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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 20 — Sep. 29, 2008
  • pp: 15671–15676
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On-chip silicon photonic wavelength control of optical fiber lasers

Xuan Wang, Tao Liu, Vilson R. de Almeida, and Roberto R. Panepucci  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 15671-15676 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.015671


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Abstract

Tunable silicon microring filters are used to demonstrate CMOS-compatible on-chip wavelength control of Er+ doped fiber-lasers. An on-chip Ni-Cr micro-heater consuming up to 20 mW is capable of tuning the Si microring filter by 1.3 nm with a lasing linewidths narrower than 0.02 nm. This approach enables arbitrary multiple wavelength generation on a silicon chip. Possible applications include on-chip and chip-to-chip dense-wavelength division multiplexed communications and sensor interrogation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Silicon photonics is a very promising technology for future low-cost high-bandwidth telecommunication applications down to the chip level. This is due to the high degree of integration, high optical bandwidth and large speeds coupled with the development of a wide range of integrated optical functions. These advances continue to fuel significant growth in the field. Success of this technology is due to the strong optical confinement achieved in high index contrast optical systems coupled with a well established fabrication technology that is easily integrated with CMOS systems. A wide range of devices have been added to the toolkit of silicon photonics, including all-optical switch [1

1. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], electro-optic switch [2

2. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], polarization splitter [3

3. M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30, 967–969 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-9-967. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and many others. Recently, generation of light on silicon using an external optical pump was demonstrated by taking advantage of the strong Raman emission in silicon [4

4. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This approach requires tuning of the external optical pump wavelength to control emission wavelength. Other approaches use heterogeneous integration of III-V materials into a silicon platform [6

6. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The latter may conflict with the heterogeneous integration of photodetectors, which often require high temperature processes [7

7. L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Highly Efficient, Ultra Low Dark Current Germanium Photodetectors Integrated on Submicron Silicon Waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CWF3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CWF3.

,8

8. D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15, 3916–3921 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13965 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is likely that material issues will arise from different processing requirements.

2. Experiment and results

A schematic of the tunable laser experiment is shown in Fig. 1(a). The 2 main components of the tunable laser are the Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) and the silicon-based tunable filter. A piece of EDF serves as the gain media which is pumped by a 980 nm laser diode. The amplified light from the EDF is coupled to the input of the silicon-based intracavity wavelength-selective filter by a tapered fiber, which is followed by an isolator and a polarization controller. Light from the output of the filter is collected by another tapered fiber and coupled back to the input of the EDF. We use the tap port of a 1×2 coupler with a nominal splitting ratio of 1:99 as the laser output.

Fig. 1. (a). Experimental setup of the tunable laser (b) top view microscopic picture of fabricated switch element

The fabrication of the filter began with an SOI wafer with 3 µm buried oxide layer and 0.25 µm silicon layer. The waveguide pattern was defined by a VB6-HR 100kV ebeam lithography system with 5 nm beamstep into hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist with dose of 1100 µC/cm2 and transferred by Cl2 reactive ion etching (RIE) process. Etching was followed by deposition of ~1.4 µm top cladding using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process, and incorporated the HSQ resist. The micro-heater was generated through a process sequence of photolithography, thermal deposition of ~0.1 µm Ni-Cr and liftoff. The micro-heater size is 50 µm×50 µm. The Ti/Au contact pads and feed lines were generated by the same sequence except deposited by sputtering. Finally, the input and output waveguides were polished to the edge of the chip where waveguides are finished with nanotapers, which can theoretically reduce insertion loss to below 1 dB [16

16. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-15-1302. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The overall fiber-chip-fiber insertion loss was measured to be ~15dB, higher than previously reported 10.4 dB of a very similar structure in ref. [17

17. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale all-optical wavelength converter on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2733–2735 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-20-2733. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], mainly due to observed imperfections of the fabricated waveguides and nanotapers. Round-trip losses include additional contributions from the polarization controller and the 1×2 coupler which are measured to be 0.6 dB and 1.0 dB, respectively. The gain obtained from EDF at λ=1.55 µm, which exceeds 20 dB as shown in Fig. 3 (inset) overcomes the losses stated above; therefore lasing was expected in this band with the proposed silicon microring filter.

Fig. 2. (a). Transmission spectrum of the filter using unpolarized ASE source. Lasing spectra of: (b) TE mode; (c) TM mode; and (d) simultaneous lasing of both TE and TM modes. Insets show corresponding top view infrared images of the ring area during lasing.

The birefringent nature of the microring resonator leads to separated quasi-TE resonances and quasi-TM resonances observed within a FSR of the filter [18

18. J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, the filter transmission spectrum is sensitive to input polarization. Our device is optimized at quasi-TE resonances with a much narrower linewidths (FWHM=0.1-0.2 nm) compared to quasi- TM ones (FWHM=1-2 nm). Figure 2(a) shows the transmission spectrum around 1.55 µm of the filter was taken using broadband unpolarized ASE source when the chip was at room temperature (~24°C). The quasi-TE and quasi-TM resonance wavelengths were measured to be 1555.56 nm and 1550.93 nm respectively. Similar peak transmissions and extinction ratios were achieved for both quasi-TE and quasi-TM resonances. The extinction ratios were measured to be over 10 dB. The double resonance characteristic of the TE peak has been attributed to sidewall back scattering on the microring [19

19. B. E. Little, J. -P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-1-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By tuning the input polarization state using the polarization controller, the polarization-dependent loss can be controlled to switch on/off the TE or TM lasing modes. Figure 2(b,c) shows lasing spectra at 1555.57±0.01 nm or 1550.90±0.1 nm corresponding to the quasi-TE or quasi-TM filter resonances, respectively. Simultaneous operation at two-wavelengths is demonstrated by adjusting the input polarization at 45° to the chip normal with lasing observed at both TE and TM wavelengths (Fig. 2(d)). Significantly narrower FWHMs of 0.02 nm were observed in both lasing modes, approaching the resolution limit of the optical spectrum analyzer (0.01nm). The lasing wavelength of TM mode was observed to shift ±0.1 nm around 1550.90 nm due to the broad peak linewidth of the quasi-TM resonance of the filter. However, for TE mode, the lasing wavelength shift was ±0.01 nm which is significantly reduced compared to TM lasing mode and approaches the wavelength resolution of the OSA. An interesting phenomenon was observed when comparing the topview infrared images captured of the microring filter at corresponding lasing modes as shown in the insets of Fig. 2(b–d). The top view imaging setup was configured by mounting a 20× long working distance objective above the chip. An infrared camera was used to monitor and capture the top view image with exactly the same camera settings. From the images, greater scattering around the ring area was observed when lasing at the TE mode compared to the TM mode although slightly higher lasing output was measured at the TM mode. This is due to the increased off-plane scattering of TE mode with electric field parallel to the surface of the sample. The speckle pattern observed around the filter area is due to reflections from the unpolished bottom surface of the chip. The TM mode preferentially scatters along the plane of the sample, hence the reduced intensity collected by the top viewing camera. Other filter resonances within EDF gain bandwidth are found at 1537.45 nm (quasi-TE) and 1533.81nm (quasi-TM), however, lasing was never observed on those wavelengths even with highest EDF pumping current provided. This is because the corresponding gain at those wavelengths are at least 6 dB lower than at 1550 nm band for our EDF and thus below the lasing threshold.

Fig. 3. Laser output power versus the EDF pumping bias current. Inset shows the EDF gain at 1550 nm for different input power at pumping current from 100 mA to 400 mA

Figure 3 plots the laser output power versus the EDF pump bias current with the tuning filter chip maintained at room temperature. In this experiment, the input polarization state was adjusted by a manual polarization controller that was set to TE mode at the highest pumping current. The pump current was decreased to below threshold and an ANDO AQ6317B optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) was used to record the emission spectra. The peak position and power were noted at each pump current. From the plot we can determine a lasing threshold of ~260 mA. We estimate the power in the loop after the EDF to be ~0.3 mW with pumping current of 400 mA. The small value is due to the high losses in our current silicon tunable filter chip. It is important to note that losses in silicon photonics have been shown to be as low as 3.6±0.1 dB/cm [20

20. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The output power was observed to fluctuate significantly for pumping currents above 300 mA, however, lasers built with same EDF and FBG grating filters showed a stable output. This fluctuation is currently under investigation and is believed to be caused by the interplay of several factors including the modulation of losses in the fiber-to-chip coupling; self-modulation of the ring resonator filters and gain saturation effects in the EDF.

Fig. 4. (a) Filter spectra and (b) lasing spectra at applied heating current of 0, 1, 3 and 5mA (c) filter and lasing peak wavelength shift versus applied heating power.

3. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated a new application of silicon photonics for the control of on-chip wavelengths through the use of an external gain source. Tuning of 1.3 nm was demonstrated with 20 mW electrical power with wider tuning ranges of at least up to 6.2 nm possible with larger currents. Simultaneous lasing at two different wavelengths was achieved using the natural birefringence of the devices. The use of parallel ring configurations will enable simultaneous lasing wavelengths to be selected and tuned across the whole Er+ range. This integration of the wavelength control of optical sources into silicon photonics is an important step towards wavelength division multiplexing in intra-chip and inter-chip communications.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank support from AFOSR FA9550-05-1-0232. TL is supported by FIU’s Dissertation Year Award. This work was performed in part at FIU’s Motorola Nanofabrication Research Facility and at the Cornell NanoScale Facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation.

References and links

1.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431, 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter,” Opt. Lett. 30, 967–969 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-9-967. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12, 5269–5273 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433, 292–294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14, 9203–9210 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Highly Efficient, Ultra Low Dark Current Germanium Photodetectors Integrated on Submicron Silicon Waveguides,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CWF3. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CWF3.

8.

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15, 3916–3921 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15, 13965–13971 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13965 [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M.W. Geis, S.J. Spector, R.C. Williamson, and T.M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514–2516 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, and W. S. Rabinovich, “Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry-Perot microcavities,” Opt. Express 15, 7557–7563 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7557. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M.S. Nawrocka, and R.R. Panepucci, “Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936–938 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, “Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110–071113, (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704–706 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon,” Proc. SPIE, 704, 32–37 (1987).

16.

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1302–1304 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-15-1302. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale all-optical wavelength converter on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2733–2735 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-20-2733. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

B. E. Little, J. -P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-1-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 30, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 10, 2008
Published: September 19, 2008

Citation
Xuan Wang, Tao Liu, Vilson R. de Almeida, and Roberto R. Panepucci, "On-chip silicon photonic wavelength control of optical fiber lasers," Opt. Express 16, 15671-15676 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15671


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References

  1. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter," Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-9-967. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, "Highly Efficient, Ultra Low Dark Current Germanium Photodetectors Integrated on Submicron Silicon Waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CWF3.http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CWF3.
  8. D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate," Opt. Express 15, 13965-13971 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13965 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, and W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry-Perot microcavities," Opt. Express 15, 7557-7563 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7557. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon," Proc. SPIE,  704, 32-37 (1987).
  16. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-15-1302. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale all-optical wavelength converter on silicon," Opt. Lett. 30, 2733-2735 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-20-2733. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. B. E. Little, J. -P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, "Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 22, 4-6 (1997). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-1-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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