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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 21 — Oct. 13, 2008
  • pp: 16538–16545
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Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4 laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal

Ja-Hon Lin, Hou-Ren Chen, Hsin-Han Hsu, Ming-Dar Wei, Kuei-Huei Lin, and Wen-Feng Hsieh  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 21, pp. 16538-16545 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.016538


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Abstract

In use of saturable Cr4+:YAG crystals, we have demonstrated the stable Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) operation of the Nd:LuVO4 laser. The operation range of QML in use of the Cr4+:YAG is larger than that use of SESAM and NLM. The obtained shape of Q-switched envelope, repetition rate and pulse energy are demonstrated to depend on the initial transmittance of the Cr4+:YAG and reflectivity of the output coupler. Using R=60% and T0=40%, the highest pulse energy of 77 µJ of each Q-switched envelope, and the highest peak power about 200 kW of Q-switched mode-locked pulses can be obtained at 15 W pump power. It demonstrate the superior characteristic of the Nd:LuVO4 crystal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

High-peak power and short-pulse lasers are continuously interested in laser physicist because they have various practical applications. Generally, continuous wave mode-locking (CWML) is widely used technique in generating ultra short optical pulses. However, its repetition rate is restricted by the cavity length and is in tens of MHz. Due to these characteristics, the CW-ML pulses have various advantages such as such as wavelength conversion, supercontinuum generation [1

1. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W.-H. Yang, and Wen Feng Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4,413–417 (2007). [CrossRef]

], optical communication, optical switching, optical clocking, and nonlinear optical measurement. Nevertheless, high repletion rate pulses will accumulate heat in materials, leading to thermal lensing in optical nonlinearity measurements such as Z scan measurement. On the contrary, the Q-switched can generate lower repletion rates and higher pulse energies output. However, the generated Q-switched pulsewidth is comparative longer relative to the CW-ML pulses so that they have lower peak powers.

Simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) lasers possess the superior property of high peak power over the CW mode-locked lasers but retain almost the same pulsewidth. The power of central ML peak pulse in the Q-switched envelope can be greatly enhanced and the repletion rate of pulses is greatly reduced. Especially for picosecond (ps) mode-locked laser, which may not have enough peak intensity for achieving efficient wavelength conversion and supercontinuum generation, the QML provides a solution for these problems. Some methods like cavity dumping and regenerative amplifier have similar effect but their configurations are more complicated than the QML system.

With the semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) or nonlinear mirror (NLM) technique [1

1. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W.-H. Yang, and Wen Feng Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4,413–417 (2007). [CrossRef]

-2

2. J.-H. Lin, W.-H. Yang, W.-F. Hsieh, and Kuei-Huei Lin, “Low threshold and high power output of a diode-pumped nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 13, 6323–6329 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the QML pulses can be obtained prior to the complete CW mode-locking state while increasing the pump power. However, the pump power for stable QML operation with regular QML pulses is limited in a small range. By integrating the techniques of NLM and SESAM [8

8. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in Nd:GdVO4 laser with dual loss-modulation mechanism,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 276–280 (2008). [CrossRef]

], the range of QML state can be extended to the higher pump power to generate regular stable high output power QML pulses with fixed period and Q-switched envelope.

Generally, the Cr4+:YAG crystal is an effective slow saturable absorber for Q-switching but not for mode-locking. However, the simultaneously Q-switching and mode locking had been observed due to the excite-state absorption (ESA) while the intracavity intensity is high enough [9

9. Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-Switching and Mode-Locking in a Diode-Pumped Nd :YVO4-Cr4+ :YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. With Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber, stable and high peak power QML pulses have been generated in Nd:YVO4, Nd:GdVO4, Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4 and Nd:YLF lasers [9

9. Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-Switching and Mode-Locking in a Diode-Pumped Nd :YVO4-Cr4+ :YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001). [CrossRef]

-12

12. S. Pan, L. Xue, X. Fan, H. Huang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with uncoated GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 272, 178–181 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In Nd:LuVO4 laser, CW-mode locking has been demonstrated with a GaAs wafer [13

13. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, M. Jiang, D. Tang, G. Xie, and H. Luo, “Passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser with a GaAs wafer,” Opt. Lett. 33, 225–227 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to generate short pulses; and with an acousto-optical modulator [14

14. J. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and H. Weber, “Continuous-wave and pulsed laser performance of Nd:LuVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 29, 168–170 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and a Cr4+:YAG as saturable absorber [15

15. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “’CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06µm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3206–3211 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] Q-switching were also reported in Nd:LuVO4 laser to produce high pulse energy. However, it is still lack of reports on simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser using a Cr:YAG saturable absorber.

In this paper, instead of using the plano-concave cavity [15

15. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “’CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06µm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3206–3211 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we use the z-type cavity resonator to achieve smaller cavity beam size for enhancing intracavity intensity inside Cr4+:YAG. We successfully demonstrated low repetition rate and high peak power Q-switched and mode-locked pulses in diode-pumped a-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser by the Cr4+:YAG crystal. In use of the different permutation of the initial transmittance T0 of the Cr4+:YAG and the reflectance of the output coupler R, the output characteristics including the repetition rates, pulse energies and shape of the Q-switched envelopes will be investigated.

2. Experiments

The schematic setup of our laser with folded z-configuration is shown in Fig. 1. A fiber-coupled diode-array laser (FAP-81-16C-800-I, Coherent Inc.) with center wavelength of 809 nm was used as the pump source. The output beam from the fiber was imaged on the laser crystal, which is a 3x3x8 mm3 a-cut Nd:LuVO4 crystal (with 0.5-at.% Nd3+ concentration), through an 1:1.8 optical imaging accessory (OIA’s, Coherent Inc.). One side of laser crystal (S1) is high reflection (HR) coated at 1064 nm and anti-reflection (AR) coated at 808 nm as an end mirror of the resonator; while the other side (S2) with 2 degree wedge is AR coated at 1064 nm. Two curved mirrors M1 and M2, with radii of curvatures of 500 and 200 mm, were used as folding mirrors to conduct cavity beam through a Cr4+ :YAG to the output coupler (OC). The distance between the gain medium and M1 is 30 cm, that from M1 to M2 is 80 cm and from M2 to OC is 13.5 cm. We put Cr4+ :YAG about 10.5 cm in front of the output coupler. We therefore can estimated the beam diameter at Cr4+ :YAG to be about 150 µm. We chose different combinations of OC with reflectivity of 60% and 80% at 1064 nm and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber with initial transmittance T0 of 80%, 55% and 40% to optimize the generated QML pulses.

The output of the Nd:LuVO4 laser from either OC or the wedged facet of the laser crystal was measured by a power meter (Ophir Inc.) or detected by a high speed InGaAs detector (Electro-Physics Technology, ET 3000) that was connected to the oscilloscope (LeCroy LT372, bandwidth 500 MHz) or an optical spectrum analyzer (Ando-AQ6315A) with resolution of 0.01 nm. A noncollinear autocorrelator containing a 2-mm thick type-I BBO was used to measure the width of mode-locked pulse.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of diode-pumped Q-switched mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser. GM is gain medium (Nd:LuVO4), M1 and M2 are the folding mirrors and OC is the output coupler.

3. Results and discussion

The output powers versus pump power (P p) at the CW states (black squares) and the QML states in use of T 0=80% ((blue diamonds), 55% (green triangles) and 40% (red circles) were shown in Fig. 2(a). As expected, the QML state can be operated provided that lasing threshold is achieved after the saturable absorbing Cr4+:YAG crystal having been inserted into the laser cavity. Besides, the lasing threshold increases, the output power becomes lower as increasing the cavity loss via lowering R and T 0. With the same T 0, the output power using R=80% [solid symbols] are generally higher than that of using R=60% (open symbols). Although the non-saturable absorbing and even the thermal induced loss of the saturable absorber also influence the threshold, due to the cavity beam passing twice through the absorber and being reflected once by the OC in a round trip, more influence of the threshold and the output power on T 0 (dependence of T 0 2) than on R. In Fig. 2(a), we obtained the larger stable range of QML operation using Cr4+:YAG than that in use of SESAM [1

1. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W.-H. Yang, and Wen Feng Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4,413–417 (2007). [CrossRef]

] or NLM [2

2. J.-H. Lin, W.-H. Yang, W.-F. Hsieh, and Kuei-Huei Lin, “Low threshold and high power output of a diode-pumped nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 13, 6323–6329 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in which the QML state can usually be observed before entering completely CW-ML state as increasing the pump power but the operation range is very small. The QML state can only be observed as the pump powers increased from 1.7 W to 2.6 W for SESAM [1

1. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W.-H. Yang, and Wen Feng Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4,413–417 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and 2 W to 2.3W for NLM [2

2. J.-H. Lin, W.-H. Yang, W.-F. Hsieh, and Kuei-Huei Lin, “Low threshold and high power output of a diode-pumped nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 13, 6323–6329 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Similar effects of T 0 and R can be found in the repetition rates (R ep) of the Q-switched envelope which were revealed in Fig. 2(b), the values show increase tendency as increasing the pump power. With the same T 0 and pump power, the value of R ep for R=80% is slightly higher than R=60%. In use of R=60%, the highest value of R ep for T 0=80% is about 68 kHz that is relatively higher than the 23 kHz and 14 kHz as T 0=55%, and 40%, respectively.

Fig. 2. (a). The average output powers, and (b) the repetition rates versus the pump power at the CW state (black squares) and QML states with the T 0=80% (blue diamonds), 55% (green triangles), and 40% (red circles).

The expanded Q-switching envelopes in use of the pump power of 13.5 W are shown in Fig. 3. Inside the envelope, a number of discrete and periodic mode-locking (ML) pulses with time interval about ~8 ns can obviously be seen. The width of the stable ML pulse was measured using an autocorrelator and shown in Fig. 4 (black squares) that reveals the pulsewidth t 0 about 56 ps by fitting to the Sech2 shape (red curve). In this experiment, three different initial transmittance of Cr4+:YAG, T 0=40%, 55%, and 80% as three columns in Fig. 3, were used to match with reflectance of OC, R=60% and 80%, as two rows in Fig. 3. By fitting the envelopes with the formula

P(t)=a{exp[(1.76*tt1]+exp[1.76*tt2]}2,
(1)

in which a is the scaling factor, we could obtain the rising time t 1 and the falling time t 2 of the Q-switched envelopes, respectively. Therefere, the widths and asymmetric factors of these Q-swithced envelopes can be estimated by the definition of τ=(t 1+t 2)/2 and t 1/t 2. Together with the numbers of ML pulses (N) in each Q-switched envelopes, the energies of the highest ML pulses (EML), and the the calculated initial inversion (n i) and the threshold inversion (nt) for different R and T 0 were listed in Table I. These listed parameters can also be theoretically calculated using the model proposed by J. Liu et al. [16

16. J. Liu, D. Shen, S.-C. Tam, and Y.-L. Lam, “Modeling Pulse Shape of Q-Switched Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantun Electron . 37, 888–896 (2001). [CrossRef]

] if the laser parameters including the stimulated emission cross section of gain medium and the absorption cross section of saturable absorber are given.

T 0=40% T 0=55% T 0=80%
R=NO. of pulses N 60%7 80%11 60%9 80%13 60%16 80%22
t 1 (ns) 28 23 41 36 92 92
t 2 (ns) 83 157 104 166 162 267
τ (ns) 55 90 72 101 126 179
t 1/t 2 0.34 0.15 0.39 0.21 0.57 0.34
EML (mJ) 11 6.6 6.9 4.1 2.2 1.5
ni*1015 (mm)-3 10.1 8.89 7.39 6.16 4.18 2.95
nt*1015 (mm)-3 2.27 1.04 2.27 1.04 2.27 1.04

Generally, t 1, t 2 and τ decreases as T 0 decreases, no matter what reflectance of OC were used. However, the rising time t 1 strongly depends upon T 0 but it has a little effect on change of R. In contrast, the falling time t 2 increases as both T 0 and R increase. It may be due to that the rising time t 1 is mainly determined by the initial inversion ni, in which the initial spontaneously emitted photons (ni) begin to experience positive net gain. The initial inversion is defined as

ni=ln(1T02)+ln(1R)+L2σl,
(2)

tfnlc(1R),
(3)

Here, n is the index of the gain medium and c is the velocity of the light. Thus, the longer t 2 is expected for the larger R no matter what T 0 is used. Nevertheless, it is not the case in Fig. 3 and Table I, in which the laser with the lower T 0 experiences the shorter decay time t 2. The dependence of t 2 on T 0 could be due to temporal shaping via the recovered absorption of the absorber with lower T 0 or larger absorption which possesses the higher concentration of absorption ions to raise the cavity loss in the falling tail of the QML pulse.

Fig. 3. Expanded temporal shape of a single Q-switched & mode-locked pulse trains at 13.5W pumping for R=60% with T 0=40% (a), 55% (b), and 80% (c); and R=80% with T 0=40% (d), 55% (e), and 80% (f).
Fig. 4. The measured autocorrelation trace (solid squares) and fitting curve by Sech2 function.

In Fig. 5, the pulse energies EJ of the Q-switching envelope were estimated by dividing the average output power P 0 into the repetition rate R ep of the envelope. EJ shows increase tendency as the pump power increases. Due to apparently decrease of R ep for the lower T 0 (Fig. 2(b)), EJ for T 0=40% are higher than those of T 0=55% and 80% in Fig. 5. At 15 W pumped power, the highest pulse energies of about 77 µJ can be obtained for R=60% and T0=40%. With the same T 0, the obtained pulse energies have no much difference for R=80% and 60% due to similar average output power and repetition rate. However, the pulse energy and peak power for single ML pulse for R=60% are higher than R=80% due to less number of pulses in each Q-switched envelope or shorter Q-switched pulse width. The estimated pulse energy for each ML pulse is calculated by EJ/N that was presented in Table I. At 15W pump power, the highest peak power of ML pulses calculated by Pp=P0NRept0 is about 200 kW for R=60% and T 0=40%, where P0 is the average output power, Rep is the repetition rate of the Q-switched envelope, N is the number of pulses within a Q-switched envelope, and t0 is the pulsewidth of the mode locking pulses.

Fig. 5. The estimated pulse energy versus the pump power at the QML states with the T 0=80% (blue diamonds), 55% (green triangles), and 40% (red circles).

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated the stable Q-switched and mode-locked operation of the Nd:LuVO4 laser in use of the Cr4+:YAG as the saturable absorber. The operation range of QML in use of the Cr4+:YAG is larger than that use of SESAM and NLM. The obtained shape of Q-switched envelope, repetition rate and pulse energy are demonstrated to depend on the initial transmittance of the Cr4+:YAG and reflectivity of the output coupler. Using R=60% and T 0=40%, the highest pulse energy of 77 µJ of each Q-switched envelope, and the highest peak power about 200 kW of Q-switched mode-locked pulses can be obtained at 15 W pump power. It demonstrate the superior characteristic of the Nd:LuVO4 crystal.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Natural Science Council of Taiwan, Republic of China, under grant NSC 96-2112-M-027-002-MY3, NSC 96-2112-M-035-001 and NSC 96-2628-E-009-018-MY3.

References and Links:

1.

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W.-H. Yang, and Wen Feng Hsieh, “Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4,413–417 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

J.-H. Lin, W.-H. Yang, W.-F. Hsieh, and Kuei-Huei Lin, “Low threshold and high power output of a diode-pumped nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 13, 6323–6329 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S.L. Schieffer, D. Brajkovic, A.I. Cornea, and W. Andreas Schroeder, “Low-threshold, dual-passive mode locking of a large mode area Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 14, 6694–6706 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, “High-Power Scaling (>100 W) of a Diode-Pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 Laser System,” IEEE J. Sel. top. Quantum Electron. , 11, 621–625 (2005). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, Li Zhu, Z. Shao, X. Meng, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18–27 (2002). [CrossRef]

6.

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, and E. Cavalli, “Growth, spectroscopic characterization, and laser performance of Nd:LuVO4, a new infrared laser material that is suitable for diode pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , 19, 1794–1800 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Zhao, J. Xu, and M. Jianga, “Growth of excellent-quality Nd:LuVO4 single crystal and laser properties,” J. Crystal Growth , 279, 146–153 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in Nd:GdVO4 laser with dual loss-modulation mechanism,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 276–280 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, “Simultaneous Q-Switching and Mode-Locking in a Diode-Pumped Nd :YVO4-Cr4+ :YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580–586 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Zhang, E. Wu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, “Q-switched mode-locking with Cr4+: YAG in a diode pumped Nd :GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 335–338 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

S. P. Ng, D.Y. Tang, J. Kong, L.J. Qin, X.L. Meng, and Z.J. Xiong, “Q-switched and continuous-wave mode-locking of a diode-pumped Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4-Cr4+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 511–515 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Pan, L. Xue, X. Fan, H. Huang, and J. He, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with uncoated GaAs saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 272, 178–181 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, M. Jiang, D. Tang, G. Xie, and H. Luo, “Passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser with a GaAs wafer,” Opt. Lett. 33, 225–227 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and H. Weber, “Continuous-wave and pulsed laser performance of Nd:LuVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 29, 168–170 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, M. Jiang, and X. Zhang, “’CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06µm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15, 3206–3211 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

J. Liu, D. Shen, S.-C. Tam, and Y.-L. Lam, “Modeling Pulse Shape of Q-Switched Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantun Electron . 37, 888–896 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 2, 2008
Revised Manuscript: July 12, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: July 13, 2008
Published: October 2, 2008

Citation
Ja-Hon Lin, Hou-Ren Chen, Hsin-Han Hsu, Ming-Dar Wei, Kuei-Huei Lin, and Wen-Feng Hsieh, "Stable Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4 laser by Cr4+:YAG crystal," Opt. Express 16, 16538-16545 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16538


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References

  1. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, W.-H. Yang, and W. F. Hsieh, "Supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber by picosecond self Q-switched mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 413-417 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. J.-H. Lin, W.-H. Yang, W.-F. Hsieh, and K.-H. Lin, "Low threshold and high power output of a diode-pumped nonlinear mirror mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser," Opt. Express 13, 6323-6329 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. L. Schieffer, D. Brajkovic, A. I. Cornea, and W. A. Schroeder, "Low-threshold, dual-passive mode locking of a large mode area Nd:GdVO4 laser," Opt. Express 14, 6694-6706 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Minassian, B. A. Thompson, G. Smith, and M. J. Damzen, "High-Power Scaling (>100 W) of a Diode-Pumped TEM00 Nd:GdVO4 Laser System," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 621-625 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Wang, C. Wang, L. Zhu, Z. Shao, X. Meng, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, "Characterization of the laser crystal Nd:GdVO4," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 18-27 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, E. Cavalli, "Growth, spectroscopic characterization, and laserperformance of Nd:LuVO4, a new infrared laser material that is suitable for diode pumping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 1794-1800 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Zhao, J. Xu, M. Jianga, "Growth of excellent-quality Nd:LuVO4 single crystal and laser properties," J. Crystal Growth,  279, 146-153 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. J.-H. Lin, K.-H. Lin, H.-H. Hsu, and W.-F. Hsieh, "Q-switched and mode-locked pulses generation in Nd:GdVO4 laser with dual loss-modulation mechanism," Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 276-280 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, "Simultaneous Q-Switching and Mode-Locking in a Diode-Pumped Nd :YVO4-Cr4+ :YAG Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580-586 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Zhang, E. Wu, H. Pan, and H. Zeng, "Q-switched mode-locking with Cr4+: YAG in a diode pumped Nd :GdVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 78, 335-338 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. S. P. Ng, D. Y. Tang, J. Kong, L. J. Qin, X. L. Meng, and Z. J. Xiong, "Q-switched and continuous-wave mode-locking of a diode-pumped Nd:Gd0.64Y0.36VO4-Cr4+:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 78, 511-515 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Pan, L. Xue, X. Fan, H. Huang, J. He, "Diode-pumped passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with uncoated GaAs saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 272, 178-181 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Yu, M. Jiang, D. Tang, G. Xie, and H. Luo, "Passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser with a GaAs wafer," Opt. Lett. 33, 225-227 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, H. Weber, " Continuous-wave and pulsed laser performance of Nd:LuVO4 crystal," Opt. Lett. 29,168-170 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, X. Zhang, "�??CW and Q-switched laser output of LD-end-pumped 1.06µm c-cut Nd:LuVO4 laser," Opt. Express 15, 3206-3211 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Liu, D. Shen, S.-C. Tam, and Y.-L. Lam, "Modeling Pulse Shape of Q-Switched Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 888-896 (2001). [CrossRef]

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