2 p and A 2 p, respectively, from Eq. (4). On the other hand, from Eq. (5) with α=π/4, we get the maximum measured birefringence as

Δnmax=λ2πLcos1[As2+Ap22AsAp2ImeasmaxAsAp].
(6)

neno=Δnmaxcos2ψ=Δnmaxcos2[sin1(nhostnNPeffsinψ1)].
(7)

I(α,0)=I(α,0)=As2cos4α+Ap2sin4α+12AsApsin22αcos2πLΔnαλ,
(8)

since sin α’=cos α, cos α’=sin α and sin 2α’=sin 2α. In consequence, for 355 nm, the typical measurement is a reflection of the one shown in Fig. 3 with respect to a vertical axis located at π/4. The other difference is that, now, for α=0, Eq. (8) gives A 2 s, while for α=π/2, it gives A 2 p, while Δn max is obtained again from Eq. (6).

Fig. 3. Typical birefringence measurement obtained at 532 nm with setup shown in Fig. 1. The data were averaged over three consecutive measurements, taken within a given window of stability for the laser system by using a reference beam. Solid curves are the theoretical calculations given for Eqs. (4) and (5) by taking the birefringence calculated with Eq. (6).

We have observed an effect of dichroism, that is, a selective absorption of one of the orthogonal components of the linear polarization of the incident beam [20

20. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics, (Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & sons, Inc, 1991). This equation differs with respect to the classical one shown into the reference just because in this case we performed our analysis taking the angle that makes the wavevector with respect to the NP’s normal, and not with respect to its optical axis as it is usual. Anyway, both angles are related since their sum gives π/2, which explains the difference in this equation. [CrossRef]

]. By looking at Fig. 3, we can see that the perpendicular intensity is zero for α=0 and π/2, and nonzero in the middle, with a maximum at π/4. The performance of the nanocomposite is quite impressive since it is totally opaque when its optic axis is aligned with the polarizer or the analyzer, and highly transparent when is oriented at 45 deg with respect to them. This optic axis corresponds to the major axis of the NP for 532 nm and to its minor axis for 355 nm. This behavior can be qualitatively understood for 532 nm as follows: when α=0 and α=π/2, the transmitted electric field is crossed to the analyzer and then totally filtered. On the contrary, for α different of these two values, only the component of the incident electric field parallel to the major axis is absorbed, and the resulting transmitted field is no crossed with respect to the analyzer, obtaining a nonzero intensity measurement, which is maximum for α=π/4. It happens the same for 355 nm.

We can quantify first this performance by looking at the extinction ratio defined as

extinctionratio=10log10(TT)=10{abs(AA)}[dB],
(9)

which is a typical figure of merit for telecommunications and it is shown in Fig. 2 for the Ag NPs deformed with a dose of 0.5×1016 Si/cm2. The extinction ratio for this sample is around 15 dB for the resonance associated with the major axis of the NPs and 10 dB for the resonance associated with the minor axis, while similar values are obtained for the other samples. These values are close to 20 dB, which is a typical value at 1.55 µm, indicating a very good performance at the visible region. For the anisotropic systems described at [11–13

11. N. Künzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Yu. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, “Giant birefringence in anisotropically nanostructured silicon,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1265–1267 (2001). [CrossRef]

], the corresponding extinction ratios are estimated around 17, 9 and 40 dB, respectively, with thicknesses around 100, 235 and 15 µm, correspondingly.

In Table 1 We present the measured birefringence for our samples as a function of the Si fluence for 355 and 532 nm, as well as their refractive-index anisotropy. The aspect ratio of our deformed NPs is around 1.6, which indicates rather small shape anisotropy. However, the macroscopic birefringence of these samples is very large, as a matter of fact, practically comparable to those measured for other nanostructured semiconductor materials reported in [11–13

11. N. Künzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Yu. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, “Giant birefringence in anisotropically nanostructured silicon,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1265–1267 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, when increasing the Si fluence, the NPs aspect ratio increases from 1.58 to 1.69. Within the context of this paper, this means an increment of their shape anisotropy, and therefore of their optical birefringence, as it is corroborated from Table 1, principally for 532 nm. This is rather difficult to see at 355 nm, since it is known that the resonance corresponding to the minor axis is less sensitive to the changes of the aspect ratio of the deformation than the resonance of the major axis. In fact, the position of this last is proportional to the aspect ratio, while the resonance of the minor axis is inversely proportional to it [1

1. C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C. 111, 3806–3819 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, it is rather expected a similar measured birefringence at 355 nm for the minor axis with Si fluence. This is more evident for the highest fluence, due to the large uncertainty measured in such a case.

Table 1. Measured birefringence of the anisotropic silver nanoparticles with the corresponding measurement propagated uncertainties.

table-icon
View This Table

On the contrary, if we perform the birefringence measurements on a pure SiO2 matrix or with embedded spherical-like NPs, no birefringence is detected. Similarly, for the deformed NPs, when the wavelength used is 1064 nm, a null birefringence is detected again. These results allow us to conclude that the observed birefringence is only due to the silica-embedded layer of deformed and aligned Ag NPs.

Although the reported birefringence in this paper is already larger than that measured in naturally anisotropic crystals (around ten times that of quartz), we believe that it can be further enhanced by controlling more precisely the morphology of the NPs. Similarly, by using deformed Au or Cu NPs instead of Ag, the nanocomposite would have the similar SP resonances but placed at different wavelengths, which gives other choices where to observe dichroism [18

18. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The totality of these results offers a new means of engineering highly birefringent materials on a nanoscale. These birefringent nanocomposites could be used to create a broad array of photonic integrated nanodevices, including waveplates, polarization rotators and beamsplitters; since they are very thin (0.5 µm) when compared to others similar like those of [11–13

11. N. Künzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Yu. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, “Giant birefringence in anisotropically nanostructured silicon,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1265–1267 (2001). [CrossRef]

,15–17

15. T. P. Seward III, “Elongation and spheroidization of phase-separated particles in glass,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 15, 487–504 (1974). [CrossRef]

]. We can also remark that ion implantation and deformation of metallic NPs allow obtaining a nanocomposite with a given organization of the NPs therein and preventing their oxidation. On the other hand, chemical methods offer a wide variety of shapes and sizes of metallic NPs, but organizing them into a matrix is not a trivial matter. A very ready-to-hand challenge is the combination of different methods to obtain an application-tailored nanocomposite [22

22. J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Coordin. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870–1901 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

5. Conclusions

We report on an anisotropic nanocomposite possessing a very large optical birefringence of around 0.1 at 355 and 532 nm and a high extinction ratio of around 15 dB at the surface plasmon resonances. The birefringence is physically associated with the controlled deformation and orientation of anisotropic embedded Ag NPs, resulting in a selective optical absorption of polarization’s components of the incident light. This absorption is performed through the excitation of the surface plasmon resonances of the deformed NPs.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the partial financial supports from DGAPA-UNAM, through grants No. IN108807-3, No. IN101605, No. IN119706-3 and No. IN108407; and CONACyT-Mexico, through grants No. 42823-F, No. 25103-F, No. 42626-F and No. 50504.

References and links

1.

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C. 111, 3806–3819 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

A. L. Gonzalez, C. Noguez, G. P. Ortíz, and G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, “Optical absorbance of colloidal suspensions of silver polyhedral nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 109, 17512–17517 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Tao, P. Sinsermsuksakul, and P. Yang, “Polyhedral silver nanoparticles with distinct scattering signatures,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 4597–4601 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

J. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, “Synthesis of gold regular octahedra with controlled size and plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163122 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M.-P. Pileni, “Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 2466–2470 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Grzelczak, J. Pérez-Juste, F. J. García de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Optical properties of platinum-coated gold nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 6183–6188 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nanoletters 7, 1113–1118 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

Z.-Y. Zhang and Y.-P. Zhao, “Optical properties of helical Ag nanostructures calculated by discrete dipole approximation method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221501 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires,” Science 293, 1455–1457 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

N. Künzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Yu. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, “Giant birefringence in anisotropically nanostructured silicon,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1265–1267 (2001). [CrossRef]

12.

F. Genereux, S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, A. Birner, and U. Gösele, “Large birefringence in two-dimensional silicon photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 161101(R) (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 034312 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

T. P. Seward III, “Elongation and spheroidization of phase-separated particles in glass,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 15, 487–504 (1974). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Hasui, D. G. Grossman, L. G. Mann, H. Takahashi, and N. F. Borrelli, “A high performance dichroic glass polarizer with a thickness of 15–35 µm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1494–1496 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

S. Matsuda, Y. Yasuda, and S. Ando, “Fabrication of polyimide-blend thin films containing uniformly oriented silver nanorods and their use as flexible, linear polarizers,” Adv. Mater. 17, 2221–2224 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, “Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: a review of recent progress,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151–160 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. L. González, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, and C. Noguez, “Surface plasmon resonances of elongated noble metal nanoparticles,” to be published.

20.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics, (Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & sons, Inc, 1991). This equation differs with respect to the classical one shown into the reference just because in this case we performed our analysis taking the angle that makes the wavevector with respect to the NP’s normal, and not with respect to its optical axis as it is usual. Anyway, both angles are related since their sum gives π/2, which explains the difference in this equation. [CrossRef]

21.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Pérez-Juste, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorods: synthesis, characterization and applications,” Coordin. Chem. Rev. 249, 1870–1901 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: September 18, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 29, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 30, 2007
Published: January 9, 2008

Citation
Jorge A. Reyes-Esqueda, Carlos Torres-Torres, Juan-Carlos Cheang-Wong, Alejandro Crespo-Sosa, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, Cecilia Noguez, and Alicia Oliver, "Large optical birefringence by anisotropic silver nanocomposites," Opt. Express 16, 710-717 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-710


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References

  1. C. Noguez, "Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: the influence of shape and physical environment," J. Phys. Chem. C. 111, 3806-3819 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. A. L. Gonzalez, C. Noguez, G. P. Ortíz, and G. Rodríguez-Gattorno, "Optical absorbance of colloidal suspensions of silver polyhedral nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem. B. 109, 17512-17517 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Tao, P. Sinsermsuksakul, and P. Yang, "Polyhedral silver nanoparticles with distinct scattering signatures," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 4597-4601 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhang, H. Liu, Z. Wang, and N. Ming, "Synthesis of gold regular octahedra with controlled size and plasmon resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163122 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Maillard, S. Giorgio, and M.-P. Pileni, "Tuning the size of silver nanodisks with similar aspect ratios: synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 2466-2470 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, "Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation," Phys. Rev. B 74, 245425 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Grzelczak, J. Pérez-Juste, F. J. García de Abajo, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, "Optical properties of platinum-coated gold nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 6183-6188 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, "Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents," Nano Lett. 7, 1113-1118 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. Z.-Y. Zhang and Y.-P. Zhao, "Optical properties of helical Ag nanostructures calculated by discrete dipole approximation method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221501 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Künzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Yu. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, "Giant birefringence in anisotropically nanostructured silicon," Opt. Lett. 26, 1265-1267 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. F. Genereux, S. W. Leonard, H. M. van Driel, A. Birner, and U. Gösele, "Large birefringence in two-dimensional silicon photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 63, 161101(R) (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. Gómez Rivas, "Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 233117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanowires," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 034312 (2007). [CrossRef]
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