OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 20 — Sep. 29, 2008
  • pp: 16052–16057
« Show journal navigation

Broadband source of telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution

Han Chuen Lim, Akio Yoshizawa, Hidemi Tsuchida, and Kazuro Kikuchi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 16052-16057 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.016052


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (97 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Studies on telecom-band entangled photon-pair sources for entanglement distribution have so far focused on their narrowband operations. Fiber-based sources are seriously limited by spontaneous Raman scattering while sources based on quasi-phase-matched crystals or waveguides are usually narrowband because of long device lengths and/or operations far from degeneracy. An entanglement distributor would have to multiplex many such narrowband sources before entanglement distribution to fully utilize the available fiber transmission bandwidth. In this work, we demonstrate a broadband source of polarization-entangled photon-pairs suitable for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution over optical fiber. We show that our source is potentially capable of simultaneously supporting up to forty-four independent wavelength channels.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

It is expected that in future quantum communication applications such as multi-party quantum cryptography [1

1. A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and distributed quantum computing [2

2. J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, “Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249–4254 (1999).

], distantly located users would need to share and consume quantum entanglement as a resource [3

3. M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University Press,2000).

]. However, as the total amount of entanglement shared among users cannot be created nor increased with local operations and classical communications (LOCC) [4

4. M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, “Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world,” Contemp. Phys. 39, 431–446 (1998). [CrossRef]

], entanglement sharing must definitely involve some means of entanglement distribution over a physical channel. This implies that in addition to a classical communication channel, an entanglement distribution channel must also be established among users. Today, distributing entanglement over very long distances is still beyond reach due to the difficulty of implementing quantum repeaters [5

5. L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. However, a local-area entanglement distribution fiber network covering a distance of the order of 100 km seems realizable in the near future. We envision that in this network, a centrally located entanglement distributor playing the role of a service provider, would create highly-entangled photon-pairs and distribute them via fiber-optic transmission lines to users within the network according to users’ demand [7

7. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment,” Opt. Express 16, 14512–14523 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

There has already been a number of proposals on telecom-band entangled photon-pair sources based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) [8

8. A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003). [CrossRef]

16

16. S. Sauge, M. Swillo, S. Albert-Seifried, G. B. Xavier, J. Waldeback, M. Tengner, D. Ljunggren, and A. Karlsson, “Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over a WDM link for qubit networks,” Opt. Express 15, 6926–6933 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and recently, a few groups have reported entanglement distribution over 100 km of optical fiber, using either time-bin-entangled or polarization-entangled photon-pairs [17

17. C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment,” Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).

20

20. Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16, 5776–5781 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. From a telecommunication engineering point of view, it would be desirable if the available transmission bandwidth of the fiber-optic transmission lines can be fully utilized for entanglement distribution. However, most of the entangled photon-pair sources studied so far have exhibited a relatively narrow bandwidth as compared to the available transmission bandwidth of optical fiber. For fiber-based entangled photon-pair sources, the bandwidth is seriously limited by spontaneous Raman scattering [21

21. K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, “Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048–8052 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “1.5-µm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 7832–7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], while sources based on quasi-phase-matched (QPM) crystals or waveguides are usually narrowband because of long device lengths and/or operations far from the degeneracy wavelength [15

15. F. Konig, E. J. Mason, F. N. C. Wong, and M. A. Albota, “Efficient and spectrally bright source of polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033805 (2005).

, 16

16. S. Sauge, M. Swillo, S. Albert-Seifried, G. B. Xavier, J. Waldeback, M. Tengner, D. Ljunggren, and A. Karlsson, “Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over a WDM link for qubit networks,” Opt. Express 15, 6926–6933 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 1. (color online) Concept of multi-channel wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution. An entanglement distributor playing the role of a service provider uses a single broadband source of entangled photon-pairs to distribute entanglement to application users. AWG: arrayed waveguide grating

With narrowband sources, a service provider would have to wavelength-multiplex a large number of them before entanglement distribution in order to fully utilize the available transmission bandwidth, and this is not cost-effective. The concept of a single broadband source suitable for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution has not been pursued so far. It is obvious that this broadband source must produce highly-entangled photon-pairs for all wavelength channels simultaneously, and we emphasize here that this condition is not necessarily satisfied for existing sources. For wavelength-demultiplexing of distributed photons into independent wavelength channels, arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) can be used, as in classical wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems [23

23. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd Ed. (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 1 shows the concept of wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution using just one single broadband source.

In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time a telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pair source that is well-suited for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution. Our source is specifically based on a very short, type-0, MgO-doped periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide operating near degeneracy, and so it has a very broad SPDC bandwidth. We show that our source is potentially capable of simultaneously supporting up to forty-four independent wavelength channels.

This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the experiment. In Section 3, we present experimental results followed by a discussion. Section 4 concludes this paper.

2. Experiment

Figure 2 shows the experimental setup. The source is based on a 1-mm-long, type-0, MgO-doped PPLN waveguide (HC Photonics) placed at the center of a polarization-diversity loop without any form of temperature control [14

14. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 12460–12468 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For our application, we would like all photons to be produced in the telecom-band, and so we have selected a PPLN waveguide that has a degeneracy wavelength at 1550 nm. Photon-pair production near the degeneracy wavelength gives a broad SPDC bandwidth. Furthermore, the short length of the selected waveguide ensures a very broad phase-matching bandwidth for the SPDC process at room temperature.

The pump laser incident at the polarization beam-splitter (PBS) is diagonally-polarized so that it is split into two orthogonally polarized components by the PBS. The polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) forming a loop has a 90-degree-twist such that the same polarization-mode of the PPLN waveguide is pumped bi-directionally. The photon-pairs that are produced within the waveguide then combine at the same PBS resulting in a polarization-entangled state, denoted by |Hs|Hi+e |Vs|Vi, where the subscripts s and i denote signal and idler, respectively. θ is an unknown but constant phase, which we compensate using a half-wave plate (HWP) at the receiver side in order to obtain the maximally-entangled state |Φ+≡|Hs|Hi+|Vs|Vi. The filter at the exit of the PBS is a piece of mirror that is coated anti-reflective (AR) at the pump wavelength (775 nm) and highly reflective (HR) at the telecom-band. It should be emphasized that the PBS is a custom-made device specifically designed to operate at both the pump wavelength and the entire telecom-band. The dichroic mirror (DM) is optically coated for high transmittivity from 1500 nm to 1550 nm and high reflectivity from 1550 nm to 1585 nm, in order to separate the signal and idler photons, as well as to enable broadband output from the source. The quarter-wave plates (QWPs) and polarizers (POLs) placed before two InGaAs single-photon counter modules (SPCMs, id Quantique) are used to realize the sixteen polarization-settings needed for quantum state tomography. The HWP at the signal channel compensates the unknown phase, as already mentioned. Density matrices are reconstructed from measured number of coincidence counts in 100 seconds (with accidental coincidence counts included) using the maximum likelihood method described in [24

24. D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).

]. Further details of the experimental setup can be found in [14

14. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 12460–12468 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 2. (color online) Schematic of the experiment. Red arrows show input pump laser. Black arrows show telecom-band photon-pairs created in the PPLN waveguide. ATT: attenuator, BPF: band-pass filter, CW: continuous-wave, DM: dichroic mirror, HWP: half-wave plate, PBS: polarization beam-splitter, PC: polarization controller, PMF: polarization-maintaining fiber, POL: polarizer, PPLN: periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide, QWP: quarter-wave plate, SMF: single-mode fiber, SPCM: single-photon counter module
Fig. 3. (color online) Each individual channel consists of a signal channel and a corresponding idler channel that are entangled in polarization. Signal and idler wavelengths shown are determined for a pump wavelength at 776 nm.

3. Results and Discussions

Fig. 4. (a) Two-photon interference fringe visibility and (b) entanglement fidelity of the generated photon-pairs versus photon-pair generation rate for Channel 27. The theoretical curve assumes a thermally distributed photon-pair number.

First we look at the dependence of entanglement quality on photon-pair generation rate (in units of per pump pulse) when the pump laser is pulsed (from a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser). Figure 4 shows data taken for Channel 27 (signal and idler wavelengths are 1537.2 nm and 1567.1 nm, respectively). As shown in Fig. 4(a), the two-photon interference fringe visibility (average value calculated from HH, HV, VH and VV coincidence count rates) decreases with increasing photon-pair generation rate. The entanglement fidelity also decreases with increasing photon-pair generation rate, as shown in Fig. 4(b). This is due to an increased number of accidental coincidence counts as the result of a larger number of multiple-pairs emitted at higher pump powers [14

14. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 12460–12468 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This observation suggests that the photon-pair generation rate for a single channel cannot be raised to a high level where the effects of multiple-pair emission become significant. The theoretical curve in Fig. 4(a) is obtained using the theoretical model described in [7

7. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment,” Opt. Express 16, 14512–14523 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], assuming a thermally distributed photon-pair number.

Fig. 5. Entanglement fidelity of selected channels, for both cw pumping (open circles) and pulse pumping (filled circles). The lines are included to aid visualization.

As for the operating bandwidth of the source, although the SPDC bandwidth is expected to cover hundreds of nm (which is beyond our measurement capability now), we are currently limited by the tunability of the narrowband wavelength-demultiplexing filters. A second limitation would be the cut-off wavelengths of the dual-band PBS and the dichroic mirror, as determined by the optical coating. These limitations, however, could be overcome in future. Our preliminary results thus show that the concept of a single broadband source suitable for multiple-channel wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution is indeed a feasible one.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have proposed a broadband source of telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs that is well-suited for multi-channel wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution over optical fiber. By using a very short PPLN waveguide, together with broadband optically coated polarization-beam-splitter and dichroic mirror, we have shown that polarization-entangled photon-pairs can be produced over a broad bandwidth in the telecom-band. Using a pair of tunable wavelength-demultiplexing filters having 60 GHz pass-band, we have found that the proposed source is potentially capable of simultaneously supporting up to forty-four independent wavelength channels. We have also suggested ways to improve the current setup, and we expect the proposed broadband source to play an important role in future wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution fiber networks.

Acknowledgments

H. C. Lim was on a postgraduate scholarship awarded by DSO National Laboratories.

References and links

1.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, “Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249–4254 (1999).

3.

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University Press,2000).

4.

M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, “Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world,” Contemp. Phys. 39, 431–446 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998). [CrossRef]

7.

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment,” Opt. Express 16, 14512–14523 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell's inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).

10.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-µm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar light-wave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005).

12.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5-µm band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 1679–1683 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. Odate, A. Yoshizawa, and H. Tsuchida, “Polarisation-entangled photon-pair source at 1550 nm using 1-mm-long PPLN waveguide in fibre-loop configuration,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1376–1377 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 12460–12468 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

F. Konig, E. J. Mason, F. N. C. Wong, and M. A. Albota, “Efficient and spectrally bright source of polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033805 (2005).

16.

S. Sauge, M. Swillo, S. Albert-Seifried, G. B. Xavier, J. Waldeback, M. Tengner, D. Ljunggren, and A. Karlsson, “Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over a WDM link for qubit networks,” Opt. Express 15, 6926–6933 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, “Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment,” Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).

18.

H. Hubel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7853–7862 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express 15, 13957–13964 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16, 5776–5781 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, “Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048–8052 (2004). [CrossRef]

22.

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “1.5-µm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 7832–7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd Ed. (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]

24.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 12, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 19, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 19, 2008
Published: September 24, 2008

Citation
Han Chuen Lim, Akio Yoshizawa, Hidemi Tsuchida, and Kazuro Kikuchi, "Broadband source of telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs for wavelength-multiplexed entanglement distribution," Opt. Express 16, 16052-16057 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-16052


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
  3. M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  4. M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, "Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world," Contemp. Phys. 39, 431-446 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network: Theoretical model and experiment," Opt. Express 16, 14512-14523 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 621-622 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell's inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop," Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
  10. X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Generation of 1.5-?mband time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar light-wave circuit interferometers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005).
  12. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, "Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in1.5-?m band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 1679-1683 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Odate, A. Yoshizawa, and H. Tsuchida, "Polarisation-entangled photon-pair source at 1550 nm using 1-mm-long PPLN waveguide in fibre-loop configuration," Electron. Lett. 43, 1376-1377 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide," Opt. Express 16, 12460-12468 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Konig, E. J. Mason, F. N. C. Wong, and M. A. Albota, "Efficient and spectrally bright source of polarization-entangled photons," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033805 (2005).
  16. S. Sauge, M. Swillo, S. Albert-Seifried, G. B. Xavier, J. Waldeback, M. Tengner, D. Ljunggren, and A. Karlsson, "Narrowband polarization-entangled photon pairs distributed over a WDM link for qubit networks," Opt. Express 15, 6926-6933 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Liang, K. F. Lee, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Distribution of fiber-generated polarization entangled photon-pairs over 100 km of standard fiber in OC-192 WDM environment," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), postdeadline paper PDP35 (2006).
  18. H. Hubel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Lorunser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, "High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber," Opt. Express 15, 7853-7862 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, "Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 15, 13957-13964 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors," Opt. Express 16, 5776-5781 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Inoue and K. Shimizu, "Generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs in optical fiber: Influence of spontaneous Raman scattering," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 8048-8052 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "1.5-μm band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7832-7839 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd Ed. (Wiley, 2002). [CrossRef]
  24. D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited