OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 20 — Sep. 29, 2008
  • pp: 15700–15708
« Show journal navigation

White light sources based on multiple precision selective micro-filling of structured optical waveguides

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, T. K. Yip, S. K. Lim, and C. Martelli  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 15700-15708 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.015700


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1121 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Multiple precision selective micro-filling of a structured optical fibre using three luminescent dyes enables the simultaneous capture of red, blue and green luminescence within the core to generate white light. The technology opens up a new approach to integration and superposition of the properties of multiple materials to create unique composite properties within structured waveguides.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The ability to insert material into optical fibres after their fabrication is crucial to overcoming some of the fundamental material challenges of incorporating and positioning dopants to achieve functionalities that are presently not possible by conventional fabrication routes. This combination is especially powerful when added to the growing list of sophisticated fibre designs, including suspended core structures [1

1. P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).

], photonic crystal fibres [2

2. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003) [CrossRef]

] and Fresnel fibres [3

3. J. Canning, “Fresnel Optics Inside Optical Fibres,” in Photonics Research Developments, (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008) Chap. 4.

], all forms of micro- or nano- structured fibres. Early methods of incorporating materials that can be sufficiently close for the optical fields propagating within the core to interact with include glass milling of a preform to create channels or D-flats to access directly the core of a fibre [4

4. G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

], particularly for sensing applications and active devices, and the use of ion beam processing to introduce certain species straight into the glass core [5

5. M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997). [CrossRef]

,6

6. M. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, “Fabrication of long period gratings using focussed ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 765–767 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Ion beam processing has also been used to cleave tapered structured optical fibres so that their nano-structured cross-section could be measured [7

7. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

] as well as directly side access the core and/or holes of various conventional and structured fibres [9

9. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. This complements increasing work on laser processing of fibres, particularly structured optical fibres, using UV and near IR sources, with pulse widths ranging from femtosecond to nanoseconds [11

11. J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002). [CrossRef]

14

14. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fabrication of micro-channels in optical fibers using femtosecond laser pulses and selective chemical etching,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such selective micro (and potentially nano) processing enables the actual fabrication of unique components, such as the long period gratings fabricated using ion beam milling [15

15. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

]. Clearly, such structures based on processed channels can have passive and active materials inserted into them both for greater control over properties and functionality. Despite considerable sophistication involved with all these processing steps, a key advantage of the introduction of holes that run along the entire length of an optical fibre is the ability to use direct end-face insertion of material to avoid any compromise to fibre integrity along its length. The challenge, however, has been to have

Table 1. Laser dyes used in this work. Data sheets available from Exciton (www.exciton.com).

table-icon
View This Table

control over which holes to fill – general filling of the fibres is straightforward and well established. Precise selective filling, on the other hand, has not been so easy. Several approaches, such as the use of differential capillary flow between core and cladding holes to insert polymer material into the central hole within a structured optical fibre [16

16. Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004). [CrossRef]

], have been developed to selectively fill holes. Specific localised filling was reported when a central air hole within Fresnel diffractive fibre was filled with water without any of the cladding holes having material inserted into them by using an input single hole channel carefully aligned to the hole of choice, greatly simplifying the process for the first time [17

17. C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This direct end-face selective filling approach potentially allows a degree of finesse and care presently not demonstrated by other means that involve selective collapse of the holes at the fibre end that may be possible using an electric arc or CO2 laser [18

18. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia, Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

]. Despite this early demonstration, however, most published work still focuses on bulk single material filling of structured optical fibres. Although bulk filling still has important and novel applications, such as the incorporation of the latest nanomaterials [19

19. C. Martelli, J. Canning, D. Stocks, and M. Crossley, “Water-soluble porphyrin detection in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2100–2102 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or the sensitive measurement of refractive index [20

20. C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007). [CrossRef]

], the degree of device sophisticated functionality remains somewhat limited, which restricts the push towards multi-functional waveguide devices, such as lab-in-a-fibre technology [21

21. J. Canning, “New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing,” 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).

]. In these applications, multiple precision selective filling into both micro and nano structured fibres becomes integral to the future of compact devices.

To resolve this challenge, we return to direct selective end coupling into structured optical fibres [17

17. C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and demonstrate multiple precision selective micro-filling of a photonic crystal fibre to create novel dye-based white light sources. Moreover, this particular example is selected to illustrate how such filling technology opens up new solutions to perennial problems, including inherent chemical challenges such as the quenching of dyes when mixed together. It is an alternative approach to a general problem associated with many chemical systems that have required a range of unique solutions such as quantum dot nano structures or particles that isolate individual molecules from each other [22

22. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, “White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 14, 11412–11417 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-23-11412. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The white light source reported here, albeit a proof of principle, potentially offers a simple, low cost alternative to supercontinuum sources [23

23. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer New York, USA2005).

] that require significant energy input and have their own specific variations. In fact, through the selection of luminescent species and their concentration, far greater control over the spectral profile is possible. Further, by using laser dyes we suggest a new direction for future white light lasers as well as the general integration of multiple functionalities to create custom tailored composite properties within structured waveguides.

Fig. 1. SEM image of the structured fibre used in the experiments. The coloured rings show where each dye is introduced and the anticipated emission with overlap in the core.

2.Experiment

To demonstrate the significance of multiple precision selective filling, three different luminescent laser dyes (Table 1) are introduced into three parts of the cladding around the core. The aim is to generate white light whilst circumventing inherent quenching when three luminescent sources are mixed. As previously alluded to, the ability to combine the outcomes of processes, including chemical and spectroscopic, that would otherwise not be possible, sets the scene for a new approach to chemical and physical integration of multiple systems for extended, enhanced and novel functionality.

Fig. 2. Precision micro-filling technique: a single channel fibre is spliced gently to the area within the structured fibre core to be filled and a dye inserted. Once completed, the fibre is broken at the splice and repositioned elsewhere to introduce the remaining dyes sequentially. Alternatively, a multiple channel fibre can be used.

A schematic detailing the actual micro-filling procedure is illustrated in Fig. 2. In contrast to bulk filling where the solution is directly incorporated into the fibre, an identical capillary fibre to that used in [17

17. C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] was selected as the single input channel for the dye. Sequential splicing and filling of each dye into distinct regions was carried out so that in this work three dyes are uniformly and separately positioned around the core as desired. It is important to emphasize the whole process uses standard commercially available fibre splicing and cleaving instrumentation – for the splicing, manual settings using the lowest arc intensity parameters were employed. On manual we are able to easily position the fibre where we wish. Being able to operate within the commercial specifications of the instruments was critical to ensure the technique is simple and highly reproducible.

Fig. 3. Absorption spectra of each dye: (a) Bulk absorption (190–700nm: spectrophotometer; in ethanol); (b) 20cm fibre transmission measurement (380–800nm: OSA; in ethanol); and (c) 20cm fibre transmission measurement (380–800nm: OSA; in ethylene glycol).

2.1 Absorption experiments

Absorption spectra of the dyes in bulk solution within a quartz cuvette were taken using a standard spectrophotometer (190–700nm; res=1nm) in ethanol and are shown in Fig. 3. It can be observed that the absorption bands of the Coumarin dyes overlap substantially whilst that of Cresyl Violet stands well apart in the red and has small absorption in the blue. The absorption spectra are typical of such dyes which follow closely the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and, therefore, through mirror-image symmetry [26

26. W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).

] the corresponding fluorescence emission spectra should be folded images of the absorption spectra at longer wavelengths. The bulk spectra of the dyes in ethylene glycol are identical.

Bulk-filling of the structured fibre with each dye was carried out by inserting the 20cm long fibres into cuvettes containing the respective dyes subjected to ~3atm of pressure. The low viscosity and molecular weight of ethanol allowed rapid incorporation and no selective filling was employed so the ring of holes surrounding the core of each sample was filled with the one dye. Bulk-filled fibre measurements (L=20cm) for the dyes in ethanol and in ethylene glycol were taken using an optical spectrum analyser (OSA − 380–800nm; res=1nm) and are shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c). Unlike the bulk cuvette spectra, the Cresyl Violet dye shows much stronger absorption than the Coumarin dyes, mainly in part due to the greater evanescent field penetration into the holes with increasing wavelength. Given the higher refractive index of the ethylene glycol (table 1), along with the higher concentration able to be incorporated, the absorption is significantly stronger and falls within the signal-to-noise of the OSA. The bulk and fibre measurements are consistent for the wavelength span covered. One difference is observed, however: Cresyl Violet also has an additional absorption band in the blue ~400nm. To our knowledge this has not been observed for a bulk sample [27

27. D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. Consequently, from mirror-image symmetry an additional emission close to this wavelength should be observed.

Fig. 4. Luminescence observed at the output of three fibres with white light illumination, each containing: (a) Cresyl Violet 670 Perchlorate, (b) Coumarin 480, (c) Coumarin 540. The solvent is ethanol. Notably, in (a) the long wavelength in the red is best confined and the signal strongest in the core at the end of the fibre.

2.2 Emission Experiments

Initially, we used white light from a fibre lamp to excite the fibre-containing ethanol-dye solutions to determine whether light was trapped within the core of the fibre. A colour CMOS camera away from the direction of white light illumination recorded end faces images, shown in Fig. 4 – clearly visible is the trapped light traveling within the glass and reaching the fibre end which is being monitored. The holes containing the solution are dark since they are of lower index and some absorption by the none-excited dye away from the illuminated area occurs. The observed white light traveling between the structured region and core is that reflected by the structure, trapped by the outer diameter of the fibre and Fresnel reflected from the opposite fibre end face. This was diminished by placing index matching gel at the end of the fibre or bending the fibre (as shown for the Cresyl Violet in Fig. 4(a)). For the blue and green emissions, the excitation efficiency is observed to be significantly less when white light is used – in fact, the Fresnel reflected white light assisted in priming the CMOS sensitivity; otherwise the blue and green were barely detected. The results indicate no significant difference in luminescence within the core and within the lattice structure, suggesting that the much stronger absorption using ethylene glycol makes this the better solvent to employ. It was noted that the greater viscosity and higher molecular weight required overnight filling – for a general analysis of capillary diffusion rates relevant to the incorporation of liquids into a structured optical fibre see [28

28. H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. For overall excitation of the three dyes by laser, a source with a wavelength below the blue emission window of Coumarin 480 is necessary. We had access to a low-cost, compact diode pumped, frequency quadrupled, quasi-CW Q-switched YAG laser (λ=266nm, Pav=5mW) - the absorption appears similar for all three dyes.

Fig. 5. Three dyes inserted into the 3-ring structured optical fibre and illuminated with: (a) white light source and; (b) with a 266nm UV laser. In both cases a bubble is formed at the end of the fibre as some of the viscous ethylene glycol leaks out.

To demonstrate the improvement obtained by spatially separating the three dyes (as well as to assure that the three dyes are indeed spatially separated into different holes) using the precision multiple filling technique, emission spectra were compared to that obtained with bulk mixing of the three dyes. For the bulk measurements within a quartz cuvette a mini-spectrometer (res=0.7nm over 400–850nm) was used with a large area multimode fibre as a collection aperture for emitted light from the cuvette – this enabled us to use the 266nm light and to collect the emitted spectra in real time compared to a conventional spectrophotometer. The results are shown in Fig. 6(a). Also shown is the simple superposition sum of the three measured emission spectra of each dye – the huge difference shows that at least two phenomena are taking place: (1) quenching/reabsorption of the dye emission, and (2) UV laser induced photobleaching. In particular, we observed direct bleaching of the green emission with continued exposure – this is shown in Fig. 6(b) where a large emission peak is observed before bleaching to a steady emission value an order of magnitude less. The observed exponential decay is consistent with diffusion dynamics of photobleaching of Coumarin 540 and is well known [29

29. A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Interestingly, the Cresyl Violet dye showed degradation of the main red emission whilst having an increase in blue emission centred ~480nm (the final spectra of a fibre containing only Violet Cresyl dye is shown in Fig 6(c)). This blue emission from Cresyl Violet was predicted by the mirror image symmetry law from the fibre absorption, which indicates there is nothing unique about the fibre sample absorption. More likely, the bulk absorption spectral measurements were not sensitive enough to detect the absorption, illustrating another advantage of a long fibre interaction length. This blue luminescence gets stronger as the 640nm emission is bleached. Of the three dyes, Coumarin 480 showed no evidence of degradation with 266nm exposure – its stable emission spectra is shown in Figure 6(d). The combination of the effects, however, leads to a significantly quenched blue band arising most likely through reabsorption or direct quenching of the Coumarin 480 emission by the other dyes.

Fig. 6. Emission spectra bulk samples exposed to quasi CW 5mW 266nm (a) 3 dyes combined. Also shown is the sum of the individual three dye emission spectra; (b) time spectra of Coumarin 540 with 266nm exposure; (c) time spectra of Cresyl Violet with 266nm exposure. A blue luminescent band appears ~480nm; (d) Coumarin dye emission with 266nm exposure. A centre peak ~500nm is observed. Of the three dyes only Coumarin 480 proved to be stable with 266nm excitation.
Fig. 7. “White” light emitted spectra from the output of the structured fibre containing three dyes individually placed every 600 around the core.

In contrast, for the fibre measurements, the output from the structured fibre containing the three dyes was collected straight into an optical spectrum analyser, which had significantly better signal-to-noise ratio (res=1nm over 400–800nm). The final broadband emission spectra covering 400–800nm is shown in Fig 7. Consistent with that expected from the superposition of the three absorption bands shown in Fig 6(a), the measurement confirms successful multiple precision selective filling of the structured optical fibre and explains the white light observed in 5(b). Further, the asymmetric profiles centred in the blue and red regions are consistent with mirror symmetry images of the principle absorption bands of the Coumarin 480 and Cresyl Violet dyes. Coumarin 540 appears to be have been bleached somewhat and is buried within the larger Coumarin 480 band. Whilst there is some laser induced degradation of both the Coumarin 540 and the Cresyl Violet dyes, quenching and re-absorption is not observed. Overall, after the initial degradation of the red and greed dyes, no further degradation is observed for the period of experimentation – however, more in-depth annealing studies are under consideration and will form the basis of future reports.

3. Conclusions

In conclusion, multiple precision selective filling of a structured optical fibre has been used to demonstrate how micro-cell fibres, such as photonic crystal fibres, can be employed to overcome direct mixing of materials and obtain simple superposition of each materials property. In the example demonstrated, three laser dyes luminescing in the red, green and blue were used to generate white light within the core of the fibre. This approach allows a simple method of tailored superposition that can be used to generate novel properties, devices, sensors and lasers – although not the subject of this work, the laser dyes have sufficient gain in the three primary colours that white lasers can in principle be made (although an alternative excitation pathway to 266nm excitation is necessary to avoid or minimise bleaching, quenching and other problems). In general, precision selective filling opens a new direction in engineering the composite properties of an optical fibre by selectively placing multiple materials in different holes. Finally, we report the observation of a blue absorption (~400nm) and the corresponding emission band (~480nm) when Cresyl Violet is partially photobleached with 266nm.

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project. T.K. Yip and S.K. Lim acknowledge a summer student scholarship from the School of Chemistry and the Interdisciplinary Photonics Laboratories, University of Sydney, Australia.

References and links

1.

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).

2.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003) [CrossRef]

3.

J. Canning, “Fresnel Optics Inside Optical Fibres,” in Photonics Research Developments, (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008) Chap. 4.

4.

G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

5.

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997). [CrossRef]

6.

M. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, “Fabrication of long period gratings using focussed ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 765–767 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

9.

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).

13.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

14.

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fabrication of micro-channels in optical fibers using femtosecond laser pulses and selective chemical etching,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

16.

Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia, Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

19.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, D. Stocks, and M. Crossley, “Water-soluble porphyrin detection in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2100–2102 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007). [CrossRef]

21.

J. Canning, “New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing,” 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).

22.

R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, “White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 14, 11412–11417 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-23-11412. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer New York, USA2005).

24.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).

27.

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972). [CrossRef]

28.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: July 11, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 3, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 3, 2008
Published: September 19, 2008

Citation
J. Canning, M. Stevenson, T. K. Yip, S. K. Lim, and C. Martelli, "White light sources based on multiple precision selective micro-filling of structured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 15700-15708 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15700


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, "Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021-39 (1974).
  2. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003) [CrossRef]
  3. J. Canning, "Fresnel Optics Inside Optical Fibres," in Photonics Research Developments, (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008) Chap. 4.
  4. G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, ??????Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,??????Sens. Actuators B 11, 521-524 (1993).
  5. M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, "Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121-125 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. M. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, "Fabrication of long period gratings using focussed ion beam irradiation," Opt. Lett. 26, 765-767 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, "Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique," Opt. Express 13, 9023-28 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, "Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres," Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).
  9. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, "Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling," Opt. Lett. 32, 1575-1577 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, "Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075-3081 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, "UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre," Opt. Commun. 202, 139-143 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, "Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres," Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399-402 (2003).
  13. H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, "Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors," Proc. SPIE 5855, 419-422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).
  14. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Fabrication of micro-channels in optical fibers using femtosecond laser pulses and selective chemical etching," Opt. Lett. 31, 2559 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, "Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam," OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).
  16. Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, "Water core Fresnel fibre," Opt. Express 13, 3890-3895 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices," IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia, Vol. 1, pp.176-177, Singapore, (2003).
  19. C. Martelli, J. Canning, D. Stocks, and M. Crossley, "Water-soluble porphyrin detection in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2100-2102 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Canning, "New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing," 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).
  22. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, "White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles," Opt. Express 14, 11412-11417 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-23-11412. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer New York, USA 2005).
  24. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, "Bend loss in structured optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 17639-17644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, "Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation," Opt. Commun. 273, 379-382 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. See, for example, W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).
  27. D. Beer and J. Weber, "Photobleaching of organic laser dyes," Opt. Commun. 5, 307-309 (1972). [CrossRef]
  28. H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, "Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing," Opt. Commun. 270, 207-210 (2007). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, "Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650-660 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited