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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 21 — Oct. 13, 2008
  • pp: 16552–16560
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Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser

Eun Joo Jung, Chang-Seok Kim, Myung Yung Jeong, Moon Ki Kim, Min Yong Jeon, Woonggyu Jung, and Zhongping Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 21, pp. 16552-16560 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.016552


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Abstract

In this study, we develop an ultra-fast fiber Bragg grating sensor system that is based on the Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser. A FDML wavelength swept laser has many advantages compared to the conventional wavelength swept laser source, such as high-speed interrogation, narrow spectral sensitivity, and high phase stability. The newly developed FDML wavelength swept laser shows a superior performance of a high scan rate of 31.3 kHz and a broad scan range of over 70 nm simultaneously. The performance of the grating sensor interrogating system using a FDML wavelength swept laser is characterized in both static and dynamic strain responses.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) sensor system has been widely used for structural health monitoring in civil infrastructures, aerospace, wind energy, and maritime areas. It has many advantages over other electrical and optical strain sensors, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) resistance, long distance sensing, wavelength selectivity and environmental endurance, and reduced size [1

1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlane, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. To interrogate the peak movement of FBGs, various wavelength detection techniques have been reported based on a passive optical filter or interferometer [2

2. S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, “A Passive Wavelength Demodulation System for Guided-Wave Bragg Grating Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1539–1541 (1992). [CrossRef]

8

8. H.-J. Bang, S.-M. Jun, and C.-G. Kim, “Stabilized interrogation and multiplexing techniques for fibre Bragg grating vibration sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 813–820 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. For the high speed and high sensitivity monitoring of multiple FBG sensors, wavelength-swept fiber lasers have been introduced for the development of optical source interrogation [9

9. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, and B. Y. Kim, “Interrogation of fiber grating sensor arrays with a wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 843–845 (1998). [CrossRef]

11

11. Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and B. Yun, “A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System for Simultaneously Static and Dynamic Measurements With a Wavelength-Swept Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1539–1541 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. When a central lasing peak is repeatedly swept over the spectrum range of remote FBGs sensors, reflected signals from FBGs arrays are simultaneously detected in the single detector. Reflected optical signals consist of a series of pulses in the time domain. Even though this technique provides improved performance to the passive interrogation methods, the maximum speed of the conventional wavelength swept laser source was physically limited to the kHz regime because of the cavity round-trip and energy building up of the optical gain [12

12. S.-W. Lee, C.-S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, “External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176–178 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

The novel development of a wavelength swept laser source with speeds over 10 kHz is strongly expected to broaden the range of applications of the FBG sensor systems, such as monitoring the real-time strain of the high-speed dynamic fluidic sloshing pressure in a liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier ship [13

13. A. Hongo, S. Kojima, and S. Komatsuzaki, “Applications of fiber Bragg grating sensors and high-speed interrogation techniques,” Struct. Control Health Monit. 12, 269–282 (2005). [CrossRef]

17

17. P. R. Swinehart, M. Maklad, and S. S. Courts, “Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings,” CEC-ICMC Conference Proceedings 16–20 (2007).

]. Since electric-type sensors do not work properly in a cryogenic temperature environment (<-160 °C), FBG sensors have been expected to become an ideal dielectric device for massive LNG carrier ships but their maximum interrogating speed has been limited to the kHz regime [9

9. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, and B. Y. Kim, “Interrogation of fiber grating sensor arrays with a wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 843–845 (1998). [CrossRef]

11

11. Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and B. Yun, “A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System for Simultaneously Static and Dynamic Measurements With a Wavelength-Swept Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1539–1541 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In this study, we developed an ultra-fast 31.3 kHz FBG sensor system that operates in the 1.5 µm wavelength regions using Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser technology. Given the rapidly increasing global demand for oil and natural gas, this novel advancement in ultra-fast interrogation may be useful for the real-time strain monitoring in the hazardous cargo containment of LNG tankers, in addition to the ideal nature of explosive-free, multi-point telemetry and low-temperature performance of the FBG sensor [14

14. D. G. Kim, W. Yoo, P. Swinehart, B. Jiang, T. Haber, and A. Mendez, “Development of an FBG-Based Low Temperature Measurement System for Cargo Containment of LNG Tankers,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 1–12 (2007).

15

15. M. C. Wu and W. H. Prosser, “Simultaneous Temperature and Strain Sensing for Cryogenic Applications Using Dual-Wavelength Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5191, 208–213 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental setup

2.1 Comparison of the conventional wavelength swept laser and FDML wavelength swept laser

Fig. 1. Schematic of (a) conventional wavelength swept laser and (b) FDML wavelength swept laser, which included a delayed fiber.

Figure 1 shows the schematic configurations of the conventional wavelength swept laser and the FDML wavelength swept laser. Both lasers use a ring cavity and are composed of two isolators for a unidirectional ring configuration, an output coupler, a polarization controller (PC), a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF produced by Lambda Quest Co.) and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA produced by Covega Co.). In the FDML wavelength swept laser, a delayed fiber of several kilometers is inserted to match the scanning time of a tunable filter with the round-trip time of the cavity. Since we hold two kinds of optical fiber spools, 6.7 km and 11.5 km in our laboratory, we can operate the laser at the fastest sweeping rate of 31.3 kHz using 6.7 km fiber in this study. For the comparison reason, a longer fiber length of 11.5 km was necessary for operation at 18 kHz. The FFP-TF has a linewidth of 0.25 nm and a free spectral range of 150 nm. This filter was modulated with a sinusoidal waveform to produce a wavelength sweep in this spectral region. The SOA has a saturation output power of 2.3 mW and a polarization sensitivity of ~0.5 dB. The spontaneous emission spectrum of this amplifier had a center wavelength at ~1540 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 50 nm. The maximum available current was 600 mA, therefore all the experimental results presented here was driven by a 300 mA current source, providing a small signal gain of 20 dB at 1550 nm.

Fig. 2. Spectra of the conventional wavelength swept laser source at different sweeping rates.

For comparison purposes, three spectra obtained from the conventional wavelength swept laser output were plotted together in the linear scale, as shown in Fig. 2. These spectra were measured in the peak hold mode of the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). For the sweeping rates of 0.1 kHz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz, the average power of each optical source was measured to be 0.39 mW, 0.21 mW and 0.11 mW, respectively. At the sweeping rate of 0.1 kHz, the edge-to-edge scanning range was approximately 97 nm, from 1479 nm to 1576 nm, and the corresponding 3 dB sweeping bandwidth of the peak hold lasing spectrum was approximately 70 nm. However, at increasing sweeping rates, the output power of the laser dramatically decreased and the spectral shape at 10 kHz was seriously distorted relative to 0.1 kHz.

Fig. 3. Temporal transient intensity profiles of the conventional wavelength swept laser source at sweeping rates of (a) 0.1 kHz, (b) 1 kHz and (c) 10 kHz.

Three transient intensity profiles, corresponding to the above sweeping operations, are temporally presented in Fig. 3. As with Fig. 2, the amplitudes of the temporal transient intensity profiles significantly decreased with increasing sweeping rates from 0.1 kHz to 1 kHz and 10 kHz. It is also worth noting that all of the profiles were asymmetric during the forward scan and backward scan. This intensity asymmetry was attributed to the frequency downshift of nonlinear processes generated in the gain medium of the SOA [23

23. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Pierce, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Extended-cavity semiconductor wavelength-swept laser for biomedical imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 293–295 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. It has been suggested that placing a booster amplifier before the position of main SOA. However, the maximum tuning speed was still limited at a frequency region between the saturation limit and the single roundtrip limit in the conventional wavelength swept laser under these conditions [24

24. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, this system is still insufficient to detect a dynamic strain response in the kHz range, such as detecting rapid fluidic sloshing pressure variation. In order to overcome the speed limit of the conventional wavelength swept laser, the FDML wavelength swept laser has been developed to interrogate the sensing dynamics of FBGs.

Fig. 4. (a) Integrated output spectra (b) Temporal transient intensity profiles of the FDML wavelength swept laser source at 31.3 kHz.

Figure 4(a) shows two spectra of the FDML wavelength swept laser at an 18 kHz and 31.3 kHz sweeping rate. For both cases, the 3 dB sweeping bandwidth of the FDML wavelength swept laser was approximately 70 nm, which was caused by the edge-to-edge scanning range from 1481 nm to 1575 nm. The measured average output power of FDML wavelength swept laser was 0.28 mW and 0.26 mW, respectively. Figure 4 (b) shows one of the temporal transient intensity profiles of the FDML wavelength swept laser operated at a 31.3 kHz frequency. Although the scanning rate of FFP-TF was increased, the amplitude of the profiles maintained the same power level and temporal response during forward and backward scanning, unlike the temporal transient intensity profiles of the conventional wavelength swept laser. We can observe that the temporal widths of forward and backward scanning become identical as the sweeping time and roundtrip time of laser are getting closed. It is obvious that the lasing of the FDML wavelength swept laser does not depend on the buildup time from the spontaneous emission of the optical source and the mechanical behavior of tunable filter. When we controlled the physical cavity length of laser ring cavity, the higher scanning speed of the FDML laser can be demonstrated easily. By using the FDML wavelength swept laser at a sweeping rate of 31.3 kHz, the ultra-fast interrogation of the Bragg wavelength shift of the FBG can be experimentally performed.

2.2 FBG sensor interrogation system with sensor array

Fig. 5. Experimental set-up for the FBG sensor interrogation system based on a FDML wavelength swept laser.

3. Experimental result of the sensor array system

3.1 Response to static strain

Figure 6 (a) shows, in the time domain, a reflection signal from the sensor array with four FBGs. For a direct comparison of the time domain signal and the wavelength domain response in the FBG sensor interrogation system based on the FDML wavelength swept laser, we also measured the reflection spectrum using a static broadband light source (Fig. 6 (b)). The reflection response in the wavelength domain was obtained by OSA at a resolution of 0.1 nm. Since the signal was simultaneously measured with the FDML wavelength swept laser at 31.3 kHz, the spectral range from FBG1 to FBG4, 15.1 nm, corresponded to the scanning time range from τ1 to τ4, 3.024 µs. As a result, the FDML wavelength swept laser showed a linear relationship with wavelength sweeping because all reflection signals had the exact same interval in both domains. It is suspected that the intensity overshoots in the bottom area near reflection signal of Fig. 6 (a) comes from RF bandwidth limitation, but they will not affect to the peak tracking in the given operating region. The effective spectral width of time-domain peaks in Fig. 6 (a) looks wider in comparison with the wavelength-domain peaks in Fig. 6 (b). It can be explained from the spectral interval of the time-domain signal. If we increase the number of data acquisition per each forward scanning of FFP-TF, which was 1024 points in Fig. 6 (a), the spectral interval of the time-domain signal will become much narrower.

Fig. 6. Experimental measurements of the reflection spectrum of sensors array in (a) the time-domain using a FDML wavelength swept laser and a single detector and (b) the wavelength-domain using a broadband light source and an OSA.
Fig. 7. Plot of the time delay (τ3-τ2) as a function of applied static strain.

Figure 7 depicts a typical response by an applied static strain for one of the FBGs (τ3). One side of the grating τ3 was attached on the fixture and the other side of that was fixed on a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) motorizing stage, as shown in Fig. 5. The grating τ3 was applied with static strain to the unidirectional side. Since the grating τ3 was mounted tightly by the initial strain, the time delay between τ3 and τ2 shows a linear response against the applied static strain. The vertical axis of Fig. 7 indicates the time delay (τ3-τ2) variation and the horizontal axis displays the applied strain with a small step of 0.25 mε. The applied strain by displacing a PZT stage is defined by the ratio between the strained length and original length of the FBG sensor. The best-fit slope coefficient for the measured time delay data was determined to be 98.6±2 ns/mε.

The resolution of measurement was also demonstrated for 1000 times repetition of 31.3 kHz operation. The reflection signals from the FBG3 sensor without applied strain were acquired during forward scanning of FFP-TF. By observing the standard deviation of strains on the grating τ3 from the 1000 times average during 0.032 s, a root mean square (RMS) was acquired to 2.6 ns timing jitter using a signal-processing algorithm in LabVIEW® software. This value corresponds to a strain resolution of 26.4 µεrms and to a spectral resolution of 13 pm [9

9. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, and B. Y. Kim, “Interrogation of fiber grating sensor arrays with a wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 843–845 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Though the PZT component in FFP-TF has a hysteresis and non-linear response against a linear modulation signal, there have been several techniques to improve the resolution by the Fabry-Perot etalon used for a grid line and a stabilization-controlling unit [8

8. H.-J. Bang, S.-M. Jun, and C.-G. Kim, “Stabilized interrogation and multiplexing techniques for fibre Bragg grating vibration sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 813–820 (2005). [CrossRef]

10

10. C.-Y. Ryu and C.-S. Hong, “Development of fiber Bragg grating sensor system using wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11, 468–473 (2002). [CrossRef]

].

3.2 Response to dynamic strain

Fig. 8. (a) Input signal to the PZT actuator. (b) Time response of peak points from grating τ3 using the FDML wavelength swept laser at a 31.3 kHz sweep rate.
Fig. 9. PSD FFT spectrum of the time-interval measurement data for a 100 Hz dynamic strain.

From these experiments, it was demonstrated that the applied signal was entirely reinstated in the proposed sensor system. The peak-peak amplitude of the dynamic strain was approximately 636 µε, which matched well with the applied strain conditions. The RMS value of the applied strain was calculated to 197.42 µεFBG, rms from the set of time-interval values obtained using the FBG sensor. The appropriate power spectral density (PSD) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectrum was also monitored for the dynamic strain at 100 Hz as shown in Fig. 9. From this, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and frequency bandwidth were determined to be 40.53 dB and 12.75 Hz, respectively. Since the RMS value of the strain noise level was easily induced as 1.86 µεnoise, rms, it was equal to the ratio of the applied strain RMS and the SNR. From the RMS value of the strain noise level and the frequency bandwidth, the strain sensitivity, which is the strain noise level RMS over the square root of the frequency bandwidth, was determined to be 0.52 µεrms/Hz [7

7. M. Song, S. Yin, and P. B. Ruffin, “Fiber Bragg grating strain sensor demodulation with quadrature sampling of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1106–1111 (2000). [CrossRef]

,25

25. G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Fiber Bragg-grating strain sensor interrogation using laser radio-frequency modulation,” Opt. Express 13, 2377–2384 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have developed and experimentally demonstrated the capabilities of a novel ultra-fast FBG strain sensor monitoring system based on a FDML wavelength swept laser. The FDML wavelength swept laser displayed a high performance at a 31.3 kHz sweeping rate, an average output power of 0.26 mW, and a wavelength scan range of over 70 nm. Since the sweeping rate simply corresponds to the round trip time, the speed of the system can be easily improved to higher than hundreds kHz by controlling the fiber length in the laser cavity. This laser was then applied to measure the dynamic variation of structural strains using an FBG sensor system. The improved interrogating speeds demonstrated in this study can be useful for various novel ultra-fast sensing applications.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by research grants from the National Science Foundation (BES-86924), National Institutes of Health (EB-00293, NCI-91717, RR-01192), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-04-1-0101), USA. This work was supported by the IT R & D program of MKE/IITA [2008-F-020-01], Korea. Supports from the Beckman Foundation and the second stage of the Brain Korea 21 Project in 2008 are also acknowledged. The FBGs used in the experiments were supplied by FBG Tech Co., Korea.

References and links

1.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlane, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442–1463 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, “A Passive Wavelength Demodulation System for Guided-Wave Bragg Grating Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1539–1541 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber Grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992). [CrossRef]

4.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, “Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 33–39 (1993). [CrossRef]

5.

C. S. Kim, T. H. Lee, Y. S. Yu, Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, and M. Y. Jeong, “Multi-point interrogation of FBG sensors using cascaded flexible wavelength-division Sagnac loop filters,” Opt. Express 14, 8546–8551 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. Chung, J. Kim, B. A. Yu, and B. Lee, “A fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1343–1345 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Song, S. Yin, and P. B. Ruffin, “Fiber Bragg grating strain sensor demodulation with quadrature sampling of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1106–1111 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

H.-J. Bang, S.-M. Jun, and C.-G. Kim, “Stabilized interrogation and multiplexing techniques for fibre Bragg grating vibration sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 813–820 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, and B. Y. Kim, “Interrogation of fiber grating sensor arrays with a wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 843–845 (1998). [CrossRef]

10.

C.-Y. Ryu and C.-S. Hong, “Development of fiber Bragg grating sensor system using wavelength-swept fiber laser,” Smart Mater. Struct. 11, 468–473 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and B. Yun, “A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System for Simultaneously Static and Dynamic Measurements With a Wavelength-Swept Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1539–1541 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

S.-W. Lee, C.-S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, “External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176–178 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Hongo, S. Kojima, and S. Komatsuzaki, “Applications of fiber Bragg grating sensors and high-speed interrogation techniques,” Struct. Control Health Monit. 12, 269–282 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

D. G. Kim, W. Yoo, P. Swinehart, B. Jiang, T. Haber, and A. Mendez, “Development of an FBG-Based Low Temperature Measurement System for Cargo Containment of LNG Tankers,” Proc. SPIE 6770, 1–12 (2007).

15.

M. C. Wu and W. H. Prosser, “Simultaneous Temperature and Strain Sensing for Cryogenic Applications Using Dual-Wavelength Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Proc. SPIE 5191, 208–213 (2003). [CrossRef]

16.

C. J. Yeager, C. McGee, M. Maklad, and P. R. Swinehart, “Cryogenic Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Advances in cryogenic engineering: Transactions of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference-CEC. AIP Conference Proceedings 823, 267–272 (2006).

17.

P. R. Swinehart, M. Maklad, and S. S. Courts, “Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings,” CEC-ICMC Conference Proceedings 16–20 (2007).

18.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14, 3225–3237 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2975–2977 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 626–628 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, and Z. Chen, “High-speed and wide bandwidth Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser with multiple SOAs,” Opt. Express 16, 2547–2554 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. A. Kranendonk, R. Huber, J. G. Fujimoto, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile H2O absorption spectrometer for thermometry of general combustion gases,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 783–790 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Pierce, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Extended-cavity semiconductor wavelength-swept laser for biomedical imaging,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 293–295 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13, 3513–3528 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

G. Gagliardi, M. Salza, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “Fiber Bragg-grating strain sensor interrogation using laser radio-frequency modulation,” Opt. Express 13, 2377–2384 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 15, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 21, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 29, 2008
Published: October 2, 2008

Citation
Eun Joo Jung, Chang-Seok Kim, Myung Yung Jeong, Moon Ki Kim, Min Yong Jeon, Woonggyu Jung, and Zhongping Chen, "Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser," Opt. Express 16, 16552-16560 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16552


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References

  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlane, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, "A Passive Wavelength Demodulation System for Guided-Wave Bragg Grating Sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1539-1541 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, "High-resolution fiber Grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection," Electron. Lett. 28, 236-238 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, "Multiplexed fiber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a fiber Fabry-Perot wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 18, 33-39 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. C. S. Kim, T. H. Lee, Y. S. Yu, Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, and M. Y. Jeong, "Multi-point interrogation of FBG sensors using cascaded flexible wavelength-division Sagnac loop filters," Opt. Express 14, 8546-8551 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Chung, J. Kim, B. A. Yu, and B. Lee, "A fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation technique using a polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1343-1345 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Song, S. Yin, and P. B. Ruffin, "Fiber Bragg grating strain sensor demodulation with quadrature sampling of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Appl. Opt. 39, 1106-1111 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. H.-J. Bang, S.-M. Jun, and C.-G. Kim, "Stabilized interrogation and multiplexing techniques for fibre Bragg grating vibration sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 813-820 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, and B. Y. Kim, "Interrogation of fiber grating sensor arrays with a wavelength-swept fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 843-845 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. C.-Y. Ryu, and C.-S. Hong, "Development of fiber Bragg grating sensor system using wavelength-swept fiber laser," Smart Mater. Struct. 11, 468-473 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Wang, Y. Cui, and B. Yun, "A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System for Simultaneously Static and Dynamic Measurements with a Wavelength-Swept Fiber Laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1539-1541 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. S.-W. Lee, C.-S. Kim, and B.-M. Kim, "External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hongo, S. Kojima, and S. Komatsuzaki, "Applications of fiber Bragg grating sensors and high-speed interrogation techniques," Struct. Control Health Monit. 12, 269-282 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. D. G. Kim, W. Yoo, P. Swinehart, B. Jiang, T. Haber, and A. Mendez, "Development of an FBG-Based Low Temperature Measurement System for Cargo Containment of LNG Tankers," Proc. SPIE 6770, 1-12 (2007).
  15. M. C. Wu, and W. H. Prosser, "Simultaneous Temperature and Strain Sensing for Cryogenic Applications Using Dual-Wavelength Fiber Bragg Gratings," Proc. SPIE 5191, 208-213 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Yeager, C. McGee, M. Maklad, and P. R. Swinehart, "Cryogenic Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings," Advances in cryogenic engineering: Transactions of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference-CEC.AIP Conference Proceedings 823, 267-272 (2006).
  17. P. R. Swinehart, M. Maklad, and S. S. Courts, "Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings," CEC-ICMC Conference Proceedings 16-20 (2007).
  18. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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